Black Saga 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
507. After experiencing settlement problems and growing racism in Kansas, many African Americans moved into another territory where they settled more than 30 towns between 1890 and 1916. These towns included Arkansas Colored, Boley, Liberty, Lincoln (late
Oklahoma
‘486. Booker T. Washington visited this all-black town in 1905, just prior to Oklahoma statehood in 1907. He described it as a thriving town of approximately 2,000 residents, ‘‘with two banks, two cotton-gins, a newspaper, a hotel, and a college--
Boley
277-20. Define shipment
shipment: arriving fugitive slaves
140. This college, founded in Brunswick, Maine in 1793, became a center for abolitionist sentiment before the Civil War. John Russwurm was the first Black graduate of the college in 1826 and went on to co-found Freedom���s Journal, the first black
Bowdoin College
���145. During the early 1800s what city became known as ������the seat of black affluence������ because of the wealthy free black inventors and businessmen who lived there?���
Philadelphia, PA
400. This historically black college was established in 1868 in Virginia by Samuel Chapman Armstrong, a 27-year old brevet brigadier general who had commanded black troops in the Civil War. Armstrong, the head of the eastern district of the Freedmen�s B
Hampton Institute
‘444. This state began the modern racial segregation movement in 1881 with the introduction of the ‘‘Jim Crow’’ (segregated) railroad car. Name the state.’
Tennessee
485. Twenty-nine black intellectuals, headed by W.E.B. Du Bois, organized this movement in Fort Erie, Canada in 1905. It demanded the abolition of all forms of racial discrimination and was a direct response to Booker T. Washington's cautious approach t
Niagara Movement
482.3 Match the historically black colleges or universities with the state where they are located: Xavier University
j) Louisiana
617. This African American baseball player played for the Homestead Grays and Memphis Red Sox of the National Negro Baseball League before he signed to play for the Brooklyn Dodgers. On August 26, 1947 he was sent in as a reliever in a game against Pittsb
Dan Bankhead
778. This woman track star participated in four Olympic Games, 1976, 1984, 1988, and 1992. She won four gold medals and one silver medal. She won her last medal in 1992 as a member of the women's 4x100-meter relay. She was 35 years old at the time. She re
Evelyn Ashford
132. This country became a dominant player in the European slave trade during the 18th century. In fact, by 1788, more than 60 percent of enslaved Africans brought by this country to the Americas were sold to colonies controlled by other countries. What c
Britain
755. This accomplished jazz and classical trumpeter and composer became the first musi- 100 cian to win Grammys for classical and jazz performances in a single year (1984). He was the first jazz artist to win a Pulitzer Prize for Music. He won for his com
Wynton Marsalis
480. President Theodore Roosevelt upset many residents in the South when he invited this famous black educator to dine with him at the White House. Southern newspapers attacked the President and his guest. For example, the Memphis (Tennessee) Scimitar, sa
Booker T. Washington
25. In 1634, farmers in the Chesapeake Bay region imported white and black indentured servants and later, enslaved Africans to profitably grow this crop. It became an important export crop because of its popularity in Europe. In Maryland, Virginia and Nor
tobacco
279. This university in Ohio was founded by the Cincinnati Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1856 and became the nation���s oldest private, historically black university. Reverend Daniel A. Payne, a member of the governing board, becam
Wilberforce University
256. One of San Francisco���s most famous citizens of the 1840s was a black man from the Virgin Islands. He was the first to launch a steamboat on San Francisco Bay, built the city���s first hotel, was a town council member and treasurer and w
William A. Leidesdorff
128. This former enslaved black person from Delaware was a wagon driver in the American Revolution and began preaching in the Methodist Church in 1786. He served as an occasional minister with St. George���s Methodist Episcopal Church (a white churc
Richard Allen
120. In December 1777, George Leile formed the First African Baptist Church. It is the oldest continuing black Baptist congregation in America. Leile was the first pastor of the Church. More recently, the church was used by local activists of the Civil R
Savannah, Georgia
228. This African American, born free in Connecticut, helped hundreds of enslaved African Americans, including Frederick Douglass, escape to freedom via the Underground Railroad. In 1835, he founded the New York Vigilance Committee, a group of notable Afr
David Ruggles
368. During the Civil War 186,000 black soldiers served in the Union Army, This represented about what percent of all Union soldiers?
12.5 percent
‘Employers exploited African American labor by creating new systems to re-enslave African Americans right after the Civil War. These systems have been labeled ‘‘almost slavery’’. One of these was the convict labor system. Name another.’
sharecropping system In sharecropping, a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land.
‘577. In 1940, the U.S. Army announced the formation of a training school for black pilots. Called the ‘‘Home of Black Aviation,’’ the school was located in the same town as the famous black college founded by Booker T. Washington. What is the n
Tuskegee, Alabama
635. In 1951, this African American was selected to pastor Zion Baptist Church in Philadelphia. In 1964, he launched the Opportunities Industrial Center (OIC), an organization that became the country�s largest and most successful job-training organizati
Leon Sullivan
656. In 1956, this African American female won one of the world's major tennis titles, the French Open Women's Singles title. A year later she became the first African American to win the U.S. Open championship and the first to win the Women�s Singles C
Althea Gibson
612. In 1947, this African American sculptress produced her much celebrated I Am a Negro Woman series of sculptures, prints, and paintings. She had graduated from the University of Iowa in 1941 with a degree in sculpture and accepted an invitation to work
Elizabeth Catlett
304. Twelve whites and 34 blacks attended an antislavery convention in Chatham, Canada in 1858. Here, they drew up a constitution for a nation of freed black Americans to be set up in the mountains of Virginia. The plan called for freeing enslaved black A
John Brown
550. In 1929, three historically black colleges agreed to affiliate and offer an exciting new intellectual experience for black students. It would be the first historically black college or university to offer graduate degrees for African Americans. John
Atlanta University
764. In 1988, this African American was one of 12 recipients of the National Medal of Arts, awarded by President Reagan. He was an outstanding photojournalist for Life magazine in the 1950s and 1960s. The son of a Kansas tenant farmer, he worked as a rail
Gordon Parks
277-8. Define Freedom Train
Freedom Train: the Underground Railroad, i.e., the entire network
647. The NAACP worked diligently to influence the decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, which ruled the "separate educational facilities were inherently unequal." This case was argued by a famous African American lawyer who was chief
Thurgood Marshall
787. In 1984, this African American athlete was the first track star since Jesse Owens in 1936 to win four gold medals in a single Olympic competition. He set Olympic records in two of the gold medal events, the 200-meter dash and the 400-meter relay. He
Carl Lewis
375. This African American teacher decided to be a doctor, but was denied admission tomedical school. He became a dentist instead. He finally earned a medical degree in 1852. He practiced both medicine and dentistry in Boston and later decided to earn a l
John S. Rock
101. In 1773, Jean Baptiste Pointe Du Sable, a black man from Haiti, was the first merchant and the first settler in this area. He set up permanent residence and a fur trading business along a river near Lake Michigan. In 1833, this place had 200 resident
Chicago, Illinois
229. On the eastern edge of Princeton, Illinois stands the home of a noted outspoken abolitionist and minister. He is perhaps best known for his role in the Illinois Underground Railroad and his home served as a ���station��� on the network. H
Owen Lovejoy
188. On March 16, 1827, two African American leaders, Samuel Cornish and John Russwurm, published the first black newspaper in this country. What was the name of this newspaper?
Freedom���s Journal
287. After being refused admission to a white school, this black woman and her family moved from Salem, Massachusetts to Newport, Rhode Island. She protested segregation of churches, theaters, and even an ocean liner. She began lecturing for the American
Sarah Parker Remond
75. This important port city was founded by the French in 1718 and later was transferred to the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. By 1820, blacks (both free and enslaved) were about half of its population, and its exports were the second la
New Orleans; cotton
236. In 1839, this minister became editor of The Colored American and quickly became one of the strongest voices for emancipation of enslaved blacks. He was a graduate of Wesleyan University in 1832 and had become a merchant in New York City where he had
Charles B. Ray
200. On August 21, 1831 in Southampton County, Virginia, this enslaved black preacher believed that God had chosen him to lead blacks to freedom. He and 70 enslaved black followers began a two-day rebellion, during which the leader killed his master and a
Nat Turner
257. Fisk University, Berea College, Atlanta University, Talladega College, Hampton Institute, Tougaloo College, Tillotson College, LeMoyne Institute, and Straight University (now Dillard University) were colleges/universities organized to train and educa
The American Missionary Association
404. In September 1868, this state legislature expelled all 28 black members (26 representatives and two senators) who had been duly elected. It was the view of the white legislators that although blacks had the right to vote, they did not have a right to
Henry McNeal Turner
442. This African American, a former professor of the University of South Carolina, argued that African Americans should leave the South in order to escape the harsh treatment by Southern whites. The exodus would carry African Americans to better economic
Richard T. Greener
314. In 1860, what percentage of the African Americans in the United States lived in the South?
92 percent
558. This African American was a gifted child and attended Tuskegee Institute at age 13. He later attended the Horner Institute of Fine Arts in Kansas City, Missouri and earned a Master�s Degree from the American Conservatory of Music in Chicago. In 193
William Levi Dawson
737. Thomas Bradley, a native of Texas, became this city's first black elected official in 1963, and its first black mayor in 1973. He spent 21 years as a member of the city�s police department, a decade as a city councilman, and another two decades as
Los Angeles, California
691. At grave #36-1431, in Arlington National Cemetery, lies the remains of a relentless civil rights fighter. He was the first Mississippi field secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People from 1954 to 1963 when he was sho
Medgar Wiley Evers
720. In 1968, Arthur Ashe won his first tennis grand slam title. He became the first African American male to win this event. Ashe had won the U.S. amateur men�s singles tennis championship in the same year. In 1975, he became the first African American
U.S. Open
392. This African American achieved a number of distinctions. He was the first African American to hold an elected office (in Ohio) and later was elected a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Virginia. He also set up the law department at How
John Mercer Langston
218. Who, in 1835, was the second known enslaved black person in the U.S. to receive a patent? He was granted patents for two inventions, the mechanical corn planter (1835) and the cotton planter (1836).
Henry Blair
740. This African American entered Morehouse College at the age of 14, graduated from law school with honors, and became the first black mayor of a major Southern city in 1974. He championed affirmative action and civil rights during his three terms in of
Maynard Jackson; Atlanta, Georgia
603. This African American was one of the most successful stage actors on Broadway. On October 19, 1943, he starred in the title role of Othello, a production that ran for 296 performances and set the record for Shakespearean drama on Broadway. He is also
Paul Robeson
600. This talented black first baseman with the Homestead Grays was called the �black Lou Gehrig.� He played 17 years with this Negro Baseball League team, the longest term of service with one team in Negro leagues history. During his career in the 19
Walter �Buck� Leonard
775. On May 1, 1991, this African American female was promoted to the rank of brigadier general, the first black woman to reach this rank in the U.S. Air Force. She is a native of Houston and was the commander of the 330th Technical Training Wing at Keesl
Marcelite Harris
298. This was California�s first black newspaper. It was founded in 1856 and published by businessman Mifflin W. Gibbs. The newspaper publicized issues of importance to blacks in California and the West. Gibbs made the newspaper more militant and became
Mirror of the Times
680. On September 20, 1962, this 9-year U.S. Air Force veteran was blocked from enrolling at the University of Mississippi by the state�s Governor Ross R. Barnett. He was a transfer student from Jackson State College. On September 24, the Fifth Circuit
James H. Meredith
683. Name the African American labor leader and civil rights activist who made this statement. �By fighting for their rights now, American Negroes are helping to make America a moral and spiritual arsenal of democracy. Their fight against the poll tax,
A. Philip Randolph
359. African American Union soldiers fought fiercely in every battle they were engaged in because they feared they would be tortured or killed if captured by the Confederacy. They had learned a hard lesson in previous battles. When some Union black soldie
Battle at Fort Pillow
242. A slave ship on its way from Hampton, Virginia to New Orleans, Louisiana was taken over by enslaved Africans and sailed to the Bahamas--a British possession. There, they were given their freedom because Britain had outlawed slavery in all its territo
Creole
626. They called him "Satchmo" but his real name was Daniel Louis Armstrong. In 1949, he was the first black musician to preside over the New Orleans Mardi Gras and was one of the most influential musicians in the nation and the world at the time. What wa
trumpet; jazz
247. In 1842, this runaway from a Virginia plantation was captured in Boston. When his �owner� arrived to claim him, antislavery protests blocked his return to slavery. Boston abolitionists quickly raised money to purchase the fugitive for $400. This
George Latimer
367. On November 16, 1865 this large city in the South lay in ruins after months of shelling by Union Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman and his troops. Sherman's strategy was to destroy this city so that it could no longer be a major supply center for the Con
Atlanta, Georgia
767. In 1989, this African American was elected suffragan bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts. She became the first woman bishop in the 450-year history of the Anglican Church. She was ordained a priest in 1980. Name her.
Barbara Clementine Harris
538. This track and field athlete of the University of Michigan won the broad jump at the Olympic Games in Paris. He became the first black athlete to win an individual Olympic gold medal. Name him.
DeHart Hubbard
700. On May 29, 1965, this African American soared through the air at 27 feet and 5 inches at the Modesto, California Relays to set a new long-jump record. This new record broke his own previous world mark set a year ago by three-quarters of an inch. This
Ralph Boston
24. In 1627, tobacco exports soared from 180,000 to about 500,000 pounds pounds in this year alone. Tobacco was the important cash crop for several colonies. This English ruler was heard to say that Virginia was �wholly built on smoke.� Name the ruler
King Charles I
268. In October 1849, this man became the first black professor in a predominantly white university. He was named professor of mathematics, ���belles-lettres,��� and French at Central College in McGrawville, New York. Who was he?
Charles L. Reason
277-17. Define Promise Land
Promise Land: Canada, or other places across the Ohio River where freedom was realized
412. This black cowboy was born in Texas in 1870 and became famous when he joined the Miller Brothers 101 Ranch Wild West Show. He was one of the main attractions when he sank his teeth into the steer�s upper lip and threw the steer to the ground simply
. Bill Pickett
703. In 1965, Vivian Malone was the first black student to graduate from this predominantly white university in the South. Three years previously, George Wallace, the governor of the state, had physically blocked her and another student from registering.
University of Alabama
685. In 1963, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded the nation's highest civilian award (Medal of Freedom) to two African Americans. Who were they and what did they do to receive the award?
Marian Anderson--for accomplishments in music and Ralph Bunche--for peacemaker and diplomat
604. The United Negro College Fund was founded to help raise dollars for all-black colleges and universities. It raised $760,000 in its first year to support these educational institutions. It was founded by then president of Tuskegee Institute. Name him.
Frederick Douglass Patterson
491. In 1908, a race riot occurred in the city, hometown of Abraham Lincoln. It took place on the 100th anniversary of Lincoln's birth. Black people were lynched during this riot near Lincoln's home and only two miles of his burial place. Oswald Garriso
Springfield, Illinois
514. This African American was born in Jacksonville, Florida in 1871 to a middle-class family. When he graduated from Atlanta University, he became a school teacher in Jacksonville, Florida. He later became a lawyer before moving to New York City and find
James Weldon Johnson
519. In the summer of 1919 so much blood was shed in the 26 race riots in most large American cities, it has been called what?
Red Summer
254. In 1844, he became the first black person licensed to practice law in the United States. The following year, he became the first black attorney when he practiced law in Boston. His practice was successful. Name him.
Macon B. Allen
65. What is the name of the two month-journey for enslaved Africans from Africa to the West Indies? During this journey, they were brutally treated.
Middle Passage
92. In the middle and late 1700s, most people lived in three regions of North America: 'Back Country�, �Chesapeake�, and �Low Country.' Back Country: land between the fall line and the Appalachian Mountains from Pennsylvania to Georgia. Chesapeake
Low Country
129. In 1787, this act passed by Congress determined the number of representatives from each state. Enslaved blacks who had no voice in government were actually counted for each state�s seats in the House of Representatives. What act made this possible?
the "three-fifths" Compromise
253. This black woman, born in 1843 or 1845, became the first professional African American sculptor. While most of her sculptures have not survived, she is best known for portrait busts of abolitionists such as John Brown and other individuals, depicting
Edmonia Lewis
722. These two African American athletes from San Diego State University brought international attention to the struggle of Black Americans when they gave the Black Power salute at the Olympic awards ceremony after winning a gold and bronze medal, respect
Tommie Smith and John Carlos
178. In 1822, this African American is named the first bishop of the AMEZ Church. Several years ago in 1818, he was the founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) Church in New Haven, Connecticut--now one of the major black churches in the
. Rev. James Varick
‘552. In 1927, this band leader signed a contract with the famous Cotton Club in New York City and his music career literally soared over the next several decades. At the Cotton Club, he had a weekly broadcast that gave him not only national exposure bu
Edward Kennedy �Duke� Ellington (see additional information in Part V: Biographies and Landmarks)
376. In 1865, this bank was specifically organized for blacks. It was chartered by the U.S. Government to encourage financial responsibility among newly free black people. The bank's headquarters was in New York City, with branches in 34 cities including
Freedmen�s Savings and Trust Bank
750. In 1982, he was the first African American to reach four-star status in the United States Army and the second to achieve that rank in the Armed Forces. Name him.
Roscoe Robinson, Jr.
‘684. In 1963, Sidney Poitier won an Academy Award (an ‘‘Oscar’’) for his role as a traveling laborer who befriended a group of immigrant nuns and helped them build a chapel. He was the first African American male to win an Oscar for Best Actor.
�Lilies of the Field�
495. The Crisis is a major magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Who was the first editor of the Crisis?
W.E.B. Du Bois
432. In 1875, the U.S. Congress passed a Civil Rights Act and President Ulysses Grant signed it into law. Eight years later, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional. What did this Civil Rights Act prohibit?
discrimination in public accommodations (hotels, theaters, and public carriers)
308. In 1859, the Clothilde was the last slave ship to stop at an American port. As many 130 Africans taken from a Tarkar village in West Africa were unloaded in this city. The Tarkars, led by Ka Zoola (Cudjoe Lewis) formed a village called Africa Town. H
Mobile, (East Mobile) Alabama
259. On December 3, 1847, the North Star, an abolitionist newspaper, quickly became one of the most widely read antislavery newspapers in the country. It was published in Rochester, New York. The publishers were strong advocates of ending slavery and were
Frederick Douglass and Martin Delany
478. In many large U.S. cities, wealthy African Americans developed their own residential districts because racial discrimination laws prohibited them from living among whites of similar wealth. In Atlanta, this district becomes the premier residence for
Auburn Avenue District also called �Sweet Auburn�
526.2 The Harlem Renaissance is the term that describes a social, economic, and cultural explosion in the African American experience, starting with the movement of African Americans from Southern to the Northern cities in 1915 and continuing through the
Visual and Performing Artists: Charles Gilpin, Paul Robeson, Jacob Lawrence, Augusta Savage, Aaron Douglas, Romare Bearden, Billie Holiday, Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Louis Armstrong, Eubie Blake, Bessie Smith, Fats Waller, Noble Sissle, Jelly Roll Morton, Billy Strayhorn, Lena Horne, Roland Hayes, Ella Fitzgerald, Bill Robinson, The Nicholas Brothers, Marian Anderson, Ethel Waters, Bert Williams, Ma Rainey, The Will Mastin Trio, The Dandridge Sisters, Cab Calloway, The King Cole Trio, Chick Webb, Dizzy Gillespie, and Thelonious Monk.
621. In this U.S. Supreme Court case, it was declared that a state must provide legal education or a law school for blacks at the same time it is offered to whites. Name the case.
Sipuel vs. University of Oklahoma
674. On January 6-10, 1961, this major southern university integrated peacefully when two black students, Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes, were admitted as undergraduate students. Their admission ended 160 years of segregation at the university. They
University of Georgia, Athens, GA
521. He learned to play the piano at the age of six. He later dropped out of school in his teens to pursue a musical career and, by 1919, was considered one of New York�s top pianists. In 1922, he recorded "Birmingham Blues" and "Muscle Shoals Blues". H
Thomas Wright �Fats� Waller
586. Jacob Lawrence helped to lay the foundation for many upcoming African American artists seeking to display their individuality. In an effort to cope with personal discrimination directed at him, he captured the art of the historical and contemporary p
The Migration of the Negro
271. In 1850, this black Bostonian ran on the Free Soil Party ticket for a seat in the Massachusetts legislature, but lost. Already a lawyer, abolitionist, lecturer, and activists, he and others reacted to the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850 by
William C. Nell (see additional information in Part V: Selected Biographies and Landmarks)
795. Over the years, thirteen African Americans have won an Oscar for best actor or actress or for best supporting actor or actress. Name these successful actors and actresses and the movies or films in which they starred.
****Hattie McDaniel Gone with the Wind (1939) *Sidney Poitier Lilies of the Field (1963) **Lou Gossett, Jr. An Officer and a Gentleman (1982) **Denzil Washington Glory (1989) ****Whoppi Goldberg Ghost (1990) **Cuba Gooding, Jr. Jerry Maguire (1996) *Denzil Washington Training Day (2001) ***Halle Berry Monsters Ball (2001) **Morgan Freeman Million Dollar Baby (2004) *Jamie Foxx Ray (2004) ****Jennifer Hudson Dreamgirls (2006) *Forest Whitaker The Last King of Scotland (2006) ***Mo�Nique Precious (2009) * Best Actor Award ** Best Supporting Actor Award *** Best Actress Award **** Best Supporting Actress Award
170. After the American Colonization Society founded a home for free African Americans in West Africa, two black leaders organized a protest of 3,000 black people against colonization in 1817. Name these two black leaders.
James Forten and Richard Allen (see additional information on James Forten in Part V: Selected Biographies and Landmarks)
343. The Enlistment Act of July 17, 1862, provided that whites in the Union Army with the rank of private should receive $13 a month and $3.50 for clothing. What did African Americans of the same rank in the Union Army receive, respectively?
$7.00 a month and $3.00 for clothing
768. In 1989, major league baseball history was made when this father and son are both active players in the majors at the same time. Name the father and son baseball heroes
. Ken Griffey Sr. and Ken Griffey, Jr.
338. The Civil War began on April 12, 1861 when Confederate troops fired on this fort located at a very important location. The Union surrendered two days later. The South then held the fort until February 17, 1865 and endured one of the longest sieges in
Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina
An enslaved African was sold in the West Indies to a sugar planter for approximately how much?
$100 to $200 (or molasses valued at that amount)
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