Biology genetics 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Phenotype
physical characteristic
translation
aminoacyl synthetase
frameshift
insertion or deletion
Endogenote:
Bacterial host chromosome
Somatic cells
regular body cells
nucleus
porous sac containing DNA
 
seperates dna from rest of cell
Consanguinity
Mating between related individuals
Gene
Functional unit that controls inherited trait expression that is passed on from one generation to another generation.
APC
anaphase promotion complex: aka cyclosome that breaks down MPF
Genetics
The scientific study of heredity
codominance
-heterozygotes show both parental phenotypes unblended-blood type
Trisomy
triplication of a certain chromosome
 
 
 
Does Nonrandom mating alter phenotypic or genotypic frequencies?
genotypic frequencies
Trait
A specific, observable, characteristic that varies from one individual to another.
homolgous
chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite sex parent
biotechnology
The alteration of cells or biochemicals with a specific application.
Heterozygous
If the two alleles are different
Hydrophobic?
components of membranes, can diffuse through membranes
DNA is synthesized form?
5' to 3'
allopolyploidy
chromosomes comes from 2 different diploid species (diploid from each parent)
Meselson-Stahl experiment
experiment that disproved conservative and dispersive models
Ploygenic Disorder
One influenced by many genes
Phenylketonuria
recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism; genetic disorder that can be moderated by the exposure to low-phenylalanine diets; Example of diet as an environmental effect on expression
ubiquitinization
the process of adding ubiquitin chains to a protein targeted for degradation
Codon
A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides on an mRNA molecule that specifies incorporation of a particular amino acid into a growing polypeptide.
anaphase
paired chromosomes separate at the centromere and pull apart toward opposite poles
Prokaryotes
cells lacking organelles, histones, a nucleus, and can contain plasmids
Not pure for a trait, hybrid
heterozygous
Homomzygous
an organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
Lac Operon
regulated by repressor and activator, it breaks down lactose.
evolution
changes in an organism's traits over time
genomics
analysis of DNA content and gene organization in and betwen organisms
Describe centrioles?
centrioles are structures that occur in pairs and are made of microtubules, Microtubules are made of protein, Centrioles help assemble the spindle to which chromosomes attach in mitosis
multiple alleles
more than two alleles are present within a group of individuals
 
the locus has multiple alleles
are blood types examples of incomplete dominance or codominance?
Codominance
Telephase (Mitosis/Meiosis)
Chromosomes of daughter cells are grouped in new nuclei
DNA ligase
joins DNA fragments by making phosphodiester bonds in between nucleotide
epistatsis
one genes masks or otherwise affects another's phenotype
Multiple σ factors:
70kDa: housekeeping (rpoD)32kDa: heat stress (rpoH)60kDa: N starvation (rpoN)
metacentric
both chromosome arms are about the same length
microinjection
inject DNA directly into the nucleus using a tiny pipette
Deoxyribose
the pentose sugar in the DNA backbone
A certain type of congenital deafness is caused by a rare autosomal recessive gene. A man and a woman, both with normal hearing, have a son with this type of deafness. Even though they are carriers of this recessive allele, they decide to have another c
1/8
mitosis telophase
chromosomes arrive at poles, nuclear membrane reforms
Greeks
began dissecting the brain, led to belief that brain was site of perception & semen, led to pangenesis
testcross
breeding of an organism of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype.
Sex Chromosomes
- the remaining pair of chromosomes
- females have a pair of homologous X chromosomes
- males have a pair of XY heterologous chromosomes
- pair during meiosis and segregate during the first meiotic division
Wollman and Jacob
showed temporal transfer of specific (higher frequency) genes in Hfr strains with the interrupted mating technique. Jacob later shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine (1965) for work on “genetic control of enzyme and virus
multifactorial trait
A trait or illness determined by several genes and the environment.
Suppressor:
  A mutation that reverses the effect of another mutation (classically, suppressors have no phenotype in the absence of the other mutation)
complementary sequence
nucleic acid base sequence that can form a double-stranded structure by matching base pairs. EX G-T-A-C is C-A-T-G
Extranuclear inheritance
Traits passed on from the mitochondria of the mother to all progeny. Eg: poky in Neurospora.
All of different DNA mutations?
substitution- exchange of bases
deletion
insertion
reciprocal translocation- parts of nonhomologous chroms switch places
inversion- 180 rotation of a piece
chromosomal rearangements- affect many genes at one time.
Independent Assortment
The process by which genes for different traits segregate independently during the formation of gametes
cytokinesis
The division of the cytoplasm in a dividing cell.
When dominant alleles are both fully expressed in the phenotype, it is referred to as:
 
A. Simple dominance
B. Incomplete dominance
C. Polygenic dominance
D. Codominance
 
 
 
D. Codominance
Y linked
The inheritance pattern of genes found on the Y chromosome but not on the X chromosome (rare)
T/F - there is a surprising similarity between genomes of all organisms (yeast - humans)
true
GPS
earliest genes turned on in system are gap; second are pair-rule; third are segment-polarity
tRNA
a class of small RNA molecules that bear specific AAs to the ribosome in the course of translation; an AA is inserted into the growing polypeptide chain when the anticodon of the corresponding tRNA pairs with a codon on the mRNA being translated
 
 
 
Meristic Traits
Traits that vary by whole number only.
(puppies in a liter, petals on a flower)
Targeted gene knockout
Replacement of a specific functional gene with a nonfunctional copy in order to assess the function of the normal gene.
Population genetics
Study of the genetic composition of populations and how a population's collective group of genes changes with passage of time.
conditional lethal
genotype that is lethal in some situations but viable in others
codominance
both genes dominate AB blood type or sickle cell anemia
recessive
tending to go, move, or slant back; receding.
What is the geneotypic ratio for F2 of dihybrid?
1:2:2:4:1:2:1:2:1
Homologous Chromosomes
2 chromosomes that pair up in a diploid organism
Difference between RNA and DNA
DNA: Double-stranded, deoxyribose as the sugar, TCAG bases.RNA: single stranded, ribose used as the sugar, UCAG bases.
incomplete penetrance
when a genotype does not produce the expected penotype
 
ex:extra fingers and toes
Dominant Epistasis 2
dominant allele masks the phenotype of both allele of another gene
(13:3 ratio)
what is in between the tRNA sequence and the amino acid
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
Dkazaki Fragments
Newly formed DNA is present in small fragments and contain RNA primers
2,040 (204 nm)
using the rules established in the Watson-Crick model, a dsDNA fragment that contains 600 base pairs would be approximately how long
GU-AG rule
so named because the GU and AG dinucleotides are almost always at the 5’ and 3’ ends, respectively, or introns, where they are recognized by components of the splicosome
Nonsense mutation
mutation that alters one codon so that it now encodes for a STOP codon
mitotic nondisjunction?
chromosome loss?
the failure of sister chromatids to separate in first meiotic division of anaphase
produces one monosomic and one diploid daughter cell
Allele
One of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
What is an example of multiple alleles in humans?
Blood type
Define " Point Mutation"
one base substitues for another. - same-sense : same amino acid - missence : different amino acid - nonsence : stop codon instead of amino acid
basic steps of meiosis and major events that occur at each step (part 1)
Premeiotic Interphase: DNA replicates
Prophase 1: homologous chromosomes synapse, forming tetrads. Crossing over occurs. Nuclear envelope breaks down.
Metaphase 1: Tetrads line up on equatorial plane of cell. 
Anaphase 1: Homologous chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles. Sister chromatids are still attached at their centromeres.
Teleophase 1: One of each pair of homologous chromosomes is at each pole. Cytokinesis occurs.
Interkinesis: DNA does not replicate. Chromatids are still joined. Chromosomes do not completely elongate.
Polygenic Inheritance
A group of gene pairs acts together to produce a trait
polygenic inheritance (pol′-e-jen′-ik)
The additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic characteristic.
Drosophila gene complexes
eight loci in two groups on chromosome 3;
Bithorax= 3 Hox genes
Antennapedia=5 Hox genes
Arranged in same spatial order as the segments they affect on the body
Telophase I of meiosis I?
1)Nuclear membrane reforms 2)Spindle disapperas 3)Cytokinesis divides cell!
Sex Cell
An egg or sperm cell; a sex cell carries half the number of chromosomes found in other body cells.
Explain how the AIDS virus affects the immune system.
Normal: CD4/CD8 = 2/1AIDS: CD4/CD8 = 1/2
What is continuous variation?
Several genes influence a trait so it is difficlult to predict the exact phenotype.
What year did Lederberg and Tatum's experiment take place? What was it?
-1946-studied auxotrophic strains of E.coli, mixed strains and some turned into prototrophic form, demonstrated that bacteria undergo genetic exchange
Alu polymorphisms have been used to study what?
The genetic basis of humans
A x a = Aa
What type of ineritance would this be?
Autosomal (Recessive or Dominant)
Reverse transcriptase is an enzyme found in association with retroviral activity. It has the property of
synthesis of DNA from an RNA template
How to find an activation domain?
take apart activator protein gene into sections and insert b4 a reporter gene
then see which section produces transcription
What do we need to know in order to predict demes from gene pool frequencies?
System of mating
what happens after elognation during translation
a peptide bond is formed in between the amino acids followed by translocation
What does the dominant trait do to the recessive, When does the recessive show?
1.Dominant covers it up
2.Recessive shows when there is no dominant.
what are the 2 general components of a spliceosome?
protein and small nuclear RNA (snRNA)
will trp ade thi+ grown on menimal medium?  Explain your answer expalin why 
it will not grow because it has mutations for tryptophan and adenine biosynthesis 
Males have an ____ chromosome.
XY.
artificial
based on arbitrary, superficial characteristics rather than natural, organic relationships
What are body cells called?
Somatic cells.
There are only ___ amino acids.
Twenty.
yellow-green algae
single-celled colonial algae occurring in soil and on moist rocks and vegetation and also as a slime or scum on ponds and stagnant waters
structure
mode of organization; construction and arrangement of tissues, parts, or organs
typical
exemplifying most nearly the essential characteristics of a higher group in natural history, and forming the type
What are genetically identical cells, created through Mitosis called?
Daughter cells.
What only pairs with Guanine (G)?
Cytosine (C).
How many daughter cells does Mitosis produce?
Two.
What only pairs with Thymine (T)?
Adenine (A).
how many recessive alleles for atrait must an organism inherit in order to exhibit that trait?
2
life history
the series of living phenomena exhibited by an organism in the course of its development from inception to death
fitness
the ability of a population to maintain or increase its numbers in succeeding generations
genus
the usual major subdivision of a family or subfamily in the classification of organisms, usually consisting of more than one species
Which is the form of inheritance where the phenotype of the heterozygous organism is a combination of the phenotypes of the homozygous organism?
Co-Dominance.
All genes begin with the same 3 letters: ___.
ATG.
Who is the "father of modern genetics"?
Gregor Mendel.
What is the name for the thread-like structure that contains all or part of the DNA?
Chromosome.
What is the name for the genetic makeup of a cell or organism?
Genotype.
What are the daughter cells produced by Mitosis called?
Diploid cells.
What is the characteristic that is inherited called?
A trait.
the statement that the members of each pair of alleles separate when gametes are formed is known as the law of?
Segregation
metamorphosis
profound change in form from one stage to the next in the life of an organism, as from the caterpillar to the pupa and then to the adult butterfly
continuous variation
variation in traits such as body weight or height in which a series of types are distributed on a continuum, not grouped into discrete categories
primordial soup
the seas and atmosphere on earth before the existence of life, primarily containing a mixture of water, hydrogen, methane, ammonia, and carbon dioxide
orthogenesis
a theory that evolution of a species is due to a predetermined series of alterations intrinsic to the species, not due to natural selection
What is a cell called if it has identical alleles?
Homozygous.
What is the name for the 3-base group used in genetic code?
Condon.
If a person has blood group 'O', what are the possible genotypes?
OO.
Where are chromosoms located?
In the nucleus of a cell.
What is it called when Adenine & Thymine, and Guanine & Cytosine pair together?
Complementary pairing.
If a person has blood group 'AB', what are the possible genotypes?
AB.
Which type of blood is the universal recipient?
Type 'AB'.
If some of the offspring of a test cross have the recessive trait, then the genotype of the individual being tested is
Recessive
zygote
the cell produced by the union of two gametes before it undergoes cleavage or cell division
What are the 4 types of inheritance?
Simple Inheritance; Incomplete Inheritance; Co-Domination; Sex-linked Inheritance.
What is an allele called if it is not expressed unless it's genotype homozygous?
Recessive.
What is the name for 1 or more forms of the same gene?
Allele.
cell body
the compact area of a nerve cell that constitutes the nucleus and surrounding cytoplasm, excluding the axons and dendrites
How many chromosomes do diploid cells have?
46 chromosomes each (23 pairs).
True/False? Mitosis result in two cells, whereas meiosis results in one cell?
False; meiosis results in 4 cells
Why can't a non-tongue-roller be heterozygous for the condition?
Because a recessive allele will only be expressed in an individual if they have a homozygous genotype.
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