Biology SOL Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
anterior
front
ferns
see pteridophyta
mean
the average
sponge
see porifera
mosses
see bryophyta
Ribosomes
makes protein
neutral
pH = 7
prey
eaten by predator
flowering plant
see angiosperm
contains cell's DNA
nucleus
mollusca
invertebrate animal phylum characterized by a muscular foot, mantle, and radula; ex: snail, slug, bivalves, squid
DNA codes for ________.
proteins
Prokaryotic
Cells with no nucleus
 
Bacteria
monosaccharides
monomer of carbohydrates, a.k.a. simple sugars
classification
grouping related species into categories
terrestrial
living in or on land
probability
the chance something will happen
vascular or nonvascular?
-no tissue to transport water & minerals so it MUST be near water
ex: moss, liverworts, hornworts
nonvascular
middle supporting structure of stigma
style
Eukaryotic
cells that contain a nucleus
 
Plants, Animals, Protest and Fungi
cytoplasm
colloidal substance (like jello)
that fills the interior of the cell
What are chromosomes made of?
Genes
nervous system
controls and coordinates body functions (brain, nerves)
endocytosis
the uptake of extracellular materials into the cell in vesicles
arthropoda
largest animal phylum characterized by jointed appendages, hard exoskeleton, molting (ecdysis), and segmented body
amphibian
group of vertebrate animals that reproduces in water, but can live on land
monera
another name for eubacteria, bacteria with cell walls
gymnosperm
land plants that produce seeds contained in a cone; ex: pine tree
conclusion
an informed inference based on experimental data
phylum
Taxonomic rank after kingdom and before class (ex: Chordata)
carbohydrate
used to store and release energy
Pasteur, Louis
French chemist that disproved spontaneous generation contributing to cell theory, discovered fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulting the in the pasteurization process, pioneered germ theory, and developed the first vaccine for anthrax.
quantitative observations
observations made with measurements and written in numbers
chromosome
a highly coiled strand of DNA
diploid
having two copies of each chromosome
producer
organism that makes its own food
parasitism
relationship between two species in which one benefits and the other is harmed (but not killed)
carrier protein "carries" glucose across cell membrane.
facilitated diffusion


what stage of mitosis is this?
-spindle fibers PULL APART chromosomes
Anaphase
sodium potassium pump: active or passive transport?
active
How many homologous pairs of chromosomes do humans have?
23
What do cells make up?
Oraganisms
(Living Things)
Hypertonic
More salt outside, causing cell to lose water and shrivel
Koch, Robert
German bacteriologist who isolated the anthrax bacterium supporting germ theory
prediction
something that you think might occur in an experiment
trisomy
having three copies of a chromosome (instead of two)
respiration
process by which organisms burn sugar with oxygen to make ATP energy
nucleotides
monomer of nucleic acids, made of nitrogen base, sugar, and phosphate
mammal
group of vertebrate animals known for hair, mammary glands, and endothermy (warm-blooded)
Gould, Stephen Jay
Evolutionary biologist who proposed punctuated equilibrium in 1972
excretory system
any organ system that removes something. Kidneys remove liquid waste, intestines remove solid waste, lungs remove carbon dioxide and some water, skin removes heat and some water.
domain
The three major groups of organisms (Eukaryota, Archaea, Bacteria)
Golgi
site where cell products are packaged for export
evolution
change of allele frequency in a population over time
Franklin, Rosalind
Took x-ray diffraction photographs of DNA helping Watson and Crick with their work
cell wall
ridid barrier around cells of bacteria, fungi, and plants
urinary system
filters blood to remove waste (kidneys)
euglena
a protist with chloroplasts and a single flagellum
what is the result of meiosis?
FOUR haploid gametes
lie outside the petals and protect bud
sepals
protein packaging occurs here (post office)
golgi apparatus
How many cells does a sperm have?
23
Vacuoles
store food, water, waste
and pigments in larger plants
guanine
nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA, pairs with cytosine
transport proteins
proteins in the membrane that regulate what goes in to and out of the cell
binomial nomenclature
the formal method of naming species (Genus species)
transcription
process of copying a gene from DNA into mRNA
recombination mutation
Crossing over during Prophase I of meiosis where homologous chromosomes swap DNA
invalid
an example of data that does not accurately reflect the concept intended to be measured
radioactive decay
the alteration of atoms as sub-atomic particles are released slowly over time
steady state
when a population size remains about the same over a long period of time
mRNA
messenger RNA that copies a DNA gene and is read by the ribosome
gamete
haploid cell made for the purposes of sexual reproduction
endocrine system
all of the glands that make hormones
optimum
the best or maximum that can be achieved
distilled water
water that has been evaporated and condensed again in order to purify it
exponential growth
when a population increases more and more every year (humans)
circulatory system
carries oxygen and nutrients to cells while removing waste (blood, heart)
microorganism
an organism that can only be seen through a microscope
porifera
most ancient animal phylum that has no true tissues, ex: sponges
what enzyme adds new nucleotides to create a new DNA strand?
DNA polymerase
form on a gene? ex: blue eye color
allele
mRNA enters nucleus and reads the DNA with help of enzyme to put the DNA code into the RNA language. then mRNA leaves nucleus via nuclear pores and enters cytoplasm.
is this transcription or translation?
transcription
H2O ONLY moves from HIGH to LOW concentration
osmosis
What is Meiosis?
cell division that creates gametes
sperm and egg
x-ray crytallography/diffraction photography
a technique used to determine the shape of a molecule using the diffraction of x-rays
appendages (jointed)
any body part that extends from the main body, usually arms and legs. These are jointed in arthropods.
gene
a segment of DNA that codes for a particular protein
procedure
a series of steps that you take to complete an experiment
a cell will swell when place in a _________ solution.
hypotonic
Photosynthesis is the process by which organisms use sunlight to
make food (glucose)
What is a haploid cell?
a sex cell or gamete
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
produces protein to be excreted from the cell
complementary base pairs
holds together the two strands of DNA, A paris with T, G pairs with C
dichotomous key
forks into two branches, such as in an identification guide
detrimental/deleterious mutation
a mutation to a gene that makes the protein less functional than before
Mendel's laws of heredity
Law of Dominance = dominant and recessive alleles, Law of Segregation = gametes are haploid, Law of Independent Assortment = genes randomly assigned to gametes
environmental pressure
a condition or event that can hurt a population of organisms
what is the appendicular skeleton?
includes arms, legs, pelvis, and shoulders.
What is a dominant allel?
the trait that is present
usually masks the recessive trait
What is Trisomy X ?
 
An organism with the following chromosomes
XXX or XXXX
RNA is made of _____, _________, and ________ ____.
sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base
What is a Punnett square?
A chart that shows the possible outcomes of genes that are combined
How many chromosomes do humans get from their mother and how many from their father?
23 from mom
23 from dad
What are the steps of Meiosis?
1. Chromosomes are copied
2. all 4 chromatids come together to form a tetrad
3. Sections of chromosomes cross over
Meiosis I - Separate into new haploid cells
Meiosis II - Second division
four organic compounds in living things? the macromolecules?
1. carbs, 2. lipids, 3. proteins, 4. nucleic acids
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