Biology5B Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Totipotent
chemo
chemical
Mandibles
jaw-like appendages
ruminant
"chews the cud"
Meningococcal meningitis
Neisseria Meningitis
Retro
Backwards (retrorocket, retrospect, retrogression, retroactive)
anesthesiology
the study of anesthesia
Karyotype
characteristics of metaphse chromosomes, size, number, morphology form
integral proteins
embedded in bilayer's core
renal capsule
outer covering of kidney
gravitropism
also involves lateral redistribution of auxins-if a shoot is tipped over, the auxins move to the lower side and cause faster growth there so the seedling bends back upward -auxins move downward in response to gravity to compensate and make the plant grow up-Roots respond to auxin in the opposite way so they can grow down
EUCHROMATIN
THE UNCOILED FORM OF CHROMATIN
plants need nutrients for ____________, ______________, and _________________.
growth
maintenance
reproduction
bud
plant structure containing undeveloped tissue that can produce new stems and new leaves
Predation
+/-
animal response = physical (armor, shells), coloration (aposematic, cryptic), and chemical (poison)
Myocardium
Cardiac muscle fibers that squeeze chambers of heart when contracting
phylogenetics
plots relatedness of evolution based on genteic shared relatedness
Golgi Apparatus
stack of membrane enclosed sacks"stacks of sacks"receives its vesicles and content from RERrepackages secretions and sends them onto other organelles or out of cellmodify, sort, packages proteins
Substances enter cells selectively because of the presence in membranes of:
transport proteins
prophase
-first phase of mitosis-shortening and coiling of DNA into chromosomes-nucleoulus and nuclear membrane dissapear
Expand the abbreviation ASD
atrial septal defect
Left ventricle pumps blood through ____ to body.
Aorta
combinations of protein subunits into tight complexes
quarternary
Means "coming before". This molecule is one that is used to form another useful molecule. E.g. beta-carotene is precursor for vitamin A
Precursor
atp
adenosine triphosphate: an ester of adenosine and triphosphoric acid, C10H12N5O4H4P3O9, formed esp. aerobically by the reaction of ADP and an orthophosphate during oxidation, or by the interaction of ADP and phosphocreatine or certain other substrates, an
transpiration
plants putting water back into the air
Glycosidic linkage
covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
glucagon
-released by alpha cells of the pancreas
-raises blood glucose levels by increasing the rate of glycogen breakdown and glucose release by the liver
-secreted in response to decline in serum glucose levels
Chromosome
A molecule of DNA together with protein that help to organize
What do plants bring in through roots
Water
septa
cross walls that divide the hyphae into cells
sterilization
refers to the removal or destruction of all microbes including viruses and bacterial endospores in or on an object
Diatoms
Silica cell wall (like glass)Cell wall consists of two halves that connect together like boxFreshwater and marineUsed as form of slug killerUnicellularAutotrophicStore food as oil dropletsEx diatomaceous earth- used as polishing agent
scavenger
animals that feed on  animals that have died
Name the correct term: Inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart.
pericarditis
Crossing Over
The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis.
Chromosomes are loosened, and transcription is thereby aided, by
Acetylation of histones
Chloroplast
organelle found in some plant cells and certain unicellular organisms where photosynthesis takes place
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
Diffusion
RNA polymerase attaches and initiates transcription at
the promoter
symbiotic
the living together of two dissimilar organisms, as in mutualism, commensalism, amensalism, or parasitism.
DNA fingerprinting
A new tool that helps identify individuals
connective tissues
secrete either collagen or elastin, as well as modified polysaccharides (which serve as the 'goundsubstance' of the tissues)
ANEMIA
server loss of red blood cells by hemorrhage or disease
starch
a complex carb that serves as the major form of carb storage in plants
Chloroplast
The organelle that plant cells use for photosynthesis that is not found in animal cells
Cell Wall parts
Primary wall: cellulose & other polysaccharides 
Secondary Wall: one or more additional cellulosic layers
Middle Lamella: glue-like substance within cell plate
Lignin: makes walls strong (polysaccharides)
Suberin: Makes walls waterproof ( lipid)
Protista Characteristics
Very diverse. Some single cells (most) but others are multicellular. Some have cell walls others do not. Some photosynthesize others do not. Some are parasitic; many are not
possesses a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
eukaryotice cell
In a set of classic experiments performed in the early 1950s, Urey and Miller subjected an experimental system composed of H2, CH4 (methane), and NH4 (ammonia) to electrical sparks. A few days later, they found ________________ in their system.
amino acids
Which of the following gases whas thought by Oparin to be part of Earth's early atmosphere?
a. oxygen
b. ozone
c. ammonia
d. carbon dioxide
C. ammonia
exponiential model
A model that shows the exponential population growth in a population
carboxyl group
CO HOweally acidic, found in organic acids, iteracts w/ water
Products
The element or compound produced by a chemical reaction
provirus
a viral form that is incorporated into the genetic material of a host cell.
fungus
any of a diverse group of eukaryotic single-celled or multinucleate organisms that live by decomposing and absorbing the organic material in which they grow, comprising the mushrooms, molds, mildews, smuts, rusts, and yeasts, and classified in the kingdom
Accessory Fruit
Consists of at least one simple fruit that is intimately associated with other accessory parts that facilitate dispersal.
 
Also sometimes called FALSE FRUITS
plasma membrane
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, regulating the cell’s chemical composition.
If a parent had a child with Jacobs syndrome nondisjunction may have occured in who?
MALE
What were 2 characteristics of first primates?
Aboreal and Nocturnal
from smallest to largest what are the levels of structural organization?
chemicalcellulartissueorganorgan systemorganismal
The map depicts:
current extent and loss of tropical rain forests.
Eye piece
the part of the microscope that you look through and that leads to the objective lenses
first law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed
5' cap
The 5' end of a pre-mRNA molecule modified by the addition of a cap of guanine nucleotide.
electrons that move between electron shells the same distance have
a neutral net energy gain/loss
Conjugation readily occurs in this group of bacteria; what benefit is often conferred to cells undergoing conjugation
Gram negative rods; Antibiotic resistance
Meiosis I
The 1st division of a 2 stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell
What is the function of glucocorticoids that are secreted from the adrenal cortex?
Carbs, protein, and fat metabolism
what is the source of energy for regaining atp from adp
organic molecules from food
biological clock in mammals and light
some retinal ganglion cell axons emerge from the optic chiasm and form a retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) which goes to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus-cutting the optic nerve (in front) of the chiasm causes the rhythm to free run-cutting the optic tracts (behind) has no effect-lesions that destroy the SCN abolish daily rhythm activity
Which of the following is INCORRECT about plant gamete production?
Megaspores divide to produce microspore mother cells.
water, O2 and ideal temp
name the three things that are needed for seed germination
know the 4 elements that make up 96% of all organic compounds
hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen
How RNA differs from DNA
RNA has a ribose sugar in each nucleotide, Uracil replaces Thymine as a base
Three functional components of a Homeostatic control system
A receptor, a control center, and an effector.
What is a locus or loci?
The physical location of a gene on a chromosome
What do natural killer cells do and by what mechanism do they do it?
They destroy virus infected or other abnormal body cells by means of lysing.
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