Buford US HISTORY Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
John Rolfe
married Pocahontas
SNCC
a U.S. civil-rights organization formed by students and active esp. during the 1960s, whose aim was to achieve political and economic equality for blacks through local and regional action groups.
President Harry Truman
integrated the US military
Benjamin Franklin
American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.
Metacom
Native American chief who fought against English colonists in the King Philip's War
MLK Jr.
Civil Rights Activists
Led march from Selma to Montgomery
I have a Dream Speech
Letter from a Birmingham Jail
Assassinated in Memphis, 1968
Kent State
an Ohio University where National Guardsmen opened fire on students protesting the Vietnam War on May 4,1970, wounding nine and killing four
Plymouth Colony
Second permanent English colony in North America founded by the Pilgrims
John Winthrop
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, This man was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Compulsory Education
the requirement that children attend school up to a certain age
Glorious Revolution
This was the "revolution" that replaced James II with William and Mary that also recognized the supremacy of the Parliament with minimum bloodshed
Christopher Columbus
Genoese explorer/sailor who sailed to North America while seeking a trade route with Asia.
Jackie Robinson
The first African American player in the major league baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
Brown vs. Board
supreme court ruled segregation in school was unconstitutional and violated protection clause of 14th ammendment
Nathaniel Bacon
Virginia frontiersman who ed a revolt against both the Native Americans and the House of Burgesses over taxes
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
William Penn
Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718)
King Philip's War
A conflict between New England conlonists and Native American Groups allied under leadership Wampanoag Cheif Metacom
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Colony founded by Puritans in 1630
Malcolm X
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
Royal Colony
a colony under direct control of the king
Cash Crop
Farm crop raised to be sold for money
Stono Rebellion
A 1739 uprising of slaves in South Carolina, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws
Civil Rights Movement
a social movement in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s, in which people organized to demand equal rights for African Americans and other minorities. People worked together to change unfair laws. They gave speeches, marched in the streets, and participated in boycotts.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Joint Stock Company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
SCLC
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
LBJ
Great Society
War on Poverty
Took over for JFk after his death
Affirmative Action
Government-mandated programs that seek to create special employment opportunities for blacks, women and other victims of past discrimination.
Vietcong
the guerrilla soldiers of the Communist faction in Vietnam, also know as the National Liberation Front
Jamestown
First permanent English settlement in North America
Parliament
The lawmaking body of British government
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Warren Court
the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism
They also did Miranda v Arizona
Jonathan Edwards
American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)
Anne Hutchinson
Puritan dissenter banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony who fled to Rhode Island in 1638
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
Ben Franklins Inventions
Lightning Rod, Franklin Stove, Bifocals
Headright System
established by Virginia Company, each settler received a single headright (50 acres) of land , encouraged family groups to migrate together because it meant larger landholdings for the family, any settler who paid passage for another immigrant would get an additional headright for each new arrival - the rich began importing laborers
Enlightenment
An 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society
Medicare
A program added to the Social Security system in 1965 that provides hospitalization insurance for the elderly and permits older Americans to purchase inexpensive coverage for doctor fees and other health expenses.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
banned discrimination in housing
De Jure Segregation
segregation that is imposed by law
Salutary Neglect
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
Triangular Trade
The backbone of New England's economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
Colonization
A system where one country extends its control over another area, especially for economic ($$$) benefit.
Roger Williams
A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south
Middle Passage
The middle portion of the triangular trade that brought African slaves to the Americas
Miranda vs Arizona
1966- 5, 6, 14 amendments. Miranda arrested, signed confession including statement that he had full knowledge of legal rights. After conviction, appealed, said that without counsel and warnings, confession was illegally obtained. Court agreed that should be warned prior to any question. Upheld citizens' rights to a fair trial in state courts.
Half Way Covenant
1662; Religious and social solution to the decline in church membership and political participation. Allowed the children of Baptized church members to have political rights, but still cant take communion. Increased participation in church affairs, dimmed shine of "City on a Hill"
Indentured Servant
Laborer who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America
Dutch and New Netherland
English take New Netherland from the Dutch and rename it New York
Voting Rights Act of 1965
eliminated literacy test as a voting requirement
Proclamation Line of 1763
George III closed the region west of the App Mountains to all settlement by colonists, part of the Treaty of Paris
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