Biology Exam 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Lead
Pb
-pod
foot
cuboidal
cube like
Eukaryotic
Has a nucleus.
deoxyribose
sugar of DNA
Histology
The study of tissues
genome
a cell's genetic info.
-ology, -ogy, -nomy
study of
Activator
Stabilizes active shape of enzyme
postulate one
unit factors in pairs
The absense of significant contamination
asepsis
Asexual Reproduction
Single parent:-offspring have identical hereditary traitsMitosis:-basis for eukaryotic asexual reproduction
electrolyte balance
calcium and phosphate ions
amines
organic compounds with amino groups
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's)
Human-made chemicals used as coolants.
Exocytosis
membrane enclosed vesicle fuses with plasma membrane and the contents are spilled out
Approximately ___ human genes are believed to be present on our chromosomes.
30,000--80,000
sugars
whitch of the following orgaic compounds is the main fuel supply for cellular work
fluid mosaic model
model of plasma membrane
Atom
The building blocks of ALL matter!
homozygous
having identical alleles for a gene
Skeletal Muscle
Voluntary Movement, Antagnistic, Pulls to contract
ribbon worms
bilateral acoelomate simplest animals that possess a complete digestive system (mouth and anus)
Ribosomes
The protein synthesizers. This crates protein in the cell, by connecting amino acids.
plate tectonics
movement of the earth's crust.
scientific method
a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses
germination
the early growth stage of the embryo
consanuineous matings
mating between close relatives, which increases chance of mating between two carriers of the same rare allele that can cause diseases
Define Golgi complex
Define Golgi complex
 
site of carbohydrate production and plasma membrane
What system has neurons and synapses, central and peripheral?
Nervous.
radioisotope uses
tracking stuff through body. dating. cancer- interfere with cell division
contractile vacuole
in protozoans, an organelle that accumulates water and then releases it periodically to maintain osmotic pressure
true or false
since virus are nonliving they cannot be killed with antibiotics
false
fermentation
releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen.
Prokaryotic cell
(pro´-kar´-e-ot´-ik) A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archaea) are called prokaryotes.
Typical of most monocots (grasses, irises, and cat-tail) where the main veins run parallel to one another lengthwise in the blade as they do in many of the grasses
Parallel venation
What is a proton?
A positively charged ion.
What is homeosis?
spatial changes in developmental plan
These are small passages through the cuticle in plants that can open and close, allowing for some control of water loss by evaporation. In plants that have them, they are the main route for uptake of carbon dioxide.
stomata
Cytoplasm
Entire region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane.
vacuoles
a membrane-bound cavity within a cell, often containing a watery liquid or secretion.
internal fertilization
land animals release sperm into females; protection requires fewer amounts
telophase
The fifth and final stage of mitosis, in which daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun.
autotroph
an organism which does not produce its own food and must feed on other organisms
abdominal cavity
body cavity that contains organs such as the stomach, liver, and intestines
X or Y Chromosome that determine sex-linked traits
SEX CHROMOSOME
incomplete metamorphosis
immature form resembles adult form and grows through a series of molts
Functions of the Kidney
• filters blood plasma, separates waste from useful chemicals, returns useful substances to blood, eliminates wastes• regulate blood volume and pressure by eliminating or conserving water• regulate the osmolarity of the body fluids by controlling the relative amounts of water and solutes eliminated• secretes enzyme, renin, which activates hormonal mechanisms that control blood pressure and electrolyte balance• secretes the hormone, erythropoietin, which stimulates the production of red blood cells• collaborate with the lungs to regulate the PCO2 and acid-base balance of body fluids• final step in synthesizing hormone, calcitriol, which contributes to calcium homeostasis• gluconeogenesis from amino acids in extreme starvation
Carry on photosynthesis
Fungi do NOTa. carry photosynthesisb. grow on their food soucec. disgest food outside their bodiesD. absorb food through their cell walls..
Meiosis is a form of cell division that results in the production of ____
gametes
microevolution
a change in a population's gene pool over a few generations. It results in evolutionary change in a species over a relatively brief period of time. (Change in alleles frequencies)
microtubule
a hollow rod of tubulin in the cytoplams of all eukaryotic cells and in cillia, flagella, and the cytoskeleton.
heterotrophs (consumers)
organisms that cannot make their own food, depend on producers to supply energy
Krebs Cycle is a form of ______
Aerobic Respiration
Absorptive state
Occurs when nutrients enter the blood from GI tract
7. medial
Situated in or pertaining to the middle; median; intermediate.
Cholecystokinin
CCK is a hormone that is secreted by the duodenum in response to the presence of chyme. CCK stimulates the release of bile and pancreatic enzymes into the small intestine
what is osmosis?
passive transport of water and/or the diffusion of water across a defferentially permeable membrane
Density-dependent variable
variable a limiting factor that depends on population size – they operate most strongly on populations that are large and dense. i.e. intraspecifc competition (same organisms competing for food), predation, parasitism, build up of toxic wastes, and disease
Spinal cord is part of the...
Central nervous system (CNS)
Three factors that affect population size
growth ratedeath ratebirth rate
what do the cells that line the trachea do
creat mucus
Without ___ to pass on its genes, an individual doesn't pass them onto the next generation.
instinct
near the center have higher than those at the othe
stabilizing selection
solution
composed of a solvent and one or more solutes
What happens in the interphase?
Cell growth and replication of DNA
signal transduction of ethylene = absent versus present
-absent: active CTR1 represses EIN2-present: 1) ethylene activates ETR1 (protein kinase) 2) this inactivates CTR1 3) EIN2 can now bind a 2nd messenger to activate EIN3
NADH production in glycolysis
one reaction of glycolysis removes 4 high energy electrons, passing them to an electron carrier, NAD+ which accepts a pair of high energy electrons and becomes NADH which holds the electrons until they can be transferred to other molecules. 
In the outer membrane of the mitochondria.
Where does glycolosis occur?
Quiz 4
 
Muscle fatigue is the reult of production of:
 
a. lactic acid
b. pyruvic acid
c. glucose
d. oxygen
 
 
a. lactic acid
b. pyruvic acid
c. glucosed. oxygen  
What controls cleavage patterns in mammals?
Certain genes must be activated first. Cleavage cannot be completed without the protein products of those genes.
What are dominant species?
Species in a community which has the largest number or highest biomass
 
Biomass - total mass of all individual in population
Intrinsic rate of increase
when birth rates per individual are as high as possible and death rates per individual are as low as possible
Which is the process of releasing substances out of a cell by fusion of a vesicle with the membrane- endocytosis or exocytosis?
Exocytosis. Endocytosis is the process of taking in liquids or fairly large molecules by engulfing them in a membrane.
What is a plasmid?
A plasmid is a circular piece of DNA found in bacteria. Not native to bacteria, but usually helpful.
when does a chemical reaction reach equilibrium?
when its forward and reverse reaction rates are equal
How does a hypothesis become a theory?
It must become very widely and well supported.
when an AB binds to an antigen 3 things happen
1. neutralization: AB prevents Ag from binding membrane receptors
2. recruit macrophages
3. recruit complement proteins
cast
reparto
nuclear pore
ribosomal RNA
rRNA
-scope
instrument for viewing
leucocyte
white blood cell.
Ossification
The formation of bones
Genetics
The science of heredity
chloroplast
a plastid containing chlorophyll.
Animal Kingdom
Heterotrophs, multicultural e.g. sponge, clam and humans
prtosomes vs deuterostomes
deuterostomes have?
-radial, indeterminate cleavge
-enterocoelous
-blastopore forms anus
buffers
chemical substances that neutrilize small amounts of acids or bases added to a solution
plastid facts
major organelle
double membrane
own DNA and protein synthesis
endosymbiosis
inside called stroma
most proteins are made in cytoplasm from nuclear genes
eg chloroplast
Lysosome
organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed
yellow bone marrow
fat in medullary cavity
Catalyst
Compounds that speed up chemical reactions
Antenna Complex
Big light gathering satellite dish.
Photosynthetic pigments on foldings
chromatophores or thylakoids
Homologous chromosomes may exchange genetic material, which is called
Crossing over
break down worn-out cell structures, bacteria and other substances
small sacs of digestive enzymes
Lysosomes
transformation of liquid to a gas
Evaporation
bile
chemical produced by liver; emulsifies fats
genetic cross
controlled mating experiment performed to examine teh inheritance of a particular trait
Species
Type of organism, Of sexually reproducing species, one or more groups of individuals that potentially can interbreed, produce fertile offspring, and a isolated reproductively from other groups
electronegativity
An atom that pulls on electrons
product
An ending material in a chemical reaction.
What are Micorrhizae?
Mutualistic relationship between plant roots and fungi. - Plants absorb nutrients from fungi as the hyphae increase surface area, plants provide fungi sugars
What does Amphiarthrosis mean?
A slightly movable joint
cambrion explosion
during early cambrian peroid most animal phyla evolved
Decomposition by bacteria, a protist ingesting bacteria, and a fungus consuming strawberries are all examples of the activity                organisms.
 
a. pathogenic
b. autotrophic
c. multicellular
d. heterotrophic
e. unicellular
d. heterotrophic
the ________ is a protective cellular covering of the bodies of endoparasitic flukes that prevents them from being digested by their hosts
tegument
Characterized by the processes of mitosis and cytokineseis, or cytoplasmic division. Takes approximately one hour to complete
M phase
vessel element
short, wide water conducting cell found in the xylem, dead at maturity, aligned end to end to form micropipes called vessels
Biosphere
All Regions of Earth where organisms live.
nerve net
loosely organized network of nerve cells that together allow cnidarians to detect stimuli
omnivore
an organism that eats both producers (plants) and consumers (meat).
If the plant has yellowing leaves (=chlorosis) it is due to a deficiency of _______.
Magnesium
Microtubules ch.4
hollow tubulin cylinders are involved in the movement of chromosomes during cell division.
cellular respiration
oxidation of organic molecules through catabolic pathways occuring largely in the mitochondria to produce ATP, CO2, and H2O
terpene
(originally) any of a class of monocyclic hydrocarbons of the formula C10H16, obtained from plants.
pupa
An insect in the nonfeeding, usually immobile, transformation stage between the larva and the imago.
meiosis
A modified type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms consisting of two rounds of cell division but only one round of DNA replication. It results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell.
This is the highest level of organization. this represents th sum total of all structural levels working together.
Organismal level
During transcription, at the point at where the DNA strand being copied has an adenine a(n) ________ is added to the _________.
uracil, mRNA
What was Endosymbiosis?
-The evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotes.-Archaebacteria "eats" eubacteria and builds nutualistic relationship. -Led to evolution of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Uniform Dispersion Pattern
Describing a dispersion pattern in which individuals are evenly distributed
Turgid (ter′-jid)
Swollen or distended, as in plant cells. (A walled cell becomes turgid if it has a greater solute concentration than its surroundings, resulting in entry of water.)
toposiomerases
produce breaks in the DNA molecules ir order to releive strain when DNA replication is taking place [unwinding rope causes tension towards the bottom]
cohesion
the force that holds molecules of a single material together
BASAL METABOLIC RATE (BMR)
total energy/weight; strict test measuring energy used for "survival"
features of ctenophora involve
colloblast and move by cilia
Fraction of atm pressure exerted by O2 =
21%
What fundamental assumption of macroevolution does mutualism seem to contradict?
they struggle for survival
Gene Pool
combined genetic info of all the members of a particular population
Secondary Immune Response
The immune response elicited when an animal encounters the same antigen at some later time. This is more rapid, of greater magnitude, and of longer duration than the primary immune response.
Information flow
DNA to RNA to proteinmRNA in exact copy of DNA, but it's moveableRibosome-non-membranous organelle, composed of rRNA and proteintRNA carry acids to ribosomes to add polypeptide being built
Nitrogen Base
This material is part of a nucleotide and is made up of a 1 or 2 ring structure.There are 4 different kinds.
Double Helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
Hyaline cartilage
tracheal rings, end of nose, end of sternum, and in articulating joints
anaerobic process
a process that does not require the presence of oxygen
This bacteria is usually food born but can be transmitted to fetus. It can reproduce in phagocytes
listeria monocytogenes
Define Foot
a muscular organ that is used for locomotion and takes a variety of forms depending on the animal.
nucleotide
any of a group of molecules that, when linked together, form the building blocks of DNA or RNA: composed of a phosphate group, the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, and a pentose sugar, in RNA the thymine base being replaced by uracil.
Incomplete Dominance
one allele of a pair is not fully dominant over the other in a heterozygote, so an intermidiate phenotype is observed
What are the 2 major stuctural proteins found in the extracellular matrix?
Collagen and Elastin Fibers.
saprobe [Gk. sapros: rotten]
An organism (usually a bacterium or fungus) that obtains its carbon and energy directly from dead organic matter.
animal pole
the portion of an egg that is opposite of the vegetal pole and that contains the nucleus and most of the cytoplasm
A habitat is a(n)
place where an organism lives its life
Explain the endosymbiotic theory and how it relates to prokaryotes and eukaryotes today.
Proposes that these organelles were once prokaryotic cells, living inside larger host cells. The prokaryotes may initially have been parasites or even an intended meal for the larger cell, somehow escaping digestion.Because virtually all eukaryotes have some sort of mitochondria, while only photosynthetic eukaryotes have chloroplasts, it has been proposed that endosymbiosis occurred twice, in series. First, an aerobic (oxygen-using) heterotrophic prokaryote was taken in by a larger host cell. In time, the prokaryote co-evolved with the host, eventually becoming something like a mitochondrion. Next, a photosynthetic prokaryote was taken in by a mitochondrion-containing cell.
 
What traits did Mendel observe and manipulate?
-seed shape-seed color-pod shape-pod color-flower color-flower position-stem length
Why not reproduce a colony that outweighs earth in 3 days?
Exhaust nutrient supply
Poison with metabolic wastes
Consumed by other organisms
Antibiotic chemicals by other microorganisms stopping them
Describe the body of a trematoda
-covered by a tough tegument-an oral sucker and another located more posteriorly on the body
What is the disadvantage of having a "single circuit" with the gills set between the heart and the rest of the tissues?
Organisms with this configuration cannot sustain as much activity as those with two circuits.
why does water resist change in temparture?
speed of molecules need to be increases and bonds need to be broken (hydrogen bonds)
Which of the following statements regarding extraembryonic membranes is TRUE?
The amnion encloses the embryo in a watery environment
Morgan provided evidence for linkage of genes
He proposed that linkage is due to the occurrence of 2 or more different genes on the same chromosome. He studied 3 X-linked traits and proposed that all 3 genes are located on the same X chromosome. He proposed to explain occurrence of nonparentals and difference in certain combinations: 1.Homologous X chromosomes in the female can exchange pieces of chromosomes and create new nonparental combinations of alleles. 2.The likelihood of crossing over depends on the distance between 2 genes.
If a person was born and grew up at a higher altitude with lower oxygen concentrations in the Andes mountains, what consequences would we expect?
More hemoglobin, larger vital capacity from larger chest volume, greater endurance in activity at sea level, ability to breathe slower at sea level than natives of sea level areas.
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