brain and behavior exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Lateral
Towards the side.
ERPs
Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)Complex electroencephalographic waveforms related in time to a specific sensory eventTo counter noise effects, the stimulus is presented repeatedly, and the recorded responses are averagedAdvantagesNoninvasiveLow cost
Hapsis
Fine touch receptors, dendrites encased in capsules of tissue or wrapped around hairs, mechanical deformation opens the ion channels to produce an action potential, large and well myelinated, stay ipsliateral until medial lemniscus in brain stem and then cross (contralateral) and project to thalamus, then cortex
Proprioception
Body awareness receptors, encapsulated nerve endings that are sensitive to stretch of muscles and tendons and movement of joints, large and well myelinated, stay ipsilateral until medial lemniscus of brain stem, then cross and project to thalamus, then on to cortex
schizophrenia
Behavioral disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, blunted emotion, agitation or immobility, and a host of other symptoms Involves dopaminergic system
glia
smaller than neurons
 
have many functions
but
do not convey info over great distances
 
somehow work in conjunction with neurons to produce behavior and experience
Olfaction
Chemical senses Receptors for SmellOlfactory epithelium contains receptor cells and support cells; receptor cells send cilia into the olfactory mucosaAirborne chemicals dissolve in the olfactory mucosa and interact with the cilia Activation of metabotropic receptors leads to the opening of sodium channels and subsequent change in membrane potential
Extrastriate cortex
Extrastriate (Secondary Visual) CortexVisual cortical areas outside the striate cortex
Left Hemisphere
Involved primarily with language, Split brain studies show that when an object is presented to the Right visual field (left hem) the subject can name it, but not if it is shown to the Left visual field (right hem)
Right Hemisphere
Visuospatial processing, Split brain pepole can complete visuospatial tasks mroe easily with left hand (right hem)Musical abilities
Synergies
Basic, innate patterns of movement common to all members of a given species
graded response
membrane elcrical potential that spreads passively across the cell membrane, decreasing in strength with time and distance.
Nicotinic receptor
Referring to cholinergic receptors that respond to nicotine.   Nicotinic receptors mediate chiefly the excitatory activities of acteycholine, including at the neur-muscular junction.  Contrast with muscarinic.
Striatum
The caudate nucleus and putamen together.
 Autoradiography
A histological technique that shows the distribution of radioactive chemicals in tissues.
Homeostasis
The tendency for the internal environment to remain constant.
Humans and other mammals are
b. homeothermic
sensitization
Learning behavior in which the response to a stimulus strengthens with repeated presentations of that stimulus because the stimulus is novel or stronger than normalFor example, after habituation has occurred
The Spinal Cord
Principal Function:Distribute motor fibers to the effector organs (glands and muscles) and collects somatosensory info to be passed to the brain.Some autonomy from the brain (reflexes).
Multiple sclerosis
A disorder characterized by widespread degeneration of myelin.
Biological Psycology
Stiudy of evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience
Lens
Focuses lightBends to accommodate near and far objects
Retina
Where light energy initiates neural activity
Brain Stem
Regulates typical behaviors of a species, such as eating, drinking, sexual behavior, posture, limb movement, fixed action patterns, etc.
y does the potential exist?
Exists because
positively and
negatively charged
ions are distributed
unequally on two
sides of the
membrane.
temporal summation
Summing of potentials that arrive
at the axon hillock at
different times. Closer in time they arrive, the greater the
summation and
possibility of an AP. Cannot have EPSP + IPSP! The function of synapses is to cause local changes
in postsynaptic
membrane potentials,
throughneurotransmitters.
spatial summation
Summing of potentials that come
from different parts
of the cell. If overall sum (EPSPs and IPSPs) can
depolarize the cell at
the axon hillock AP!
batrachotoxin
produced by poison arrow frogs that selectively interfere with na+ channels.
 Atypical neuroleptics
A class of antischizophrenic drugs that have actions other than the dopamine D2 receptor antagonism that characterizes the typical neuroleptics.  These drugs often feature selective and high-affinity antagonism of serotonin 5HT2 receptors
Competitive ligands
In the context of pharmacology, referring to a substance that directly competes with the endogenous ligand and for binding to a receptor molecule.
Serotonin (5HT)
A synaptic transmitter that is produced in the raphe nuclei and is active in structures throughout the cerebral hemispheres.
Oral Contraceptives
 A birth control pill, typically consisting of steroid hormones to prevent ovulation.
Glucocorticoids
A class of steroid hormones, released by the adrenal cortex, that affect carbohydrate metabolism.
The thalamus and hypothalamus are subdivisions of which of the following
a. forebrain
Severe prolonged vitamin B1 deficiency, often the result of alcohol addiction, may result in learning/memory problems.  this disorder is called
b. Korsakoff's syndrome
four activating systems
Activating SystemNeural pathways that coordinate brain activity through a single neurotransmitterCell bodies are located in a nucleus in the brainstem and their axons are distributed through a wide region of the brainFour SystemsCholinergic, Dopaminergic, Noradrenergic, and Serotonergic
ionotropic receptor
Embedded membrane protein with two partsA binding site for a neurotransmitter A pore that regulates ion flow to directly and rapidly change membrane voltage
Thomas Willis
convinced educated people in the Western world that the brain is the organ that coordinates and controls behavior.
Golgi stains
Fill the whole cell, including details like dendritic spines. Used to characterize the variety of cell types in a region. This stains only a small number of cells, each of which stands out dramatically to the rest of the unstained ones.
Invasive Recording Techniques:
Intracellular Unit Recording: change in membrane potential of neuron over time.Extracellular Unit Recording: measure spikes of action potentials of nearbyneurons.Multiple-Unit Recording: measure of rate of firing of many neurons.Invasive EEG: Implant electrodes in particular brain area.
genes
units of heredity that maintain their structural identity from one generation to another
Cingulate gyrus
Part of the primitive limbic cortex
Simple Cells
Receptive field with a rectangular on-off arrangement
Explicit Memory Circuit
Cortex --> Parahippocampal Cortex and Perirhinal Cortex --> Entorhinal Cortex --> HippocampusThis all feeds back to cortex (MTL, prefrontal, and basal forebrain) which makes us conscious of memories (explicit)
Fast Acting Receptors
Receptors that respond to the beginning and end of a stimulus with brief bursts of firing
tetrodotoxin (TTX)
toxin fr puffer fish blocks voltage -gated sodium channel preventing action potential conduction.
Antipsychotic drugs
A class of drugs that alleviate schizophrenia
Indoleamines
A class of monoamines that serve as neurotransmitters, including serotonin and melatonin.
Glucagon
A hormone, released by alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans, that increases blood glucose.
Adrenocorticoids
A class of steroid hormones that are secreted by the adrenal cortex.  Also called adrenosteroids.
Tropic Hormones
A class of anterior pituitary hormones that affect the secretion of other endocrine glands.
The temporal cortex is the primary intergration/perception site of which of the following
b. audition
Which of the following is an antianxiety medication
b. benzodiazapine
Von Helmholtz
Flow of information in the nervous system is too slow to be a flow of electricityNerve conduction: 30-40 meters/secondElectricity: 3 x 108 meters/second
Advantages of non-human subjects
 → have simpler nervous systems → use of comparative approach → fewer ethical constraints → easier to control for confounds
Nissl stains
Outline all cell bodies because the dyes are attracted to RNA, which encircles the nucleus. These allow us to measure cell body size and the density of cells in particular regions.
Behavioral Research Techniques: Open-Field Test:
Measure of emotionality (e.g., inactivity, thigmotaxis, defecation)
how Hereditary and genetic influences are measured
Comparisons between monozygotic(identical twins) and dizigotic(fraternal twins), adopted children's resemblance to their biological parents.
The hypothalamic circuit
Involvement in Hormone Secretions A principal function is to control the pituitary gland
Psychoactive drug
Substance that acts to alter mood, thought, or behavior and is used to manage neuropsychological illness
The four levels of hierarchical control of hormones
Four LevelsHypothalamusPituitary GlandTarget Endocrine GlandsTarget Organs and Tissues
Basal forebrain
One of the Two Brainstem Systems Influence WakingBasal ForebrainContains cholinergic cells that secrete acetylcholine onto neocortical neurons that stimulate a waking EEG (beta) rhythm
Ventral Cerebrospinal Tract (CST)
Comes from the ipsalateral axon pathways, activates most medial cells
agonist
a molecule, usu. a drug that binds to a receptor molecule and initiates a response like that of another molecule, usu. a neurotransmitter.
Dorsal raphe
One of the midbrain nuclei that give rise to most of the serotonogeric projections of the brain.
Knockout mouse->Knockout organism
An individual in which a particular gene has been disabled by an experimenter.
Anterior pituitary
The front lobe of the pituitary gland; secretes tropic hormones.  Also called adenohypophysis.
Growth hormone (GH/somatotropin/somatrotropic hormone)
A tropic hormone, secreted by the anterior pituitary, that influences the growth of cells and tissues.
The specialized structure at the far end of the axon that releases neurotransmitter is called
c. synaptic button
The spinal roots filling the lower third of the vertebral column are referred to as the
c. cauda equina
The belief that the mind or spirit exists separately from the body is called
b. dualism
A definate counter balance (no output) resulting from light simultaneously striking both center and surround portions of a visual receptive field, tonic rsponse, sensitivity to stationary stimuli but not moving stikuli, and a small receptive field describ
c. X cells
long term potentiation
(LTP)In response to stimulation at a synapse, changed amplitude of an excitatory postsynaptic potential that lasts for hours to days or longerPlays a part in associative learningA strong burst of electrical stimulation applied to the presynaptic neuron produces an increase in the amplitude of the EPSP in the postsynaptic neuron First recorded in the hippocampus by Bliss and Lømø in 1973Field Potential: EPSPs from many neurons; recorded with extracellular electrodesTwo events must occur close together in time for NMDA receptors to openDepolarization of postsynaptic membrane, which displaces Mg2+ from pore (strong electrical stimulus)Activation by glutamate from the presynaptic neuron (weak electrical stimulus)Strong and weak stimuli have been paired
Sagittal plane
The plane that bisects the body into right and left halves.
Invasive physiological research methods: Stereotaxic surgery
surgical technique used in animal research to allow accurate placement of lesions, probes, electrodes, etc. -employs stereotaxic atlas and stereotaxic instrument.
Blind spot
Region of the retina (known as the optic disc) where axons forming the optic nerve leave the eye and where blood vessels enter and leaveThis region has no photoreceptors
Routes of drug administration
Oral administration is the safest, easiest, and most common routeBut oral administration is also the most complex as there are more barriers that the drug must cross to have its desired effectOther methods, such as inhalation or injection, produce much faster effects as there are fewer barriers for the drug to pass(look at picture)
Dream hypothesis: - Jungian
Carl JungDreams are expressions of our “collective unconscious” (history of the human race)
2 Point Test
Poke person with 2 points to determine the size of the receptive field (when it feels like 2 pokes instead of just 1), the receptive fields on the fingers / hands are smaller than the stomach or back
Which of the following is used to calculate the equilibrium potential of a particular ion at a given temperature, charge, and ionic concentration inside and outside the cell
c. Nernst equation
cholinergic neuron and nicotine Ach recptor
Cholinergic NeuronNeuron that uses acetylcholine (ACh) as its main neurotransmitterExcites skeletal muscles to cause contractionsNicotinic ACh ReceptorIonotropic receptor at which acetylcholine and the drug nicotine act to open an pore and allow the flow of ions through the receptor pore
The remaining cranial nerves which have both sensory and motor functions
Trigeminal serves facial sensation through some axons and controls chewing movements through other axons. Facial nerves control facial muscles and receive taste sensation Glossopharyngeal nerves receive sensation from the throat and control the muscles there. Vagus nerve extends far from the head, running to the heart, liver, and intestines.
Locating Neurotransmitters and Receptors: In situ Hybridization
Allows peptides and proteins in the brain to be located.
Label hybrid RNA strands with base sequence complementary to RNA for targetprotein.
Hybrid binds to complementary mRNA in target cell.
Two independent processes of reward
Reward has two independent processes: wanting (incentive) and liking (evaluation of pleasure)Usually, wanting and liking occur together but this is not always the caseRobinson and Berridge (2008) Wanting and liking have separable neural systems Wanting: Involves dopamineLiking: Involves opioid and benzodiazepine-GABA systems
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)
A second messenger that is common in postsynaptic cells.
Which of the following is located anterior to the hypothalamus and promotes sleep
a. venterolateral preoptic area (VLPA)
Which of the following are substances that may be released by a neuron
d. all of the above
Sorting neurons by function – sensory neurons
They are directly affected by environmental stimuli; respond to light, a particular odor, or touch.
Substance abuse and addiction
Substance AbuseUse of a drug for the psychological and behavioral changes that it produces aside from its therapeutic effectsAddiction (a.k.a. substance dependence)Desire for a drug manifested by frequent use of the drug, leading to the development of physical dependence in addition to abuseOften associated with tolerance and unpleasant, sometimes dangerous, withdrawal symptoms upon cessation of drug use
2 opposing forces that drive ions in and out of cell?
diffusion( distribution of molecules, move down concentration gradient) and electrostaic press.(distribution of charges)
Which of the following is the correct order of structures through which auditory information passes on its way to the perceptual areas of the brain
cochlea, cochlear nucleus, superior olivary nucleus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate nucleus, temporal cortex
How many neurons do our brains contain?
100 billion to 150 billion neurons.
What is the significance of columnar organization of simple cells in striate cortex
b. adjacent columns respond to lines or edges that are of slightly different orientation or angle (about 10 degrees)
The arrival of the action potential at the specialized structure at the end of an axon
a. causes calcium ionic channels to open and Ca+ to rush into the structure and move vesicles toward the presynaptic membrane
The homonculus that lies on the pre-central gryrus of the cortex has very large hands but a very small thigh.  Why?
b. the number of muscles in the hand is much larger than the number of muscles in the thigh and thus requires more cortical neurons
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