Biology 87 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
NUCLE-
NUCLEUS
Ichthys
fish
Human Female
XX
hemophilia
blood clotting disorder
Tubercle
small rounded projection
eukaryote
unicellular or multicellular organisms, such as yeast, plants, and animals, composed of eukaryotic cells, which contain a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
Bacteria
one-celled, primitive organismsHave been on Earth for 3.5 billion years
Used for energy- sugars
Carbs
chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
spindle
fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes during mitosis
8 plant adaptations?
Cuticle-Waxy coating,no dehydrationGametangia-protects embryoVasuclar tissure-moves water...Lignin- Hardens cell walls so plant can stand upright
Expand the abbreviation LDL
low-density lipoprotein
Fast/White muscle
Fewer capillaries, less myoglobinContracts quicklyCannot sustain contractionExample: muscles in the hand
macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
nucleic acid
tRNA shape
hydrogen bonds between nucleotides into a 3-dimensional L shape
Deductive reasoning
Making decisions or drawing conclusions based on accepted principles used to explain specific observations. (8)
Endocytosis
Use of vessicles during active transport to bring materials in to the cell: including food, viruses, foreign bodies, and nutrients
Chromosomes
A cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins. (A bacterial chromosome usually consists of a single circular DNA molecule and associated proteins. It is found in the nucleoid region, which is not membrane bounded).
Inhibits some enzymes dependent upon Fe++ or Fe+++ by forming inactive complexes. Involved in electron transport of cellular respiration
Cyanide
mass #
# protons + # neutrons
prometaphase
2nd subphase of mitosis; discrete chromosomes with sister chromatids appear, nuclear envelope fragments, and spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes
gymnosperms
plants with vascular tissue that reproduce using seeds. Sporophyte stage is dominant. Examples include conifers, cycads, gingkoes, and gnetophytes. They are wind-pollinated.
Population
an interbreeding group or organisms of the species at the same place, at the same time
What carbohydrate is our cells’ primary source of energy?
Glucose
saline
of, containing, or resembling common table salt; salty or saltlike:
lateral line
helps fish sense movement in water
chemical work
the pushing of endergonic reactions, which would not occur spontaneously
cyclic amp
a regulator in some bacterial operons.  when glucose is scarce, CAP is activated by binding with cAMP
Primary Structure
The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.
Substrate
Reactant that fits into the active site.
filtration
the extraction of water and small solutes, including metabolic wastes including body fluids. the excretory tubules collect a filtrate from the blood. Water and solutes are forced by blood pressure across the selectively permeable membranes if a cluster of capillaries and into the excretory tubules.(step 1 of excretory system)
Glycoproteins
proteins that are covalently bonded to carbohydrates
simple squamous epithelium
thin and leaky: blood vessels
Marfan Syndrome
Mutation in gene for fibrillin (connective tissue) effects skeleton, cardiovascular system, lungs, eyes and skin (Pleiotropy)
Trait
Specific characteristic such as a seed color or plant height, of an individual.
parapatric facts
Two neighboring populations live in different environments (could be as a result of overpopulation so the individuals spread out and start new colonies). The environment of A might be hotter or dryer than A'. Natural selection favors different genotypes in the two environments; the two populations become genetically different. The populations interbreed and form a hybrid zone. Hybrids have low fitness so the two populatiosn become reproductively isolated to form Species A and Species B.
biosphere 


the part of Earth where life exists; includes all of the living organisms on Earth
atom
the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
the flow of energy among living organisms is best characterized as a
circle
when water moves across the membrane and into the cell
hypotonic
synapse
a region where nerve impulses are transmitted and received, encompassing the axon terminal of a neuron that releases neurotransmitters in response to an impulse, an extremely small gap across which the neurotransmitters travel, and the adjacent membrane o
Glucose
Source of energy for cells, an aldose which has six carbons making it a hexose as well. Differs from Galactose only in spatial differences.
virus
package of nucleic acid wrapped in a protein coat that must use a host cell's machinery to reproduce itself
a diverse group of fatty acids that are produced in almost every organ and regulate a variety of functions
prostaglandins
anther
tops on long stringy things in between ovule and leaves
mRNA Coding Region
Codes for protein synthesis.The coding region ends when a stop codon is reached.the mRNA strand prior to the start codon is called the 5' untranslated region or leader sequence.the mRNA strand after the stop codon is called the 3' untranslated region or trailing sequence.
______ is the process by which glucose is converted to pyruvate and energy is released.
Glycolysis
what is adenine always paired with in a phosphate?
thyamine
cellular respiration
the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Name the meaning of the combining form ven/o, ven/i
vein
polyploidy
Having one or more extra sets of chromosomes
Which of the following is LEAST conducive to the acquisition of oxygen from the environment?
warm water
pump excess water out of protist cells
contractile vacuolles
Humankind benefits from a multitude of resources a
ecosystem services
grana
one of the structural units of a chloroplast in vascular plants, consisting of layers of thylakoids.
digestion
the process in the alimentary canal by which food is broken up physically, as by the action of the teeth, and chemically, as by the action of enzymes, and converted into a substance suitable for absorption and assimilation into the body.
Topoisomerase II
Binds DNA to C terminal domain of enzyme
ATP binds to both N terminal domains
Interaction with ATP changes N terminal domain conformation and brings the two together
This change traps part of the DNA and cuts boths strands and allows one DNA to go through the other
Hydrolysis of ATP and return to original confirmation
Adds supercoiling to DNA
channel protein
protein that forms a channel to allow a particular molecules or ion to cross the plasma membrane
capsule (prokaryotes)
the cell wall of many prokaryotes is covered by a capsule which is a sticky layer of polysaccaride or protein. the capsule lets the prokaryotes stick to their substrate or to other cells in the colony. some capsules protect from dehydration and some shield the cell from the body's immune system.
a drop of water spilled on the table forms a drop on the table, rather than spreading out over the surface. is this an example of adhesion, cohesion or surface tension?
cohesion
Examples of Autosomal Recessive Disorders
Tay-Sachs Disease, Cystic Fibrosis, Phenylketonuria(PKU).
element
substance
1 type of atoms # of atoms = atomic # (distingues)
An organism which does not react or is very slow to respond to stimuli is possibly a
plant
Where is most of the earths surface water located?
ice caps
Limiting Factors that come into play when a population reaches a high density:
Food, water, habitat
magical mushrooms can be used in ____________ and are ____________
religious sacraments/ culturally significant
semiconservative replication
only one of the 2 strandes in the daughter molecule is inherited from the parent molecule
When determining the growth rate of a population, which of the following are NOT important?
starting population size
Why are MHC molecules important?
MHC molecules allow cells to "call for help" and tells T-Cells that the cell who secreted them is infected.
Repolarization is the reversal from _______ mV to _________ mV
from: +30 mV
back to: -70 mV 
Gray matter of Spinal Cord
*Pair of dorsal or posterior horns dorsal root of spinal nerve is totally sensory fibers
 
*Pair of ventral or anterior horns ventral root of spinal nerve is totally motor fibers
 
*Connected by gray commissure punctured by a central canal
Some red algaesource of agarancestor to the chloroplasts
Some red algae produce mucilaginous polysaccharides, which form solid gels and are the source of agar.A red alga was the ancestor to the chloroplasts of photosynthetic chromalveolates by secondary endosymbiosis.
1.      Describe the role of the hippocampus in learning and memory? Where is this structure located? (Note: describe the role of the hippocampus in the different types of memory—e.g., declarative, explicit, spatial, configural, implicit, and any
Some support for critical role in declarative, explicit memory
true for H.M.

monkeys with damage are impaired in delayed matching (or non-matching) to sample task

but performs well if task always uses same objects

rats with damage have difficulty in learning correct temporal sequence for reward
Our perception of pitch is dependent upon...
the frequency of incoming sound waves.
Where do vertebrates store triglycerides (fat)?
as tiny droplets inside fat cells of adipose tissue
Differences between RNA and DNA structurally
1) sugar is ribose in RNA and deozyribose in DNA2) ribose has an -OH group attached to the C atom in its lower right corner. 3) instead of Thymine, RNA has a nitrogenous base called Uracil (U)
What is the evidence for extraterrestrial involvement in the Cretaceous extinction
A large crater has been found in the Caribbean sea. Could of killed plants and animals with vapor and debris.
3 main differences between DNA and RNA
1. sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose
2. RNA is generally single stranded
3. RNA contains uracil in place of thymine
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