Biopsychology: Final Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
phenotype
outward appearance
composition
chromosomes, genes, DNA
Serotonin
implicated in depression
GABA
(Neurotransmitter) prevents neurons from firing; helps moderate eating and aggression; Huntington's disease=degeneration of _____ producing neurons, mood changes, depression
dopamine
motor function and reward
Teleancephalon
Cerebral Cortex
Basal Ganglia
Septum
Fornix
Cingulate Gyrus
EEG
(electrical) measures brain activity on a millisecond-by-millisecond basis
Efferent
message/info going out of neuron
Limbic system
emotional center of brain
*threshhold
*membrane potential necessary to trigger an action potentialpowersurge
serotonin (5-HT)
An indolamine neurotransmitter; implicated in regulation of mood, eating, sleeping, arousal, and regulation of pain
Nervism
all physiological functions are governed by the nervous system
pons
responsible for sleep, attention, and alertness
TMS
use magnets to stimulate brain cells
Central Nervous System (CNS)
brain, spinal cord
Interneuron
nerve cell that relays messages between nerve cells, especially in the brain and spinal cord.
Retina
The neural tissue and photoreceptive cells located on the inner surface of the posterior portion of the eye. or the interior lining of the back of the eye.
all psychological processes are based in neural structures including:
behaviorcognitionemotions
*lateralization
*cognitive function that relies more on one side of the brain than the other
clozapine
An atypical antipsychotic drug; blocks D4 receptors in the nucleus accumbens.
Concentraion Gradient
difference in the particular concentrations of an ion inside and outside the cell; another source of potential energy because of tendency of ions to move from high concentration to low
Neuron
cell that receives information and transmits it to other cells
Protective devices in the brain, protective coverings
meningies
frontal lobe
in charge of planning; impulse control; personality
axons
4. "away"; fiber that carries neurons message to other body areas
Parasympathetic
after involuntary things are over this kicks in and slows things down; may start shaking; stores energy
fatal familial insomnia
A fatal inherited disorder characterized by progressive insomnia, culminating in death.
cochlea
Snail shaped structure of the inner ear that contains the auditory transducing mechanisms. receptors.
rebound phenomena
The increased frequency or intensity of a phenomenon after it has been temporarily suppressed, for example, the increase in REM sleep seen after a period of REM deprivation.
*Broca's area
*language area in the prefrontal cortex that helps to control speech productiondamage leads to aphasiaspeech deficit inhibiting communicationBroca's aphasiainability to speak fluidly or find appropriate words
postsynaptic potential
Alterations in the membrane potential of a postsynaptic neuron, produced by liberations of neurotransmitter at the synapse.
monoamine
A class of amines that includes indolamines such as serotonin and catecholamines such as dopamine, norephinephrine, and epinephrine
pharmokinetics
The process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed within the body, metabolized and excreted.
synaptic vesicle
A small, hollow, beadlike structure found in terminal buttons; contains molecules of a neurotransmitter.
synaptic cleft
The space between the presynaptic membrane and the postsynaptic membrane.
sympathetic division
nodules that contain synapses between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system.
fornix
A fiber bundle that connects the hippocampus with other parts of the brain, including the mammillary bodies of the hypothalamus; part of limbic system.
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord
Gene
unit of heredity that maintains its structural identity from one generation to the next that consists of a sequence of DNA that occupies a specific location on a chromosome and determines a particular characteristic in an organism
Symmetric Division
formation of progenitors in VZ; exponential development of cells
The posterior parietal cortex
does more complicated things.
thalamus:
relay center (decides what comes into your brain and what goes out) helps you survive
split brain research
patients are unable to verbally identify the picture flashed to the nonverbal right hemisphere, but are able to grasp the object w/ their left hand; in contrast, when the image is flashed to their verbal left hemisphere, they can easily name it
Visual agnosia
Deficits in visual perception in the absence of blindness
Graded Potential
sum charge of ions passing across neuronal membrane
*association cortex
*regions of the cerebral cortex that intergrate simpler functions to perform more complex functions
*hindbrain
*part of the brain between the spinal cord and midbrain, consisting of the pons, cerebellum, and medulla
reticular formation
A large network of neural tissue located in the central region of the brain stem, from the medulla to the diencephalon.
negative reinforcement
The removal or refuction of an aversive stimulus that is contigent on a particular response, whith an attendant increase in the frequency of that response.
occipital lobe
The region of the cerebral cortex caudal to the parietal and temporal lobes.
Presynaptic Terminals
OUTPUT of the cell, translates the information into a chemical signal for transmission to other cells
Sex-linked Genes
genes that are on sex chromosomes; secondary sex characteristics, as well as others such as color vision
What is the fovea?
Responsible for central sharpest vision; full of cones for color vision.
Neurons are involved with:
receiving, moving, and processing information
Ventral stream (what)
A system of interconnected regions of visual cortex involved in the perception of FORM, beginning with the striate cortex and ending with the inferior temporal cortex.
Vandenbergh effect
The earlier onset of puberty seen in female animals that are housed with males; caused by a pheromone in the male's urine; first observed in mice.
ganglion cell
A neuron located in the retina that recieves visual information from bipolar cells; its axons give rise to the optic nerve
*hippocampus
*part of the brain that plays a role in spatial memorymental maps (think: hippos at camp need a map)injury leads to deficits in memory creation
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A molecule of prime importance to cellular energy metabolism; its breakdown liberates energy
nucleus
A structure in the central region of a cell, containing the chromosomes.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
outside the cranium and spinal column
Y cells?
Found in periphery of retina so they get most input from rods. Not sensitive to color difference
synapse:
a region where the axon of one neuron closely approaches other neurons or other cells
periaqueductal gray matter (PAG)
The region of the midbrain that surrounds the cerebral aqueduct; plays an essential role in various species-typical behaviors; including female sexual behavior. Destruction abolishes sexual behavior, Estradiol treatment or stimulation of VMH increases neural activity, contains estrogen and progestrone receptors.
inferior temporal cortex
In primates the highest level of the ventral stream, located on the inferior portion of the temporal lobe.
motor association cortex
The region of the frontal lobe rostral to the primary motor cortex, also known as the premotor cortex.
Two Factors that Control "Direction" of Action Potential
1. soma and dendrites lack voltage-gated Na channels, so AP can't go back into soma
2. once Na gates open at a point in the axon, they can't open again for some time (inactive), so AP can't go back and forth along axon
Sensing is done through...
Transduction; during some point in the neural pathway, there has to be transduction.
what does the temporal lobe do?
stores hearing, memory, and personality; Wernickes Area... comprehension
*peripheral nervous system (PNS)
*nerves in the body that exend outside the central nervous system\"everything else\"
specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor
A drug that inhibits the reuptake of serotonin without affecting the reuptake of other neurotransmitters.
Damage to the posterior parietal can produce a variety of...
sensorimotor deficits: perception and memory of spatial relationships, accurate reaching/grasping, eye movement, attention.

Most important: apraxia and contralateral neglect
What are the three subcortical structures?
the limbic system, thalamus, and hypothalamus
Transduction of olfactory info. (Action potentials)
G(olf) protein is able to activate an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of cyclic MP, which in turn can open sodium channels and depolarize the membrane of the olfactory cell. Each glomerus recieves info. from only one type of receptor, and "olfactopic" coding is maintained all the way to the olfactory cortex.
Many adjustments in motor output that occur in response to sensory feedback are controlled unconsciously by...
lower levels of the sensorimotor hierarchy without the involvement of the higher levels.
in order to be as healthy as possible:
your sympathetic and parasympathetic must be in balance
Motor system starts from the ___ and goes to the ____; the sensory system goes from ______ to ___
top to bottom
bottom to top
Sources for Potentials of the Nervous System
1. Na/K Pump: protein in the cell membrane that spends 1 ATP to pump 2 K into the cell while 3 Na ions are pumped out
2. K leak: at rest, the membrane is slightly permeable to K, so it tends to leak out
3. Intracellular proteins: tend to be negatively chraged, cause the inside of the cell to be negative with respect to the outside
What are the types of cones for color perception?
Short (blue), medium (green), long (red): colors basically represent their sensitivity to that color spectrum. Their responsiveness depends on the wavelength of the color system.
What shape is the receptive field of complex cells?
There is no on and off regions. If it is in the receptive field, the cell will show some activation no matter where.
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