biology study Flashcards

Terms Definitions
sister chromatid
sensory neurons
detect stimuli
Rectus abdominis
bends abdomen
Contains descriptive, objective information about what a nurse sees, hears, feels & smells.
For example: “Patient diaphoretic, B/P 80/50; HR 102 bpm and regular”.

Do not use vague terms such as, appears, seems, or apparently is not acceptable because these words suggest you are stating an opinion.
Signaling molecules between cells
Fossilized remains of microscopic life, lack external apendages, little evidence of internal structure, resemble present day bacteria
used to create phylogenetic tree-morphological genetic clues etc.
Cytoplasm contains large, membrane bounded sacs
single ring structures--thymine (t) and cytosine (c)
usually subject to conscious control
Scientific name for the collarbone
Predators, food, competitors, and decomposers are
biotic factors
protien marker on surface of cell
building blocks of RNA-energy molecule of the cell via energy coupling
exact genetic replica of another sheep
Not membrane-boundmade or RNA and proteinThe site where the protiens are madeleave the nucleus and enter the cytoplasm through pores in the nuclear envelope
adipose tissue
-a form of connective tissue
-cells resemble fibroblasts
-as they accumulate fat droplets, they enlarge
-ex. cushion joints, lies beneath skin, behind eyeballs, on surface of heart
Freshwater ecosystems
Flowing-water and standing - water
Fibrous joints
short connecting fibers join bones
a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy.supplying cellular energy
single, long, tail'like extension of the cell. only on sperm cells in humans. whips back and forth to move up fallopian tubes
a unit of measurement that equals one-millionth of a meter
a multicellular autotroph in which the embryo develops within a female parents
Inductive Reasoning
Using specific observations to form general theories Ex. Cell theory
Crossing Over
When sister chromatids exchange chunks of chromosomes during meiosis
covalent bond
forms when two atoms share electrons
a principle that states that younger rocks lie above older rocks if the layers have not been disturbed
Fluid filled sac within plant and animal that is responsible for holding water.
Incomplete Digestion
Some invertebrates, IE hydra
One way digestive cavity; one opening used for both ingestion and elimination
Essentially, digestion in a 'sack'
Ionic compound
A compound resulting from the formation of an ionic bond; also called a salt
Compact Bones
contain central canal with blood vessels; Lacunae; hard matrix of calcium & phosphates
The outermost whorl of a flower consists of ______ that are typically leaf-like structures that underlie the remaining three whorls.
information from mRNA used to make proteins
isotonic solution
A solution hat has identical concentrations of solute molecules and hence the same osmotic pressure.
Keystone predator:
All keystone predators are keystone species. visit the websites
the position or function of an organism in a community of plants and animals.
one of the two prokaryotic domains (other is bacteria).
a structure in an animal cell composed of cylinders of microtubue triplets arranged in a 9+0 pattern; an animal cell usually has a pair of these involved in cell division
Parasitic Fungi-
Nutrients & carbon from a living host.
There is no single structure that is both unique to mollusks and common among all of them. True or False
powerhouse of the cell; uses sugar for power
Structual support,movement, and ccommunication
involve the cytoskeleton plasma membrane, and cell wall
An alteration that causes a codon specific for a given amino acid to specify another amino acid. 60 possibilities
Mis-sense mutation
base unit
one of the fundamental units of measurement that describes length, mass, time, and other quantities and from which other units are derived
Name the term: A skin sensation, such as burning, prickling, itching, or tingling, with no apparent physical cause.
Function of Carbohydrates
Energy source and structural material for plants
a three nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
Photic Zone
portion of marine biome that is shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate
Aerobic respiration : presence of glucose allows glucose to be FULLY broken down
36 ATP made,
Prokaryotic Cell
A cell that has no distinct, membrane-bounded organelles
cell division
process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
what is cytoplasm?
the entire region inside the cell membrane and outside the nucleus in cells that have a nucleus
What are the basic steps for the Scientific Method? (5)
1.Observation 2.Question3.Hypothesis4.Experiment5.Accept/Reject
principal of segregation
anaphase 1, one gene from each parent
the _ functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of oxygen, nutrients and wastes for the whole volume of the cell
plasma membrane
Cystic Fibrosis
A human genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele for a chloride channel protein characterized by ann excessive secretion of mucus and consequent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated.
the portion of energy that can be harnessed to perform work
free energy
what are tertiary consumers?
an organism that eats secondary consumers.
small molecules can go in and out but large molecule can't
Cell Theory
all life made of cells all cells came from pre-exsisting cells
Contraction of all sarcomeres, in a myofibrils, in all cells causes the muscle to...
contract as a whole
Proton, Neutron, Electron
Protons and neutrons are in nucleus of atom. Protons are positive, electrons are negative, and neutrons are neutral.
What organisms fall in the Oligochaeta group?
terrestrial and freshwater worms
adding up ATP
n = # of cycles
n(FADH) + n(NADH) + (n+1)(acetyl-CoA)
- each acetyl-CoA goes thru TCA & yields 3NADH, 1FADH₂, & 1GTP
-->both fatty acid oxidation & fatty acid biosynthesis pathway use or produce acetyl-CoA
- add up FADH₂, NADH, & GTP collectively
- FADH₂ = 1.5ATP
- NADH = 2.5ATP
ex. the complete oxidation of glucose yields: 2ATP; 2FADH₂; 10NADH; & 2GTP
--> prok (32ATP); euk (30ATP)
Note: ETC & oxidative phosphorylation use O₂ to oxidize NADH & FADH₂; w/o O₂ --> NADH & FADH₂ build up
What is the structure of a typical neuron?
DendritesAxonNodes of RanvierSchwann cellMyelin SheathSynaptic terminalsCell body
One of the differences between mitosis and Meiosis I is...
homologous chromosome pairs synapse during meiosis, but not mitosis
How Humans have avoided limiting factors:
Expansion of habitat, Use of technology and medicine
What is the significance of meiosis?
Meiosis is the cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms.
What is diffusion? Which way will solutes flow in solution and across membranes?
Diffusion: net movenment of the particles of a substance from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
-equilibrium: balance
-passive transport: diffusion across a membrane
-facilitated diffusion: transport proteins provide pathway for certain molecules
What is polygenetic inheritence and example?
The additive effects of two or more genes on a single phenotypic characteristic. Ex. skin color.
1. made of cells (structure) 2. use energy 3. grow and develop 4. have life span 5. respond to stimuli 6. adjust to their environment
How do longitude and latitude affect climate?
Latitude is the measure of how far north or south a location is from the equator. If an area is located close to the equator, the climate will be very hot, or tropical.As one gets above the Tropic of Cancer or Capricorn, the climate becomes milder, with
water pollution
stop,satnd still
heterotrophsimportant "recycling" function
pertaining to life.
Where do hirudinea live?
twisting of an organ
one member of relationship
Valence shell
An atom's outermost shell.
largest group of organismsDomain Bacteria- unicellularArchaea- very strong bacteriaEukarya- nuclei and membrane
- 5 bones of instep
Reproductive organ in angiosperms, consists of several layers of modified leaves attached to a modified stem tip (receptacle), sepals enclose and protect the flower before opening, petals attract pollinators
normal fruit development without fertilization. no seeds produced
a positively charged elementary particle, a fundamental constituent of all atomic nuclei, having a charge equal in magnitude to that of the electron
-Slender, branched, tubelike cells or filament of cells that anchors bryophytes to the ground. Also found in fungi where rhizoids grow into the food supply and hold the fungus into place.
responsible for storage of extra bile
An organism that eats organic molecules from living or once living organisms.
Class Anthozoa: common name
sea anemones, coral
vascular tissue that conducts water and mineral through the plant from roots to leaves
Who discovered the first antibiotic?
Alexander fleming
Define cell:
the smallest unit of life
mitosis, cytokinesis
Accellular (plasmodial) slime mold goes through ______, but not _______ in it's reproductive stage.
do fungi digest internally or externally?
Minute tubular structures found in centrioles, spindle apparatus, cilia, flagella, and cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. These tubules play roles in the motion and maintenance of shape of eukaryotic cells
Organisms that depend on other organisms for their food
Thomas Melphis
suggested eventually the world will run out of food and that the world will exceed its carrying capacity.
Ecological Models
Represent or describe the components of an ecological system
Allergic reactions
An immune reaction caused by substances that are harmless in most people
body size (environmental heterogeneity)
refuges, hazards, stresses, opportunites for organisms depend on its size
Differential Reproductive Success
Individuals that possess more favorable characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce ; those with less favorable characteristics are less likely to survive and reproduce.
Protons: 8
Electrons: 8
Neutrons: 8
What is oxygen's atomic number? mass?
Atomic number: 8
Atomic mass: 16
Flacid Paralysis
Flaccid paralysis with limp muscles unable to contract caused by curare that competes with ACh
32.33. Pathogens develop resistance to drugs used in _____________ faster than drugs used in _______________.A) prescription medicines, patent medicinesB) tablets, powder formC) powder form, tabletsD) combination, monotherapiesE) monotherapies, combinatio
monotherapies, combination
A process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment.
stabilizing selection
extremes are selected against, center stays the same and grows in number
• Chemoautotrophs
an organism that derives energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds such as hydrogen sulfide
a microscopic pore surrounded by gaurd cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant
a relationship in which two different live in close association with each other
the central region in a prokaryotic cell, as a bacterium, that contains the chromosomes and that has no surrounding membrane.
pertaining to the production of or tending to produce male offspring
An atom that has gained or lost electrons, thus acquiring a charge. Also, an entire molecule that is electrically charged.
Mitosis: Anaphase
*centrioles move further apart *sister chromos separate, pulled apart & to oppo ends of cells by spindle fibers
tolerance curve
a graph of performance versus values of an environmental variable
Dependent Variable
The THEN part of your hypothesis statement

What you put in your data chart.
small, spiny leaves with a single vein (these are only in lycophytes)
micro aerophiles
alittle bit of oxygen is tolerated, grows in the middle
The apperance of a fertile, polypid indiv. within a population of diploid organisms is a possible source of a new species. If this individual is capable of reproducing to form a new population, scientists would consider this to be an example of
sympatric speciation
organ system
a group of organs that work 2geter
Prokaryotecell walls
Most prokaryotes have a thick cell wall, different in structure from plant, algal, and fungal cell walls.Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan, a polymer of amino sugars.Archaea do not have peptidoglycan, although some have a similar molecule called pseudopeptidoglycan.
linkage map
portrays sequence of genes across a chromosome (sequence/order, not exact position)
golgi apparatus (eu cell)
organelle; traffic director that looks like stack of pancakes; sorts and packages proteins and lipids
What stores Ca2+ ions in muscle cells?
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth Muscles
Lacks the striations of the skeletal and cardiac muscle. Lines the large blood vessels and most hollow organs, producing slow, sustained, and involuntary contractions.
a center about which other parts are gathered; in anatomy, a mass of nerve cells in the brain or spinal cord in which nerve fibers form connections
A factor whose effects on a species is dependent on a species' population density
Spaces that act as a vacuum cleaner t rid the cell of watse and water. Also act as a storehouse for chemicals and compounds needed by the cell
-primary succession
a process that occurs when a pioneer species colonize a barren habitat
Gray Cresent
Appears on the surface of the embryo and establishes the bodies anterior, posterior axis.
22.17. HIV is found in too low a concentration in __________to be contagious.A) bloodB) semenC) vaginal fluidD salivaE) all of the above
vascular cylinder
central regiom of a root that includes the vascular tissue- xylem and phloem
Nitrogen Fixation
the process of converting N2 gas to nitrate.
What is vascular tissue?
Tissue that transports water and nutrients in Vascular plants
True or false. A forest fire is an example of a disturbance that most likely will lead to primary succession?
Which area of the brain is extremely important for the expression of male sexual behavior?     
sexual dimorphic nucleus
What are the pairs in a somatic cell called?
Homologous Chromosomes
vesicles and vacuoles (larger version)  are membrane bound sacs with what kind of varied functions?
1. food vacuoles from phagocytosis fuse with lysosomes
2. contractile vacuoles found in freshwater protists pump excess water out of the cell
3. central vacuoles found in many mature plant cells, hold organic compounds and water
Condyloid (ellipsoid) Joints
oval convex surface on one bone fits into a complementary shaped depression on the other
a farmer has one crop across a lot of land and dedicates their time to only this crop
what happens to amino groups placed in solution?
take H+, become ionized
What is the Cell Theory?
All living things or organisms are made up of cell and their products.New cells are created by old cells that divide in two.Cells are the basic building units of life
What role does IL-1 and IL-2 play?
IL-1: Helps B-cells release antibodies; also helps Tc cells become active

IL-2: Secreted by macrophages and makes TH cells produce IL-2.
INPUTS: 2 acetyl groups, 6 NAD+, 2 FAD, 2 ADP + 2 OUTPUTS: 4 CO2, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP
What is the visible light spectrum?
The portion od sunlight perceived by the human eye.
The tertiary structure of a protein is the-Bonding together of several polypeptide chains by weak bonds-Order in which amino acids are joined in a polypeptide chain-Unique 3-dimensional shape of the fully folded polypeptide
Unique 3-dimensional shape of the fully folded polypeptide
sex was invented __ years ago by ___.
2? billion years ago by bacteria
Explain the first and second laws of thermodynamics in your own words.
First law: Energy can be transformed but it cannot be created or destroyed.Second Law: Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.
which of these is an example of parasitism
a leach feeding on the blood on a host
C binds
single sugar molecule
a coniferous forest
Abiotic are the
non-living factors
Complex Carbohydrates
polysaccharides, starch, cellulose,glycogen, and Chitin
animals multcellular eukaryoe consumers
natural laws
principles that govern nature
rainfall, local temperature,amount of sunlight
recessive disorders
parents must be carriers
primitive reptiles that mammals evolved from
apicomplexans produce these small infective agents transmitted to the next host
organic acids choo-choo (memory link) like a train 2 pair of shared electrons
instead of cnydoctyes ctenophores have this type of cell
Define energy
Define energy
Energy is the capacity to do work
chromosome number
mitosis- identical daughter cells meiosis- daughter cells haploid (reduction)
functional unit of the vertebrate kidney that consists of a single long tubule and a blass o fcapillaries called______
ester linkage
covalent linkage between glycerol's hydroxl grops and carboxyl group on fatty acid
Give the correct term: Hair-like projection on a sperm cell that makes it motile (able to move)
Individuals with two identical copies of a given allele are called __________ for that allele.
Define: mRNA
Messenger RNA-carries the genetic instructions from DNA to the ribosome
cell membrane
-very thin-seperates cytoplasm from exterior environ-regulates what enters and exits cell (helps maintain homeostasis)
The ___________ ___________ ___________ lacks ribosomes and is responsible for fatty acid and phosphlipid synthesis.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
a chemical that provides both toughness and flexibility
water loving- polar or ionic, water clings to compound but does not dissolve
the first human species to leave Africa was homo ______
Parasitic fungi are also called what?
pathogenic fungi
Cell-mediated immunity
Immunity against abnormal cells and pathogens inside living cells
natural cell deathpart of growth and development (fetus webbed fingers- separate)
Pleural Cavities
Two thin spaces around the lungs
The organelles which act as the janitors of the cell and dissolves cellular waste and dead cells are the
Name the test: microscopic examination of ejaculated fluid
semen analysis
asexual reproduction
production of offspring from one parent - does not involve the union of gametes
Population bottlenecks
severe reduction in population size with low genetic variation
cell in the nervous system specialized to initiate, integrate and conduct electrical signals.
Rodlike structure in the nucleus seen during cell division; contains the hereditary units, or genes
gastric juice
the digestive fluid, containing pepsin and other enzymes, secreted by the glands of the stomach.
tiny, thin walled vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body
herem-defense polygyny
males defend a group of females, making them available for polygamy
Edwin Chargraff
base pair equality, says that the ration of C:G and the ratio of A:T in DNA are 1:1
The four types of proteins
primary, secondary, tertiary, quarternary
What is commensalism?
One species benefits without harming other
Sex chromosome
The 23rd autosome, which is different in males and females.
Relaxation (steps 17 and 18)
What has to bind in order to dissociate actin?
ATP and myosin
Somatic Cell mutation?
1.Occur in original body cells 2.Cannot be passed on
natural selection
When a mutation causes such a ben­eficial change, the frequency of the mutation may increase in a population from one generation to the next, a process called
monohybrid cross
cross between individuals that has one pair of CONTRASTING TRAITS!
Increases in size of an animal means there is an increase in amount of cells.
Neucleic acids
a polymer of nuecleoides; it has three parts : phosphate group, sugar, base
Intertidal zone
Portion of the shoreline that lies between hightide and lowtide lines.
Replicated strands could be separated by density
in a centrifuge.
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their environment.
Punnett Square
A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization.
Large intestine
This is where the water is absorbed back into the body
the part of the brain beneath the rear of the cerebrum that is essential for coordination of movement
metabolic breakdown of fatty acids to acetyl CoA
hydronium ion
when another proton binds to a water molecule (H3O)
A missence mutation results in which disorder?
sickle cell anemia
the number of individuals in a species that can be sustained by available resources
carrying capactiy
any of a group of fatty compounds, as lecithin, composed of phosphoric esters, and occurring in living cells.
B cells that are not memory cells but participate in the immediate immune response are called
plasma cells
It is not a flagella or cilia but it is used for attachment
Name the term: Specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat.
pacemaker (sinoatrial node). An artificial cardiac pacemaker is an electronic apparatus implanted in the chest to stimulate heart muscle that is weak and not functioning.
What are homologous chromosomes?
chromosomes that carry genes for the same inherited characteristics
cell fusion
the merging of two or more cells into a single cell
Which of the following is true of lipids?A. contain hydrogen B. used for energy storage C. are hydrophobic D. all of the above
D. All the above
In what direction does the transcription read?
In the 5 - 3 direction
monounsaturated fatty acid (3.4)
A fatty acid with one double bond between the carbon atoms of its hydrocarbon chain
Give the meaning of the term: angina
chest pain resulting from insufficient oxygen being supplied to the heart muscle. (ischemia)
At pH 7 ___ and ___ group are ionized in an amino acid
carboxyl and amino
what do organisms and the enviroment have to do with eachother?
organisms are affected by/ and affect abiotic and biotic components of the enviroment. So, ecologists try to determine what enviromental factors limit the geographic range (distribution) and the abundance of species.
What are the characteristics of prokaryotic cells?
*Do not have a "true" membrane bound nucleus, but rather a nucleoid, an area of DNA.*DNA is a single loop.*Have no membrane bound organelles.*Comprise the Domains Archaea and Bacteria.
Was Mendel alive to see his work accepted?
No. He had died 16 years earlier.
when would an atom be most likely to become a cation?
when it only has one electron in the valence shell
/ 229

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online