Black Saga Flashcards

Terms Definitions
277-20. Define shipment
shipment: arriving fugitive slaves
705. President Lyndon Johnson appointed this civil rights lawyer to the position of Solicitor General of the United States--the first African American to hold this position. Name him.
Thurgood Marshall
277-14. Define Operator
operator: an Underground Railroad worker--someone who helps as a lookout, sewing clothing, cooking food for the runaway
158. During colonial times and several decades afterwards, many enslaved Africans fled to places where they lived with Native Americans, such as the Seminole. In what state did relatively large numbers of enslaved Africans and Seminoles live together?
6. Name the formal religion practiced by most residents of Songhai during the period between A.D. 500 and 1600.
420. Alonzo Ransier and Richard Gleaves of South Carolina, A.K. Davis of Mississippi, and Oscar Dunn, P.B.S. Pinchback, and C.C. Antoine of Louisiana all served in this high state political office during Reconstruction. What office did they hold?
Lieutenant Governor
390. This historically black college and university was founded in 1867 in Washington, D.C. It boasts that in its first century it graduated at least one-half of the nation�s black physicians, dentists, pharmacists, engineers, and architects. Name this
Howard University
482.5 Match the historically black colleges or universities with the state where they are located: Prairie View State
m) Texas
482.6 Match the historically black colleges or universities with the state where they are located: Langston University
g) Oklahoma
778. This woman track star participated in four Olympic Games, 1976, 1984, 1988, and 1992. She won four gold medals and one silver medal. She won her last medal in 1992 as a member of the women's 4x100-meter relay. She was 35 years old at the time. She re
Evelyn Ashford
640. In 1952, this groundbreaking novel by Ralph Ellison told about the life of a Southern black man who could not escape racism in the North. The book won the National Book Award. Name the book.
Invisible Man
781. This African American comedienne and actress was a hit at the box office when she opened a one-woman show on Broadway in 1984. She has won numerous awards including a Grammy and a Golden Globe. She was nominated for an Academy Award for her role in T
Whoopi Goldberg
482.13 Match the historically black colleges or universities with the state where they are located: Meharry Medical School
l) Tennessee
473. This African American composer and pianist released one of his finest works, Maple Leaf Rag, in 1899. He was best known for his ragtime music. He later wrote a ragtime opera, Treemonisha. Almost 100 years later, this composer�s music was rediscover
Scott Joplin
663. This African American baseball player was discovered at the age of 17 while playing in a church-sponsored softball league. He signed with the Chicago Cubs and began playing in September 1953 as the team�s starting shortstop the following season. He
Ernie Banks
64. In the 1700s, this important crop was grown in South Carolina to produce a blue dye for cloth. This crop grew best on high ground and required about 25 slaves for a 50-acre plot. Fifty pounds per acre was considered a good crop, with 70 pounds per acr
27. In 1636, the majority of newcomers to the Virginia Colony were servants. About how many servants were imported to Virginia during the entire Colonial period?
15. In 1502, what country was the first to bring a cargo of enslaved Africans into the Western Hemisphere?
179. This Quaker merchant moved to Wilmington, Delaware in 1822. Because of his strong opposition to slavery, he joined the Pennsylvania Abolition Society and became one of the most noted ���conductors��� on the Underground Railroad. In fa
Thomas Garrett
220. This enslaved African American was born in Maryland but escaped with his family to New York City when he was nine years old. He became a minister and believed that the only answer to slavery was resistance with weapons. He gave many lectures and was
Henry Highland Garnet
209. Prudence Crandall, a white woman who was educated at a Society of Friends school, started her own private academy for girls in this small place. It was a success until she admitted a black girl. When she refused to change her policy of equal educatio
Canterbury, Connecticut
425. She became the first African-American woman lawyer when she graduated from Howard University Law School in 1872. Barriers to setting up a law practice were too difficult to overcome at the time so she became a teacher in the Brooklyn, New York school
Charlotte E. Ray
‘372. This U.S. President vetoed the Freedmen�s Bureau bill, took land from free Africans in the Georgia Sea Islands and returned it to former slave owners, condemned the proposed 14th Amendment, and verbally attacked Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumn
Andrew Johnson
540. This poet, born in Baltimore, became an influential voice of the Harlem Renaissance when he published his book of poetry, Color, in 1925. His later works included Copper Sun, another book of poetry and One Way to Heaven, a novel. As a young boy, he w
Countee Cullen
452. This African American, a successful politician in Kansas, moved to Oklahoma Territory in 1887 and later became the founder of two all-black towns, Liberty and Langston. He envisioned Oklahoma Territory as an all-black state. President Benjamin Harris
Edwin P. McCabe
‘650. This famous concert and opera singer has appeared in opera houses worldwide. In 1954, she sang at the Metropolitan Opera Company in New York City. She sang for many years thereafter with the ‘‘Met’’ in such classic operas as Porgy and Bess
Leontyne Price
‘658. He became the first African American professional golfer to win a significant tournament-- the Long Beach Open. In 1959, he became the first black person to receive a Professional Golfer's Association (PGA) card as an ‘‘approved player.’’
Charles Sifford
690. This African American became of the first martyrs of the civil rights movement. Born in 1925 in Mississippi, he graduated from Alcorn A&M College in 1952 and got a job selling insurance. After seeing the horrible conditions of poor black families in
Medgar Evers
715. Huey Newton and Bobby Seale formed this organization in Oakland, California in 1966. The primary goals included self-defense, the rights of black people to determine their own destiny, the rights to full employment, decent housing, and education; and
Black Panthers
76. In 1720, molasses from the West Indies was transported to colonial ports where it was made into rum and shipped to Africa in exchange for enslaved Africans. What city in Rhode Island had more than 22 factories making rum to be shipped to Africa?
771. In 1989, this African American became National Football League�s first African American head coach. In 1990, he was named Coach of the Year when he led the Los Angeles Raiders to a 12-4 winning season and won the AFC Western Division title. In coll
Art Shell
84. In 1740, which colony had the largest number of enslaved black people?
33. In 1641, what colony became the first to recognize slavery as a legal institution?
9. Although it is said that about two-thirds of the gold used to mint coins in Europe and the Arab world came from the Songhai region, another mineral was sometimes more precious than gold to the people of Songhai. What was this mineral?
2. The continent of Africa is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea to the east. A narrow strip of land in its northeast corner connects it to the Arabian Peninsula and beyond t
762. In 1988, this African American was promoted to the rank of four-star general of the U.S. Army. He was selected chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and served as National Security Advisor to President George Bush. He led a national volunteer organiz
Colin Powell
534. In 1923, this African American inventor sold his patent for an automatic traffic signal to General Electric for $40,000. Before his device was used, traffic control signals were operated manually by a police officer. His invention made traffic move m
Garrett Morgan
139. Before the cotton gin, slavery was highly concentrated largely along a narrow, coastal corridor of rice and long-staple cotton plantations in South Carolina and Georgia where the growing conditions were similar. Cotton plantations were profitable her
�short-staple� cotton
397. In 1867, the U.S. Congress, filled with new Radical Republican members, passed this bill. It divided the South into five military districts, each under a major general. New elections were to be held in each of the southern states with freed enslaved
Reconstruction Acts
355. On January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued a presidential order that freed enslaved black people in the Confederate states. Some believe he did this to weaken the Confederacy as well as to generate favorable world opinion. Name the presiden
Emancipation Proclamation
623. In 1948, this African American golfer applied to play in the Richmond Open but was rejected because he was black. In fact, blacks were not allowed to even qualify because they were not members of the Professional Golf Association of America which all
Bill Spiller
607. This group of black soldiers served in the U.S. Army Air Force. During their period of active service, they amassed one of the most impressive records of any airmen--150 Distinguished Flying Crosses, one Legion of Merit, one Silver Star, fourteen Bro
Tuskegee Airmen
718. In 1967, this African American became the first black woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. She represented New York's 12th District. During her terms in Congress, she was a champion for children, women, and low-income people. She claim
Shirley Chisholm
711. This African American entertainer started performing at the age of four and starred in his first of 20 movies by age six. He was coached by Bill "Bojangles" Robinson to add dancing to his many talents as a singer, actor, impersonator, and instrumenta
Sammy Davis, Jr.
138. By using the cotton gin, invented in 1793, a man could deseed and clean cotton more efficiently. Using a horse to turn this machine, it could clean about 50 times as much cotton as before. It quickly made cotton the leading crop in the South and the
Eli Whitney
122. By the end of the 1770s, only about 50,000 African Americans lived in the northern colonies. About how many lived in the southern colonies?
277-22: Define stationmaster
stationmaster: a person who provides a safe haven or safe house for runaway or fugitive slaves
81. Benjamin Banneker was known as a scientist, astronomer, and surveyor, but he, too, was an inventor. What was his major invention that was probably the first of its kind to be built in the United States?
wooden clock
89. In the middle and late 1700s, most people lived in three regions of North America: 'Back Country���, ���Chesapeake���, and ���Low Country.' Back Country: land between the fall line and the Appalachian Mountains from Pennsylvani
435. In 1876, the Freedmen�s Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church established the first all-black medical school in the United States. Three other African-American medical schools: Howard University Medical School, Shaw Medical School, and the
Meharry; Nashville, Tennessee
322. On April 30, 1860, a Spanish ship was stopped off the coast of Cuba and its illegal cargo of enslaved Africans seized by the U.S. Navy. Name this illegal slave ship.
364. He was an ordained minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Baltimore, MD and had done religious work in Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, and Tennessee before accepting a pastorate in Baltimore in 1860. During the Civil War, he helpe
Hiram Revels
544. He was the first African American author to have a long-running Broadway hit. It happened when his play, Mulatto, opened at the Vanderbilt Theatre on October 24, 1935 and ran for 373 performances until December 9, 1937. It was one of the most success
Langston Hughes
585.1 In World War II (1941-1945), blacks served admirably in many branches of the armed forces despite widespread discrimination. The U.S Navy admitted racial prejudice when more it assigned more than 258 black sailors at this unsafe ammunition storage p
Port Chicago, California.
‘501. He was the first black sprinter to hold the title ‘‘world's fastest human’’ by co-holding the world's record in the 100-yard dash (9.6 seconds) in 1914. During the previous two years (1912 and 1913) he held the AAU Championship in the 200-
Howard P. Drew
791. In 1996, Maryland made judicial history when Governor Parris Glendening named this African American to become the 23rd chief judge in the 220-year history of the Maryland Court of Appeals. This African American rose from poverty in East Baltimore to
Robert M. Bell
662. In 1958, this President signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957--the first since Reconstruction. It authorized the Justice Department to stop any interference with the right of African Americans to vote and established the Commission on Civil Rights to i
Dwight D. Eisenhower
688. On September 15, 1963, the nation was outraged and saddened when it learned that a bomb had exploded in the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in this southern city, killing four young black girls attending Sunday school classes. This terrible event was
Birmingham, Alabama
712. In 1966, this African American became the first black person since 1883 to be elected to the Texas Senate. In 1972, she defeated her opponent to represent Texas� 18th District in the U.S. House of Representatives. She spoke eloquently on constituti
Barbara C. Jordan
213. In 1834, black leaders in Philadelphia, including Robert Purvis, William J. Whipper, and James Forten, argued that racial prejudice would continue if blacks formed special and separate organizations. The first annual report of this major organization
American Anti-Slavery Society
236. In 1839, this minister became editor of The Colored American and quickly became one of the strongest voices for emancipation of enslaved blacks. He was a graduate of Wesleyan University in 1832 and had become a merchant in New York City where he had
Charles B. Ray
200. On August 21, 1831 in Southampton County, Virginia, this enslaved black preacher believed that God had chosen him to lead blacks to freedom. He and 70 enslaved black followers began a two-day rebellion, during which the leader killed his master and a
Nat Turner
739. In 1975, William T. Coleman became the second African American to hold a Presidential cabinet-level position. A lawyer with a degree from Harvard University, Coleman had held numerous federal, state, and community positions. He had worked for U.S. Su
Secretary of Transportation
597. This African American graduated from the Teacher�s College of Columbia University with a master�s degree in religious education. He succeeded his father as pastor of Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem in 1938 when he was just 20 years old. He us
Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.
728. He emerged as the leading authority on black entrepreneurship with his magazine, Black Enterprise. A graduate of Morgan State College and a member of Senator Robert Kennedy�s staff, he used his experience to organize a consulting firm on urban affa
Earl Graves, Sr.
317. At the time of the Civil War, this crop was grown primarily in the lowland regions of South Carolina and Georgia. During the Civil War decade, production there declined sharply and cultivation shifted west to Louisiana and Arkansas. Name this crop.
258. What African American become the first of his race to graduate from an American medical school? He received his medical degree from Rush Medical College in Chicago. Name him.
David John Peck
56. To maintain a slave trading monopoly and a constant supply of enslaved African labor, the British government gave a charter to what company?
Royal African Company
469. In 1896, this African American was selected director of agricultural research at Tuskegee Institute. Here, he began to teach and experiment with agricultural production. He was one of the first soil scientists to encourage crop rotation, and he devel
George Washington Carver
51. In what year did Maryland pass a law that recognized slavery as legal?
770. This African American worked his way through Virginia Union University, graduated in 1952 and went directly into the U.S. Army. Because he could not find a job in chemistry (his major in college), he attended law school at Howard University and gradu
Lawrence Douglas Wilder
558. This African American was a gifted child and attended Tuskegee Institute at age 13. He later attended the Horner Institute of Fine Arts in Kansas City, Missouri and earned a Master�s Degree from the American Conservatory of Music in Chicago. In 193
William Levi Dawson
112. By the time of the American Revolution, only one colony had more enslaved black people than white people. Name it.
South Carolina
165. Today, this seaport is one of the largest in the South. Prior to the Civil War it was known for its large and frequent auctions of enslaved black people. Enslaved black people sold at this port city were often used on cotton plantations along the M
New Orleans
166. By 1815, three cotton production centers emerged along the Mississippi River in the South Central states. Here, growing, processing, and distributing cotton were the major economic activities of these three cities and their surrounding areas. Name
Memphis, Tennessee; Natchez, Mississippi; and Baton Rouge, Louisiana
205. This black person was born in Delaware in 1795. He was trained for the ministry and later became pastor of New York City���s first African American Presbyterian Church. In 1827, he joined with John Russwurm to publish this country���s fir
Samuel Eli Cornish
301. In 1857 this U.S. Supreme Court decision effectively denied citizenship to African Americans by rejecting this person's claim to freedom. Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, Roger Taney, gave the majority opinion: �slaveholders had the righ
Dred Scott vs. Sanford
324. In many areas of the South prior to the Civil War, enslaved blacks met at places in swamps and bayous away from the plantations to worship. These secret services took place in �hush harbors� and worshippers sometimes hung wet quilts and rags to s
�invisible institutions�
529. In 1921, Henry Pace organized the Pace Phonographic Corporation. It was the first record company owned and operated by an African American. What was the label name used on its records?
The Black Swan
722. These two African American athletes from San Diego State University brought international attention to the struggle of Black Americans when they gave the Black Power salute at the Olympic awards ceremony after winning a gold and bronze medal, respect
Tommie Smith and John Carlos
619. On July 26, 1948, this President signed Executive Order 9981 that ended discrimination in the military. He stated, "Men in uniform should have equality of treatment and opportunity regardless of race, color, religion, or national origin." Who was thi
Harry S. Truman
403. Black colleges and universities used a number of ways to raise money for their schools. This African American educator and her students in this Florida school baked sweet potato pies and sold them to railroad workers to raise money to buy nearby land
Mary McLeod Bethune; Daytona Educational and Industrial Training School for Negro Girls (became Bethune- Cookman College in 1931)
460. In this city and state, one of the oldest black-owned newspapers, The Afro-American, is still published. John Henry Murphy, Sr. established it in 1892. After serving in the Civil War, Murphy worked as a white washer, porter, janitor, postal employee,
Baltimore, Maryland
227. In 1837, he became the first African American to earn a medical degree and practice as a medical doctor. He received his early education in New York City, but went to Scotland where he earned a bachelor�s, master�s and a medical degree at the Uni
James McCune Smith
766. In 1989, Maya Lin was hired by the Southern Poverty Law Center to design a Civil Rights Monument. It became a nine-foot vertical wall constantly washed by water. In the background is a quotation of Martin Luther King, Jr. "until justice rolls down li
Montgomery, Alabama
194. In 1790, less than 700,000 enslaved black people lived in the South. Forty years later in 1830, how many black people lived in this region?
just over 2 million
743. This African American engineer, a Morehouse University and University of Illinois graduate, co-discovered the Gamma Electric Cell that converts nuclear energy directly to electricity. His first work was with rocket motors and rocket propellants. He i
Henry T. Sampson, Jr.
268. In October 1849, this man became the first black professor in a predominantly white university. He was named professor of mathematics, �belles-lettres,� and French at Central College in McGrawville, New York. Who was he?
Charles L. Reason
53. By 1670, it is estimated that the African population in Virginia represented ______ percent of an estimated 40,000 settlers or residents in the colony. Although the number of enslaved blacks grew slowly Virginia, slave laws began to appear as early as
5 percent
60. In the early 1700s, enslaved blacks in the 'tidewater' region were primarily used in growing tobacco. What jobs did they do in growing this crop?
weeding, seeding, plowing, hilling, cultivating, hoeing, topping, worming, harvesting, stripping, curing, sorting
187. This school was built in Boston in 1824 and was open only to white children until 1855. Before 1855, black children in the same neighborhood had to attend the school at the African American Meeting House even if they lived closer to this school. Af
Phillips School
414. Many black people left Southern states in the 1870s and 1880s to escape poverty and abuse in favor of independence and land in Kansas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Nebraska. In 1879, for example, it is estimated that as many as 6,000 people left South Car
1862 Homestead Act; 160 acres
638. He was the first African American commissioned as a pilot in the U.S. Marine Corps. He flew in many combat missions during the Korean War and commanded a fighter squadron in Vietnam. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his service. In 1
Frank E. Petersen, Jr.
794. Four African American tennis players have won the singles titles of the two major grand slam tennis competitions--the U.S. Open and Wimbledon. Name them.
Althea Gibson, Serena Williams, Venus Williams, and Arthur Ashe
267. In this person�s 1849 autobiography, he wrote about the brutality of slavery, and in January 1851, he organized the Refugee�s Home Colony in Canada. Later that year, he founded the newspaper, Voice of the Fugitive, Canada�s first African Americ
Henry Walton Bibb (see additional information in Part V: Selected Biographies and Landmarks)
295. In 1855, John Mercer Langston became the first black person to win elective office in a settled community in the United States. To what office was he elected?
Clerk of Brownhelm Township, Lorain County, Ohio
459. On May 4, 1891, Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, a noted African American physician opened the first training school for black nurses in this city. Dr. Williams also performed the first successful open-heart operation in this hospital. Name the hospital and
Provident Hospital; Chicago, IL
277-11. Define Judgment Day
Judgment Day: the day and time of the planned escape
445. Booker T. Washington is one of the most famous African American educators. In 1881, he established a college to train black teachers. He himself had graduated from Hampton Institute in that year. In 1896, Washington became the first African American
Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama
489. In 1908, this athlete became the first African American to win an Olympic gold medal. He won it in a team event, the 4x400 meter relay race. He was born in 1882 in Washington, D.C. and later graduated from the University of Pennsylvania�s School
John Baxter Taylor, Jr.
261. William and Ellen Craft met as enslaved persons in Macon, Georgia. Because they did not want to bring children into the world to be enslaved, they planned to escape and flee to the North. In December 1848, they disguised themselves--he as an enslaved
Running a Thousand Miles to Freedom
455. This was the first bank organized and administered by blacks (without a fraternal organization connection) in 1888. Name the bank.
Capital Savings Bank of Washington, D.C.
773. On April 8, 1990, the National Inventors Hall of Fame inducted two African Americans scientists--the first time in its 17-year history. One of these inductees was the inventor of drugs to cure glaucoma and methods for mass-producing synthetic cortiso
Percy Lavon Julian and George Washington Carver
772. In January 1990, Many African Americans were elected as mayors of big cities. In fact, more than 300 African Americans were majors of cities in the United States. In 1990, however, ten African American were mayors of cities with at least 400,000 resi
Name City Population %Black Term Ended David Dinkins New York 7,353,000 25.2* 1993 Thomas Bradley Los Angeles 3,353,000 17.0* 1993 W. Wilson Goode Philadelphia 1,674,000 37.8* 1991 Coleman Young Detroit 1,036,000 63.1 1993 Kurt Schmoke Baltimore 751,000 63.1 1991 Marion Barry Wash. D.C. 617,000 70.3 1990 Sidney J. Barthelemy New Orleans 532,000 55.3 1990 Michael White Cleveland 521,000 43.8* 1993 Norman B. Rice Seattle 502,000 9.5* 1993 Maynard Jackson Atlanta 420,000 66.6 1993 *Elected by white voters.
675. This African American star of the National Basketball Association was 7�1� tall and had an arm span of 89�. He averaged 50 points a game in the 1961-62 season as a player for the Philadelphia Warriors. On March 2, 1962, this player did the impo
Wilt Chamberlain; �Wilt the Stilt� and �The Big Dipper�
294. He was born April 1830 and after substantial education in Montreal and Paris, he was ordained the first African American Catholic priest on June 10, 1854, at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. Name him.
Father James Augustus Healy (1854) Note: Some sources show that Augustine Tolton was the first Catholic priest when he is ordained in 1886. He received his priesthood in Rome, Italy. Our research shows that Tolton is incorrectly cited as the first African American Catholic Priest in the United States. This is based on research that shows James Augustus Healy was not at the time widely known as African-American. Father Tolton���s service, excellent sermons, splendid education, and eloquent voice have made him renown. In fact, Cardinal Francis George announced in September 2010 that he will appoint a commission to assemble facts about Tolton���s ���heroic virtues��� and introduce his cause for sainthood.
659. On September 23, 1957, a crowd of whites gathered in front of this high school to prevent nine black students from enrolling in the school. Violence erupted and the school superintendent was forced to withdraw the black students from the school under
Central High School; Little Rock, Arkansas
681. On November 7, 1962 the widow of the 32nd President of the United States and known as �The First Lady of the World,� died in New York City. During her active years, many black people saw her as one of their friends because of her strong support f
Eleanor Roosevelt (Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt)
277. Laws were passed by slave states in the South over the decades to reduce the number of runaways and to severely punish enslaved, free blacks, and abolitionists who helped them in their escapes to freedom. People who helped enslaved blacks escape to f
Agent: a person who plots the route and makes arrangements for helping the escaping fugitive slaves
327. Between 1800 and 1860, it was hard for many politicians to dispute the importance of slavery in the production of this nation�s agricultural commodities and their direct influence on the growth and development of America. For example, between 1800
10 years; double (the value) of all others
466. In 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court decision, Plessy v. Ferguson, was decided by a vote of 8-1. The decision upheld the "separate but equal" doctrine and began the age of Jim Crow. The Court said that the State of Louisiana was within its rights to arres
He sat in a railroad car reserved for whites.
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