Biology Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ligase
attaches pieces together
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is readily soluble in water, according to the equation CO2 + H2O → H2CO3. Carbonic
acid (H2CO3) is a weak acid. Respiring cells release CO2. What prediction can we make about the pH of blood
as that blood first comes in contact with
a
Most ecologists believe that the average global carrying capacity for the human population is between
A) 5 and 6 billion.
B) 6 and 8 billion.
C) 10 and 15 billion.
D) 15 and 20 billion.
E) 20 and 25 billion.
c
During the spring, you are studying the mice that live in a field near your home. There are lots of mice in this
field, but you realize that you rarely observe any reproductive females. This most likely indicates
A) that there is selective predation on fe
d
is the overall function of auxins? 
cell elongation
In a single molecule of water, two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by
A) hydrogen bonds.
B) nonpolar covalent bonds.
C) polar covalent bonds.
D) ionic bonds.
E) van der Waals interactions.
c
Describe the symptoms for hypothyroidism
Goiter, lethargy, slowed metabolism
Which type of plant hormones are more active in Spring?
auxins and gibberellins
-Who won the battle between the ant and the carnivorous caterpillar?                                                 
     the ant
Put the following events of embryonic development in the correct order.a.       one-celled zygote becomes two-celled zygote b.      formation of blastula c.       fertilization – zygote formation d.      cleavage e. 
c,d,a,b,e
The corn crop of Mexico grows very poorly because of:
soil loaded with excess minerals like salt (toxic aluminum)
Which curve best describes survivorship in marine mollusks? (Based on a line graph, just memorize the letter)
e
In models of sigmoidal (logistic) population growth,
A) population growth rate slows dramatically as N approaches K.
B) new individuals are added to the population most rapidly at the beginning of the populationʹs growth.
C) only density-dependent factor
a
Waterʹs high specific heat is mainly a consequence of the
A) small size of the water molecules.
B) high specific heat of oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
C) absorption and release of heat when hydrogen bonds break and form.
D) fact that water is a poor heat co
c
Which of the following is true?
A) K-selection operates in populations where populations fluctuate well below the carrying capacity.
B) r-selection occurs in populations whose densities are very near the carrying capacity.
C) Different populations of the
d
Gardasil
works against 4 strains of human papilloma virus (HPV), 2 for genital warts, 2 for cervical cancer. Gardasil is 100% effective for 4 years; but it must be given before exposure to the virus. Overall, an estimated 75% of sexually active individuals will be exposed to HPV in their lives.
Which of the following is a conclusion that can be drawn from this graph?
A) Female survivability is more negatively affected by larger brood size than is male survivability.
B) Male survivability decreased by 50% between reduced and enlarged brood treatm
d
If the pH of a solution is increased from pH 5 to pH 7, it means that the
A) concentration of H+ is twice (2X) what it was at pH 5.
B) concentration of H+ is half (1/2) what it was at pH 5.
C) concentration of OH- is 100 times greater than what it was at
c
cancer v tumor
Cancer is a disease that eventually disrupts body functions whereas a tumor is a mass of cells with no apparent function in the body
What is the overall function of ABA? 
cut leaves from trees
-Which of the following diseases can be treated using stem cells?                                                                         
  Tissue Repair, Heart Disease, Cancer, Arthritis, Diabetes
How can we tell the differences in DNA between two people?
Answer: People may have the same gene but of slightly different sizesTechnique to show differences in size = gel electrophoresis
Helium
He
poly-
many
AUG
start codon
resourse
neccesity of life
Quadriceps femoris
straightens leg
Hypercalcemia
Assess for depressedneuromuscular function. Encourage fluids toprevent urinary calculi (stones). Administerhigh ceiling diuretic as ordered.
Member of Phylum
Ponifera-SpongesCridaris-Jellyfish, Sea anemonesPlatyhelinthers-Flatworms, PlanariaNematoda- Roundworms........
ARCHAE-
No nuclear envelopecircular chromosomes, have histonesno organellsunique lipidsintrons and RNA polymerases70S? RNA methionine
Regulation
Having regulatory mechanisms that coordinate internal processes
saturated or unsatuated?;usually solid at room temparture
saturated
hyperthermophiles
live at extremely hot temps
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus, the retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and causes AIDS.
epimysium
connective tissue surrounding entire muscle
a well-supported testable explanation of phemnomena that have occurred in the natural world
theory
denitrification
soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas
anemia
decreased erythrocytes, both high and low reticulocyte % can indicate anemia, high results from low RBC which stimulates erythropoiesis, low results from low iron and low b12 unable to make Hb
fats
contain single bonds between their carbon atoms
The vast majority of animals are:
Invertebrates
Who Invented the microscope?
Anton can Leeuwenhoek
 
 
 
yellow marrow
-specialized type of connective tissue
-stores fat
-found in medullary cavity
Fertilization
Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell.
Circulatory System
Heart, blood vessels, and blood
Malnutrition:
body functions or development suffers due to inadequate or unbalanced food intake
which organelle utilizes enegry to make food?
chloroplast
a relationship between two organisms that are living together
symbiosis
ribonucleic acid/RNA
reads the instructions and carries them out
carpel
the female reproductive organ of a flower
ALL cells have..
plasma membrane, hereditary material (DNA), and cytoplasm (water-based semi-fluid). Cell size is constrained by the surface area to volume ratio.
What creates surface tension?
What creates surface tension?
Co-hesion
reactants are...
the starting materials for the reaction
consumers
organisms that consume plants or other organisms to obtain energy necessary to build their molecules
invasive species
organisms introduced into new habitats and reproduce rapidly. they reproduce so quickly and don't stop making them a harmful species to the new environment they are in
Solvent
liquid that a substance is dissolved to make a solution.
Who discovered that all animals are made of cells?
Schwann
Electron
A subatomic particle with a single negative electrical charge and a mass about 1/2,000 that of a neutron or proton. One or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom.
Homeostasis
to maintain a “steady state” or internal balance regardless of conditions in the external environment
Characters (traits) that are useful in helping us determine relatedness
Synapomorphies
introns
pieces cut off of RNA; transcribed from eukaryotic genes to become functional
exocytosis
The active transport of materials out of the cell by fusion of cytoplasmic vesicles with the plasma membrane.
Nuclear Envelope
This encloses the nucleus, seperating it's contents from the cytoplasm. It's a double membrane.
nucleolus
a conspicuous, rounded body within the nucleus of a cell.
clade
branch of a cladogram, shows derived characteristics
Carbon Fixation
The incorporation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism (a plant, another photosynthetic organism, or a chemoautotrophic prokaryote).
Phylum Basidiomycota:
Club fungi (common name)
Largest - # of species
Includes:
Grocery store mushroom
Many saparobic types in this phylum
Many are symbiants

General life cycles:
Spore producing cells = Basidia (bear sexual spores)
Basidia develop on a short-live reproductive structure = Basidiocarp = spores develop on gills.
Spores fall off and can germinate into + or - mycelia cells.
When hypae of two compatable types (+ -) come together = cytoplasmic fusion (Dikaryotic mycelium)
Five Definitive Chordate Characteristics
Notochord
 
 a longitudinal, flexible rod composed of a gelatinous material which is located dorsal to the guit and ventral to the nerve cord. Prvides support and aids in locomotion.
the process of converting nitrogen gas to nitrate
NITROGEN FIXATION
Cilia
cells that sweep mucus out of our lungs, (sweeping motion,keeps stuff out.)
The molecular mechanisms for stopping cell cycle progression are poorly understood, but it is known that _________ __________ __________ are involved. They block the assembly or activity of one or more cyclin-Cdk complexes
Cdk inhibitor proteins
Plant Hormones
 
What does cytokinins do?
 
Stimulates cell growth
 
Other effects
Reverses apical dominance
Prevents senescense of leaves
Name the term: pertaining to the vagus nerve
vagal
plasma membrane
The cell's outer boundary that covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and the outside of a cell.  All materials enter or exit through the plasma membrane.
carboxyl group
a functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
asexual reproduction
process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
______ is where substrates are held within an enzyme
Active site
some prokaryotes have flagella
prokaryote flagella rotate like propellers
sex-linked
of a character determined by a gene located in a sex chromosome.
Fermentation
Process by which the cell is able to repenish the NAD+ used during glycolysis by oxidizing NADH. In this process, pyruvate (the product of glycolysis) is reduced by NADH to form ethanol (in yeast) or lactic acid (in humans)
What is smooth ER?
ER with no ribosomes attached functions: synthesis of lipids
Biotic potential
the rate at which a population would grow if every new individual survived to adulthood and reproduced at its maximum capacity. Most organisms produce more offspring than can survive to grow up and reproduce. They do this to endure that some survive to breeding age.
Germ tissuea. haploid makes diploidb. diploid makes haploidc. haploid makes diploidd. diploid makes diploid
b. diploid makes hiploid
is a measure of image clarity (minimum distance two points can be separated by and still be viewed as two separate points).
resolving power
Huntington's disease
A human genetic disease caused by a dominant allele; characterized by uncontrollable body movements and degeneration of the nervous system; usually fatal 10 to 20 years after the onset of symptoms.
___ says "it may be better to leave some genetic mistakes as is and correct them later" in "The Advantage of Sex"
Kondrashov
What is a Habitat?
physical surrounding where a species is normally f
community
a group of species that live in the same habitat and interact with eachother
what happenes to light when it strikes an object
reflected(bounces off)
transmitted (passes through)
absorbed ( used in photosynthesis)
Relaxation (14 and 15)
 
Once products are broken down by AChE, what happens?
Products are transported back to neuron and recycled
kinase cascade
 
-amplifies b/c ...
a series of protein kinases that activate each other in succession
 
a few signal molecules can cause a large cell response
2-4 Describe and illustrate the mechanism of cartilage growth
Cartilage1 Brain releases somatotropin (“growth hormone”)2 Somatotropin stimulates chondrocytes located directly below the perichondrium (tissue paper membrane) to produce new matrix3 New matrix is deposited on outside of cartilage (under the perichondrium)4 Cartilage increases in size on all dimensions at the same time*Size of lacuna stays the same, produces new lacuna1-CLEAR OUTSIDE --> 2-NEW MATRIXBone
B cells
When Ag binds to the AB on the surface of a specific immature B cell, that cell is stimulated to proliferate & differentiate into 2 kinds of cells: plasma cells & memory cells
Countercurrent heat exchanger
helps trap heat in the body core and is important in reducing heat loss in many endotherms
under what conditions will wild type e. coli cells fully transcribe the lac operon? in a medium with...
no glucose, lots of lactose
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Defined Seasons / 6 Month Growing Season / 40 Inches of Rain / Fertile Soil, long Growing Period / Broadleaf Deciduous Hardwoods (oak, hickory)
What does endosymbiotic theory propose; what are some of the supporting evidence
The theory of the origin of Eukaryotic cells Mitochondria is about the same size as early prokaryotes
Mitochondrion has its own DNA.
What are monozygotic twins and how do they occur?

What are dizygotic twins and how do they occur?
Monozygotic: Identical twins; results when ovum splits at two cell stage.

Dizygotic: Fraternal twins; occurs when ovaries release two follicles.
How many changes in the DNA are necessary to cause sickle cell disease?
1 change in the DNA base
how does availibility of nutrients affect productivity?
if a nutrient is short of supply it will affect an organism's growth
Where is DNA located in prokaryotic cells?
In the cytoplasm in a nucleus of a prokaryotic cell
THERM-
HEAT
Membrane
d
pili
surface appendages
rhizomes
horizontal underground stems
Heterotroph
Feeds on others.
development of oocytes (eggs)
 
each is inside a ______-filled bubble --> ______
-_____ is made of ____ which secrete _____
fluid/follicle
follicle/cells/hormones
kintoplastids
two flagella, single mitochondrion.
species
basic unit of classification.
Cross-Pollination
-Transfer of pollen between genetically different individuals(=cross pollination) results in mixing genes of two parents
-This can increase genetic diversity in populations.
 
Basidia
Club-shaped hyphae from the Basidiomycotes that produce spores and give them their common name
Three SUB-ATOMIC PARTICLES
Electron, Proton, Neutron
Define the root word 'fertil'
Fruitful
PROTEIN RESPONSIBLE FOR MUSCLE CONTRACTION
ACTIN
isotonic
isotonic: having a solute concentration equal to that of another solution
Acid
substance that increases the hydrogen cation concentration (HCL -> H + Cl)
Immunoassay
biochemical test that measures the concentration of a subject in a liquid.
rhizobium bacteria
mutualism--lumps on alfalfa; nitrogen fixation in legumes, etc...)
class cephalopoda has foot divided into prehensible __ bearing flexible suckers
tentacles
Cytoskeleton
collection of filaments and cylinders; determines shape of cell, lends structural support, organizes its contents, directs movement of substances through the cell, and contributes to the movements of cell as a whole
 
anticodon
a special triplet of bases, complimentary to a codon triplet on mRNA. During translation, the anticodon on tRNA recognizes a particular codon on mRNA by using base-pairing rules.
most abundant plasma electrolytes
sodium and chloride
fossil
remains or impressions of former living things
Micorofilaments
actin subunits, contraction as in muslces and some plant roots
subcellular organelles
structures found within eukaryotic cells which have special functions within the cell
ecosystem
collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment
autosomes
All other chromosomes besides the sex chromosomes are called _________
Nucleotide
A single unit of nucleic acid, composed of a phosphate, a five-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), and a purine or a pyrimidine. (67)
intermediate filaments
Range in diameter from 8-12 nanometers, larger than microfilaments but smaller than microtubules; support cell shape & fix organelles in place.
Chemical Energy
Energy stored in chemical bonds, released when bonds are broken.
OOGENESIS
process by which gametes are produced in female animals
light repair
enzyme photolase (which is activated by visible light) breaks the covalent bonds
Sporangium
`is a plant, fungal, or algal structure producing and containing spores
punnett squares
diagram showing the possible gene combinations that can reslut form genteic combination
Name the pathology term: Abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occurring in the legs.
varicose veins
Down syndrome is an example of:
a trisomy
water mold
Heterotrophic protist that grows as nutrient–absorbing filaments.
nucleic acid
organic molocule made of nucletides; store herdity information for cell function; RNA or DNA
What is homeostasis?
The ability to maintain balance
Triglycerides
3 fatty acids bonded to glycerol
Use dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis
Saturated fatty acids have all single bonds between carbons
Animal fats, solid
Unsaturated fatty acids have at least 1 double bond between carbons
Plant-derived, liquid
Trans fats
punctuated equilibrium
a hypothesis holding that the evolution of species proceeds in a characteristic pattern of relative stability for long periods of time interspersed with much shorter periods during which many species become extinct and new species emerge.
nucleic acid
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
Accessory Organs
2. In the reproductive systems, any iorgan involved in reproduction that is not a gonad (testis or ovary).
Artificial Selection
The change in a population of organisms that occurs over many generations in an artificial environment.
Describe the Choroid
Part of the Vascular Tunic.Heavily vasculaized. Provides nutrients to the layers.
The stage of photosynthesis which takes place within the fluid found within a chloroplast is:
the Calvin Cycle
Polymer
- a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together
hydrostatic skeleton
formed by coelom, allows movement w/o limbs
atom
the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
Give the meaning of the suffix -meter
Measuring device
Endospore
A thick coating produced within a cell to protect the cell against almost any environmental hazard.
Continental Drift
The slow movement of the continental plates across Earth's surface.
Artificial Selection
selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
Fitness
Ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in
Descent W/ Modification
Principle that each living species has descended with changes from other species over time.
water vascular system
a hydraulic system that aids in movement that is a key innovation of echinoderms
INto which organelle does the water go in a plant cell?
Central Vacuole
annulus
rings left by partial veil on stipe of mushroom
haploid
term used to refer to a cell that conatins only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes
gametes
A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. (sex cell)
homologous chromosome
member of a chromosome pair; both are equally similar
Two of more populations of different species living and interacting the same areaExamples: Desert, Woodlands & WetlandsEcosystem : A community together with it abiotic (non living) surroundingsExamples: Plants, animals, rocks, soil & water
Levels of Organization:Biosphere
Mixture
A blend of a two or more things that can be seperated
dew point
if air cools below this point, it will lose its moisture (condenses as clouds or precipitation)
Mechanisms of Horizontal Gene Transfer in Bacteria
DNA transfer between bacteria occurs via Conjugationtransfer between bacteria Transformationuptake of “naked” DNA Transduction transfer via a virus
Which of the following is the MOST species-rich terrestrial biome?
tropical rain forests
Define Gemmule
a cluster of cells encased in a hard, spicule-reinforced shell
RNA processing
1. 5' capping2. 3' polyA tailing3. Splicing$. RNA editing(Eukaryotes ONLY!!!)
What are the components of a nucleotide?
5-carbon sugar, Phosphate, Nitrogen base
Name some important aspects about the Mitochondria
-"powerhouse of cell"-produces nearly all of the ATP required for cellular work-most numerous organelle-has two membranes: inner, highly folded, cristae-have their own circular DNA and produce some of their own proteins
what is the chromosomal theory of inheritance and how was it discovered?
chromosomal theory says that mendelian genes have specific loci along chromosomes, it is the chromosomes that undergo segregation and independent assortment.  it was discovered by morgan while he was studying fruit flies.  he found a correlation between sex and a particular trait proving that specific genes carry specific chromosomes (in this case, eye color gene on the x chromosome)
  Lysosomes contain very powerful digestive enzymes that can break down proteins, carbohydrates, and other molecules. Why don't these enzymes digest the cell itself?
The enzymes are separated from the cytoplasm by the lysosomal membrane
A tRNA molecule consists of
a strand of about 80 nucleotides that folds back on itself to form a three-dimensional structure
tRNA includes a loop containing the anticodon and an attachment site at the 3 end for an amino acid.
what was the result of needham's experiment where he poured nutrient broth into a flask
the flask was closed - microbial growth occured
 
reason: the flask was contaminated and should have been sterile
Which statement is NOT true about elements?
All atoms of an element conatin the same number of protons.
Atoms of an element may contain different numbers of neutrons.
There is only one kind of atom in each type of element.
An element consists of atoms
An element does NOT consist of atoms and molecules
How did wolves evolve into tame dogs?
They ate off human waste and did not run away when humans came around. They are tamer through breeding
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Term:
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