Biology, Miller Levine Flashcards

Terms Definitions
nuclear envelope
Active transport requires _______.
energy
Cnidarians
are aquatic, soft-bodied, carnivorous,
radially symmetrical animals with stinging tentacles
arranged in circles around their mouths. Some, such
as corals, have skeletons. They are the simplest
animals to have body symmetry and specialized tissues. Some cnidarians live as independent individuals.
Others live in colonies composed of many
individuals.
community
assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area
homeostasis
relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain
Canines
Canines are pointed teeth.
Carnivores use them for piercing,
gripping, and tearing. In herbivores,
canines are reduced or absent.
Mollusks
The phylum Mollusca
includes snails, slugs,
clams, squids, and
octopi.
parasitism
symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives on or in another organism and harms it
heterotroph
organism that obtains food by consuming other organisms
ecology
scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
endoplasmic reticulum
internal membrane system found
in eukaryotic cells; place where lipid components of the cell
membrane are assembled
Explain the relationship among cell specialization, multicellular organisms, and homeostasis.
Which process always involves the movement of materials from inside the cell to outside the




cell?

A phagocytosis
B exocytosis
C endocytosis
D osmOSIs
exocytosis
Vacuoles
store materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
mesoderm
middle germ layer; develops into muscles,
and much of the circulatory, reproductive, and excretory
systems
gill
feathery structure specialized for the exchange of gases
with water
flatworms
 
Platyhelminthes
(plat ih h el MIN theez
 
Flatworms are soft, unsegmented, flattened worms
that have tissues and internal organ systems. They
are the simplest animals to have three embryonic
germ layers, bilateral symmetry, and cephalization.
Most flatworms are no more than a few millimeters
thick. Flatworms do not have coeloms.
Sponges
 are classified as animals because they are
multicellular, heterotrophic, lack cell walls, and
contain a few specialized cells.
Sponges are the most ancient members of the kingdom Animalia; the simplest multicellular organisms
niche
full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
herbivore
organism that obtains energy by eating only plants
biogeochemical cycle
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments in a eukaryotic
cell that gives the cell its shape and internal organization
and is involved in movement
 
In many cells, the structure that controls the cell's activities is the


nucleus.
lipid bilayer
flexible double- layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
cell membrane
List the characteristics shared by all members of
the animal kingdom.
Many animals have body symmetry with distinct front and back ends. This type of symmetry is
radial
circular
bilateral
dorsal
 Symbionts
 are the organisms involved in a symbiosis.
rumen
 stomach chamber in cows and related animals in
which symbiotic bacteria digest cellulose
Echinoderms
have spiny skin and an internal skeleton. They also have a water vascular systema
network of water-fill ed tubes that include suction-cuplike structures called tube feet, which are used for walking and for gripping prey. Most adult
echinoderms exhibit five-part radial symmetry. The skin of an echinoderm is stretched over an internal  skeleton of calcium carbonate plates. Although radial
symmetry is characteristic of simpler animals such
as cnidarians, echinoderms are more closely related
to humans and other chordates because they are
deuterostomes.
keystone species
single species that is not usually abundant in a community yet exerts strong control on the structure of a community
biomass
total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
If you wanted to observe a living organism- an amoeba, for example-
which type of microscope would you use?
light
The human brain is an example of a(n)
A. organ system
B.Organ
C tissue
D cell.
organ
An animal whose mouth is formed from the blastopore is a(n)
deuterostome
protostome
endoderm
mesoderm
protostome
an animal whose mouth is formed from the blastopore
ventricle
lower chamber of the heart that pumps blood
out of heart to the rest of the body
open circulatory system
type of circulatory system in
which blood is only partially contained within a system of
blood vessels as it travels through the body
Carnivorous invertebrates and
vertebrates digestive tracts
* short digestive tracts
* produce fast-acting,meat-digesting enzymes. These enzymes can digest most
cell types found in animal tissues .
* No animal produces digestive enzymes that can break down the cellulose in plant tissue
food chain
series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
organ system
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
how do animals maintain homeostasis

gathering and responding to information


obtaining and distributing oxygen and other nutrients

reproduce
collecting and eliminating carbon dioxide and other waste
Parasitic Symbionts
Parasites live within or on a host organism,
where they feed on tissues or on blood and other body fluids.
animals that have radial symmetry have
more than one plane of symmetry
The teeth and jaws of herbivores,
such as horses,
 are adapted for
pulling, rasping, and grinding
plant leaves.
Where are proteins made in the cell
the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Which of the following is characteristic of all chordates but not found in invertebrates?
a notochord  
four legs  
a circulatory system     
an exoskeleton
Any living part of the environment
A group of different populations that live together in a defined area
A hollow ball of cells formed after the zygote
undergoes division is called a
A coelom. C deuterostome.
B protostome. D blastula.
The cell theory states that
(1) all living things are made up of cells, (2) cells are the basic units ofstructure and function in living things, and (3) newcells are produced from existing cells
How are proteins used by the cell
some are released from the cell, some are used in membranes and other specialized locations within the cell.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of
animals?
A the ability to make their own food
B the ability to move
C eukaryotic cells
D cells that lack cell walls
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