Biology 64 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
mono
one
Audi-
Hear
serine kinase
same
concentration gradients
 
-larger gradient, ______ diffusion rate
higher
photoautotroph
sunlight + carbon
Gymnosperms
“naked seed”. Additional properties (compared to seedless vascular plants)a. Sperm dispersal – as pollen (carried by wind)b. Have seeds (embryo packaged with nourishment and a tough protective coating)2. Example: conifers3. Evolutionary advantages a. Reproduction not dependent on H2Ob. Fertilization occurs in a protective chamber called the ovule --> seedc. Embryos begin life in a chamber called the seed which provides: nutrition and protectiond. Conifers - could survive cold temperatures after the Carboniferous period, conifers –keep leaves all year (maximize a short growing season), needles don’t hold snow, trees don’t break with weight of snow.
protein shapes
alpha helix-rigiditypleated sheet-flat, box like sidesdisordered loops- gently curved
A lima bean is
dicot
Crustose
Lichen body type. Thin encrustation.
age of oldest fossil
3.5 billion
Eukaryotes
Cells that DO contain a nuclei
Experiment
used to test a hypothesis
atom
smallest unit of an element
IPSILATERAL
same side of the body
Antigen
Foreign Macromolecule that elcits an immune response
Anything that enhances a transmitter effects are called _________
 
Anything that blocks the action of a neurotransmitter is called _______
 
hint: characters in a story 
agonist
antagonist
transport protein
proteins that form hydrophilic channels through the hydrophobic interior of the cell's plasma membrane, allowing hydrophilic materials to pass through the membrane
insertion
Extra base added into gene region
Cytoskeleton
Network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape. (Also involved in movement)
GPP
total primary production in an ecosystem
mutation
a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule
Feeding Mechinisms
Filter feeding, substrate feeding, fluid feeders, bulk feeders
ORGANISMS IN THIS KINGDOM ABSORB NUTRIENTS AFTER DECOMPOSING MATERIAL
FUNGI
granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
Chromatin
cladogram
a branching diagram depicting the successive points of species divergence from common ancestral lines without regard to the degree of deviation.
product
the substance formed during a chemical reaction
Parenchyma cell
A relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differentiated cell type.
Mitosis
second phase of eukaryotic cell cycle. made up of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase/cytokinesis
Coral Reefs
Supports large level of biodiversity, Sensitive to pollution, temperature and disturbances
monomer
carbon compounds built up from small simple molecules
Macrophages
An amoeboid cell that moves through tissue fibers, engulfing bacteria and dead cells by phagocytosis.
Glycolysis
a series of reactions involving the catabolism of glucose, resulting in the production of pyruvic acid
steroid
lipid molecule with four fused carbon rings
Biosphere
all environments on earth that support life. Ex: Land, bodies of water, oceans...
The __________________________ propelled the flowering plants to an explosive adaptive radiation.
evolutionary innovation of the flower
Ribosomes
organelles made of protein and RNA that direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
genotype
the genetic makeup, or set of allleles, of an organim
Funtion of Rhodopsin
(light absorbing pigment) triggers signal-transduction pathway
Redox Reaction
all chemical reactions which atoms have their oxidation number state changed. This can be it can be a complex process such as the oxidation of sugar in the human body through a series of complex electron transfer processes.
Ritalin decreases the?
impact of these extra reuptake
macrophage
a large white blood cell, occurring principally in connective tissue and in the bloodstream, that ingests foreign particles and infectious microorganisms by phagocytosis.
biome
a large geographic area that has the same major forms of life
Free Energy
Portion of system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system
Examples of non-specific diseases
Skin, mucus membranes, phagocytes, inflammation (NOT antigen tagging)
Organic molecules are those that contain at least
Carbon and hydrogen
Diabetes 
Body cells can't take up or metabolize glucose
-Get high blood glucose levels, little glucose gets into cells
Biomass
Total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
nonrandom mating
most organisms have a mate choice system that causes the selection of certain genotypes/alleles over others
tissues
groups of cells that carry out a specific function
How are Mendel's principles of segregation and independent assortment explained by scientists today?
Segregation:-Homologous chromosomes separate during meiosisIndependent assortment:-Random orientation of chromosomes in metaphase 1 of meiosis determines how chromosomes are distributed into haploid cells
Genetic Code
-mRNA codons specify a sequence of amino acids64 codons-61 code for amino acids-3 codons are stop signals

carbohydrate
Any of a group of organic compounds that includes sugars, starches, celluloses, and gums and serves as a major energy source in the diet of animals.
the death of all members of a species
Extinction
what are vacuoles?
CO; is a membrane-bound organelle, which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some Protista, animal and bacterial cells.
which type of cell is a nucloid found?
prokaryotes
codon
writen in a series of three nucleotide sequence of the mRNA
stroke volume
the amt of blood pumped w/each systole cycle
what are catabolic pathways?
metabolic pathways that release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds (degradation, releases energy)(cat --> cats release energy when playing?)
Potential Energy
The energy that matter posses as a result of its location or spatial arrangement (structure)
Positivistic philosophy of science is...
similar to any fundamentalist creator-God religion which requires an individual to make an act of Faith in the dogmas of the religion
when an ionic compound is dissolved in water, each ion is surrounded by a sphere of water molecules called a
hydration shell
Sex-linked Gene
A gene located on a sex chromosome (usually the X chromosome), resulting in a distinctive pattern of inheritance.
Who was Rhesus?
A monkey who first had RH factor
ChromosomesHow many chromosomes?MitosisWhat are the stages?Haploid or diploid?
Chromosomes – human body = 46 chromosomes. 22 pairs of somatic/body chromosomes and 2 sex chromosomesMitosis – somatic cells. Daughter cells are IDENTICAL to parent cell. For growth repair and developmentPROPHASEMETAPHASEANAPHASE TELOPHASEMeiosis – daughter cell receives HALF amount of DNA. Occurs during formation of egg+sperm cellDIPLOID (nn) HAPLOID (n)
peptide bond
a covalent bond formed by joining the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another, with the removal of a molecule of water.
experiment for genetically determined behaviors
in honeybees
study done by W.C. Rothenbuhler in 1964
two groups of bees: hygienic (detect and remove diseased larvae from the nest - uncap wax cells and discard dead larvae) and nonhygienic (don't do this)
one gene (u) for uncapping and another (r) for larval removal
double recessive - hygienic
double dominant - nonhygienic
hybrids - nonhygienic
Most men know by the ____ date if they want to be exclusive or not
3rd
______ equals the sum of protons and neutrons.
The mass number
small, relatively simple cells that do NOT have a membrane-bound nucleus
what are prokaryotic cells?
K selected species...
k species are said to be stable and experience equilibrium. the size of their population is dependent on the resources available to them and they compete among themselves for resources
what is the up side to turbidity
ease of use and speed
What is incomplete dominance?
A situation where one allele for a gene is not completly dominant over another allele for that gene.
Foliar Theory of the Carpel
Idea presented by Goethe that edges of leaves folded over and fused together to form a protective chamber.
which of the following are synthesized by BOUND ribosomes?
- lysosomal enzyme
- DNA polymerase
- actin
- ER protein
- ribosomal protein
- insulin
lysosomal enzyme, ER protein and insulin
nuclotides from which DNA is formed are complementary in the
number of hydrogen bonds they form
Euglena and Dinoflagellates have chloroplasts but they also have flagella so they can swim around. So, are they plants or animals?1. They are both and they are in the kingdom Phytozoans.2. They are considered to be plants because they canphotosynthesize.3
4. They are neither, but are in the kingdom Protista.
where is the receptor for balance in the ear located? what are the receptor cells?
vestibule & semicircular canals of the inner ear. receptor cells - hair cells
What is the function of the nasal concha?
Increases the surface area of the nose to help clean, moisten, and warm incoming air.
Fungi
Heterotroph
iasis
disease
Uniform
Evenly spaced
light
independent reactions
does cross-over occur?
no
-VERSION
ACT OF TURNING
Flammable
can catch on fire
secondary consumers
eat primary consumers
OBSTETR/O
PREGNANCY AND CHILD BIRTH
carnivore
organisms that eat meat only
porifera
sponges and very simple animals
energy
the capacity to perform work
Gram-positive bacteria
various, many solitary species
actions that occur automatically without the brains’ direct command
reflexes
Limbs - c6
lateral arm, thumb
rimbosomes
small ,round organelles made of protein and other material.
structure of a vacuole
bag of membrane
Burn
Tissue damage inflicted by intense heat, electricity, radiation or certain chemicals, all of which denature cell proteins & cause cell death in the affected areas
matter
anything thatoccupies space and has mass
oil,gas, and coal are called?
fossil fuels
Molecules
compounds in which elements are definite, fixed ratios.
glycolipid
A lipid with covalently attached carbohydrates.
Are plants unicellular or multicellular?
always multicellular
community
All the different populations that live together in an area.
digestion
breakdown of food by enzymatic hydrolysis
alleles
the different forms of a gene
achene
any small, dry, hard, one-seeded, indehiscent fruit.
Phagocytosis
extensions of cytoplasm surround a particles and package it within a food vacuole
Adaptive Radiation
pattern of evolution in which selection and adaptation lead to the formation of a new species in a relatively short period of time
Evaporation
the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
clone
A population of cells descended by mitotic division from a single ancestral cell.
Molecule or structure that can respond to a form of stimulation.
Receptor
cellular respiration
the aerobic (containing or requiring oxygen) harvesting of chemical energy from organic fuel molecules
Griffith's Experiment
-proved that cells can be transformed
-mice; S-cells, R-cells
three important characteristics are: _____ to separate them from the outside world, _______ information that can be copied and passed on to daughter cells, and ___ reactions
membrane, hereditary, chemical
excavata
excavated feeding groove on one side of cell body, unique cytoskeletal features (Protist)
Compares the amount of energy available at each level in the feeding order
energy pyramid
Denaturation
If a protein loses its native conformation
mutualism
A relationship between two species in which both species benefit.
Energy associated with movement is called:
kinetic energy.
This organelle is responsible for cellular respiration.
mitochondria (nonendomemrane)
prokaryote
any cellular organism that has no nuclear membrane, no organelles in the cytoplasm except ribosomes, and has its genetic material in the form of single continuous strands forming coils or loops, characteristic of all organisms in the kingdom Monera, as th
substrate
the substance acted upon by an enzyme.
cellulose
a complex carbohydrate that forms the main material in the cell walls of plants
microtome
an instrument for cutting very thin sections, as of organic tissue, for microscopic examination.
evidence
consists of a collected body of data from observations and experiments
variable thats observes and changes in response to the manipulative variable
responding variable
DNA polymerase
The principle enzyme involved in DNA replication
blade
flat part of plant which helps form leaves
greenhouse effect
the warming of the atmosphere caused by greenhouse gases that absorb radiation and slow its escape from earth's surface
resource partitioning
different niches that allow species to coexist in a community
two thick bands of tissue that vibrate to produce sounds
larynx
Parts of Human Body
Axial Region (head, neck, trunk)
Trunk (thorax, abdomen, pelvis, perineum)
Limbs
What product of the light reactions of photosynthesis is released and does not participate further in photosynthesis?:
oxygen.
Are bacteria heterotrohps or autotrophs?
they can be both
A bluish-color tinge to skin from lack of oxygen.
Cyanosis
concentration
(in a solution) a measure of the amount of dissolved substance contained per unit of volume.
controlled variable
an experiment that tests the effect of a single variable
sex chromosomes
the x and y chromosome that determine sex
plasmid
a small ring of DNA in bacteria that carries genes separate from those of the chromosome
mullerian mimicry
two species in a community mimic each other
Biotic components
The organisms that are part of any individual's environment
Amino acid
building block or proteins; a class of organic compounds containing at least one amino group
atomic nucleus
the central core of an atom, composed of protons and neutrons, constituting most of its mass but only a small part of its volume.
cell theory
a basic tenet of modern biology, first stated by Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann in 1838–39, that cells are the basic units of structure and function in living organisms.
when does replication occur
the s stage  of the inner phas
Misense Mutation
When a single base change results in a change of amino acid
Define Oviparous Development
development that occurs in an egg that is hatched outside the female's body
single covalent bond
A covalent bond in which one electron pair is shared by two atoms.
Enzymes make reactions happen: __________.
hundreds to millions of times faster than they could on their own and by lowering activation energy required
suppressor T cells
turn off B and T cells after invaders controlled
What is the difference between cartilage and bone?
Cartilage is more flexible and weaker than bone
determine the steps of a controlled experiment
compares an experimental group and a control group and has independent and dependent variables.
Do xylem cells need to be alive in order for xylem to do their job? Why or why not?
no, because they do nothing to promote the transport of water
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