protect, maintain order, justice
|issues in e-commerce||
-privacy and informed consent
-protection of children
-security of information
-collection and use of personal information
Benefits, common values, common identity
Sales, revenue, competitive strength
Instruments through which business uses financial resources to influence government
When transnational corporations operate according to strong moral principles and become a force for positive change in other nations where they operate.
Less significantly affected, less power, relatively transitory(come and go), no shared interest
authority based societies have someone who claims the right to allocate resources and lead. Human rights are not very important. (ex; communism)
Growing demand by stakeholders for companies to report publicly the results of their financial, social and environmental performance audits
|Six Universal Moral Values?||
Trustworthiness, Respect, Responsibility, Fairness, Caring. Citizenship
Anticipating emerging concerns, or "horizon" issues
Relatively large amounts of money given for the purpose of influencing officials to make decisions or take actions that they otherwise might nottake. If the officials considered the merits of the situation only, they might take some other action.
Designing factories and distribution systems as if they were self-contained ecosystems, such as using waste from one process as raw material for another.
An unspoken understanding among employees of what is and is not acceptable behavior.
Occurs when businesses or societies are simultaneously economically efficient and environmentally responsible.
An international financial institution that provides economic development assistance and loans to member nations.
businesses not associated with government agencies
obtain goods from manufacturers and resell them to industrial users, other wholesalers, and retailers
how you should behave. Praised standard above descriptive ethics. How we should try to be, not a lower expected behavior(descriptive).
|Ethical organizations are more?||
Successful than unethical organizations
Defined as the systematic and continuous process of gathering, analyzing, and managing external information about the organization's competitors that can affect the organization's plans, decisions and operations
Understanding among employees of what is/is not acceptable ethical behavior
To secure position of advantage regarding a given regulation or piece of legislation
|side effects of technology||
-depletion of natural resources
-creation of unsatisfying jobs
failure of the free enterprise system
donations made directly to the candidates
a contribution made to political parties instead of to political candidates
|U.S. Sentancing commission||
has established guidelines for sentencing environmental wrongdoers
|factors for accelerating globalization||
Improved communications- SERVICE INDUSTRIES
Less expensive labor abroad
Much better quality than 10 years ago
China's change to Communapitalism (?)
Improved transportation systems
The rise of major transnational corporations
Social and political reforms
The rise of international financial and trade institutions
Greenhouse effect occurs when carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere prevent heat from escaping into space.
Since the Industrial Revolution, the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased by as much as 25%.
Caused (? much) by the burning of fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reported that the earth has already warmed by approx. .4 degrees C
The movement of goods, services, and capital across national borders.
particularly faster in the developing countries using older technology and having less regulation
the amount of goods producers are willing to make and sell
anything that is authored by an individual, such as writings (books, magazine articles, etc.), music, and artwork
something you didnt have to do, but chose to do to help better society. "might do"
are those that engage in economic transactions with the company as it carries out its primary purpose of providing society with goods and services. (primary stakeholders) - employees, stockholders, creditors, customers
Evaluating the issue; coming to an understanding of how it will evolve and how it will affect the organization
|Organizations External Relations?||
Government - Regulatory Agencies - Customers - Investors - Suppliers - Community
|Organizations clearly demonstrating CSR have shown?||
Stronger customer loyalty, stronger performance and profits
|Nonmarket stakeholders are?||
People or groups who—although they do not engage in direct economic exchange with the firm—are affected by or can affect its actions
|whst is the biggest challenge of the practical question?||
this position holds that the MNC should continue to follow its home country's ethical standards even while operating in another country
|positive ethical behaviors||
-giving proper credit where due
-being straightforward and honest with other employees
-treating all employees equally
-being a responsible steward of comapnay assets
-resisting pressure to act unethically
-recognizing and rewarding ethical behavior of others
-talking about the importance of ethics and compliance on a regular basis
the totality of the means employed to provide objects necessary for human sustenance and comfort
|4 defining features of democracy||
An independent media
Separation of powers among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government
An open society where citizens have the right to form their own independent organizations to pursue social, religious, and cultural goals
|Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (1980 & 1986)||
Established Superfund and procedures to clean up hazardous waste sites.
A blend of ideas, customs, traditional practices, company values, and shared meanings that help define normal behavior for everyone who works in a company.
A group of managers and employees responsible for developing and implementing specific action plans to meet an organization's diversity goals. (See also Diversity.)
reporting an illegal action of one's employer
Ethics of the community. 1) Citizen to citizen, 2) Citizen to community, 3) Community to citizen
|Ethical decision-making incorporates ?||
ethical theories, moral reasoning and a systematic approach for answering questions
|Stakeholder Engagement and Dialogue?||
Strategy used by organizations at higher stages of engagement (Meetings between corporate representatives and representatives of their stakeholder groups to discuss issues of mutual concern)
|Steps in dialogue||
1. Each group describes their core issues & concerns
2. Together groups reach common definition of problem/s
3. Together groups invent innovative solutions that involve mutual gain
4. Together establish procedures for implementing solutions
concerned with good and bad or right and wrong behavior and practices that take place in business
|the intuition ethic||
the solution to moral problems lies simply in what you feel or understand to be right in a given situation.
|golden rule of politics||
he who has the gold, rules
|four important ethical questions||
1. what is? (descriptive ethiscs)
2. what ought to be? (normative ethics)
3. how do we get from what is to what ought to be? (practical question)
4. what is our motivation in all this?
these questions capture the core of what ethics is all about
focus on the cosequences or results of the actions they produce
|International Monetary Fund||
Purpose is to make currency exchange easier for member countries so that they can participate in global trade.
Lends foreign exchange to member countries.
|Central state control (system)||
A socioeconomic system in which economic power is concentrated in the hands of government officials and political authorities. The central government owns the property that is used to produce goods and services, and most private markets are illegal.
|Command and control regulation||
A regulatory approach where the government "commands" companies to meet specific standards (such as amounts of particular pollutants) and "controls" the methods (such as technology) used to achieve these standards. This approach is often contrasted with market-based regulatory approaches where the government establishes general goals and allows companies to use the most cost-effective methods possible to achieve them.
|free enterprise systems||
Based on the principle of voluntary association and exchange. Members of society satisfy most of their economic needs through voluntary market transactions.
|Federal Trade Commission (FTC)||
the responsibility of enforcing the principles of a free enterprise system and protecting consumers from unfair or deceptive business practices
|Positive public image and reputation?||
Minimize or prevent harm, Compliant with legal guidelines, audits, response, disciplinary action
|A successful business must meet both its?||
Economic and social objectives
How does action relate to my duty as a person of integrity? Justice and fairness
|general ways that business influence the government||
PACs, lobbying, and coalition building
|the might-equals-right ethic||
justice is defined as the interest of the stronger. what is ethical is what an individual has the strength and power to accomplish.
|Employee Polygraph Protection Act (1988) -||
severely limited polygraph testing for employers and prohibited approximately 85 percent of all such test previously administered in the U.S.
|Burning of fossil fuels||
This releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and is the leading contributor of global warming- Discuss Ignores the warming trends of 1100-1300; warming of .5 C in the 40's and subsequent cooling.
focuses on the sale of price of a product
|Objective Definition of Stakeholders||
Anyone who is affected by the firm( Investors, customers, suppliers)
|The multiple stakeholders view of corperate Responsibility||
All customers and employees are treated with dignity.
|priciples approach to ethics||
based on the idea that managers desire to anchor their decisions on a more solid foundation than the conventional apporach to ethics
|what is the most serious danger of using the conventional approach?||
falling into ethical relativism
|employee duties/ employer rights||
No drug or alcohol abuse
No actions that would
To treat others with respect and
without harassment of any kind
Honesty; appropriate disclosure
Loyalty and commitment
Respect for employer's property and
|Costs of environmental Regulation||
$160 billion a year spent by business and individuals in the United States by 2000.
Job loss in some particularly polluting industries.
Competitiveness of some capital-intensive, "dirty" industries impaired.
|View permeated that business leaders had a responsibility beyond ?||
Just making a profit ⇒ Charity Principle
|ethical tests approach to business ethics||
based on short, practical questions to guide ethical decision making and behavior
|Ethics policies or code||
A written set of rules used to guide managers and employees when they encounter an ethical dilemma.
|The world's largest 200 organizations account for?||
More than 25% of the world's economic activity
|The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002||
was a sweeping change of U.S. campaign finance
The BCRA removed the influence of soft money on candidates running for national office
|Mirvis and Googins of the Center for Global Citizenship||
proposed a five stage model of global corporate citizenship