Bone terminology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Carpals
Wrists
Tibia
Shin
Patella
Kneecap
Femur
Thigh
Sternum
Breastbone
olecranon
elbow
Malleolus
Club-shaped process.
Thoracic vertebrae
Back
Zygomatic
Cheek Bone
clavicle
collar bone
Fibrous Joints (Types)
Gomphosis/Syndesmosis/Suture
Lumbar vertebrae
Lower back
Phalanges
Fingers and toes
Infancy
Growth, formation of bones
Cartilaginous Joints (Fact)
Virtually immovable
Cervical vertebrae
Back of neck
WHAT SURROUNDS CARTILAGE MODEL
PERIOSTEUM
Maxilla Bone
Upper jaw bone
Tarsals
Between metatarsales and ankle
short bones
carpals and tarsals
Cartilaginous Joints (Types)
Symphysis and Synchondrosis
Process
Definite or marked bony prominence
EXTRACAPSULAR
OUTSIDE CAPSULE: MEDIAL, LATERAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT
DURING ENDOCHONDRIAL OSSTIFICATION BONE WILL WIDEN AS
THEY LENGTHEN
CLAVICLE IS KNOWN AS
COLLAR BONE
Ulna Bone
Longer lower arm bone
osteocyte
mature bone cellmaintains the viability of the bone tissue via the dev of long appendages called canaliculi- caniculi are capillary like structure that permit an osteocyte to communicate w/ other osteocyte also nutrient and waste exchange between
DENSE IRREGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE EXTERNAL MEM.
PERIOSTEUM
Endosteum
Membrane lining medullary cavities of long bones
expanded or rounded articulating end of the epiphysis. Usually the proximal end and often connected to the shaft by a neck
head
SYNDESMOSES
DISTAL TIBIA/ FIBULAR JT
CONNECTED BY LIGAMENTS
SLIGHTLY MOVEABLE
largest and most recognizable fontanel
anterior fontanel
2 TO TYPE OF OSSTIFICATIONS
INTRAMEMBRANOUS OSSTIFICATION

ENDOCHONDRIAL OSSTIFICATION
SADDLE
BETWEEN TRAPEZIUM OF CARPALS AND METACARPALS OF THUMB
Fpramen Magnum
Where the spine passes through
intramembranous ossification
converts the highly vascularized fibrous connective tissue to bone. least common ossif processforms cranial bones, mandible, and clavicles.
FOVEA CAPITIS
FOSSA IN HEAD

LIGAMENTUM TERES SECURES HEAD TO ACETABULUM
fibula
smaller of 2 lower leg bones
The appendicular skeleton has how many bones?
126
Name some flat bones.
Frontal, Parietal, Ribs, Scapula
the bone shaft. Site of primary ossification and composed of compact bone.
diaphysis
SYNOVIAL JOINT
BONE ENDS COVERED BY ARTICULAR (HYALINE) CARTILAGE, ARE BEST AT ABSORBING COMPRESSION
epiphysis
irregular ends of a long bone,proximal and distal
WHAT ARTICULATED WITH HEAD OF HUMERUS
GLENIOD CAVITY
ilium
Largest upper position of the hip bone
diaphysis
make up of compact bone.houses the cavit that contains yellow marrowhouses nutrient famina that allow blood and lymph vessel to access bone.
INTEROSSEOUS MEMBRANE
SECURES TIBIA TO FIBULA ALONG LENGTH
WHAT COVERS ALL EXTERNAL BONE SURFACE THAT IS NOT COVERED BY ARTICULAR CARTILAGE
PERIOSTEUM
Describe sesamoid bones.
Small and oval; develop inside/beside tendons
A rough surfaced projection or bump on a bone
tuberosity
suture
uniting the bones of the skull, flat immovable joint
CARTILAGE BONE MODEL REPLACED BY BONE THRU WHICH OSSTIFICATION
ENDOCHONDRIAL OSSTIFICATION
what acts as an attchment site for muscles via tendons
periosteum
WHAT DOES MEDULLARY CAVITY CONTAINS
ADIPOSE( YELLOW BONE MARROW)
What is the name of the largest bone in the leg?
Femur
WHERE DOES INTRAMEMBRANOUS OSSTIFICATION OCCUR
BONE FORMS WITHIN FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE
GREATER (LATERAL) & LESSER (POSTERIOR) TROCHANTERS
ATACHMENT PT FOR MUSCLES
Describe flat bones.
Consists of compact tissue in form of 2 plates enclosing cancellous tissue.
spenoid bone
lies at the base of skull, anterior to temporal bone,forms part of eye socket
WHAT HAPPENDS ON THE DIAPHYSIS SIDE OF THE PLATE
BONE REPLACES CARTILAGE
wormian or sutural bone
extra bones found between the sutures of cranial bone. predominantly between the parietal and occipital bones.
green stick fracture
one side of bone is broken other side bent
number of bones in a fetus
270 that ultimately fuse to 206 total bones.
Maxilla
Oberkiefer
arthro-
joint
frail
weak
Hematoma
blood-filled swelling
Bone-forming cells.
Osteoblasts
metatarsals
mid-foot bones
Upper arm bone
Humerus
bone building cells
osteoblasts
facet
small articular area
scapulo-
scapula, shoulder blade
endochondral ossification
limb bones
Osteoclasts are responsiblefor the_______, breakdown of bone tissue
resorption
OSTEOMYELITIS
IMFLAMATION OF THE BONES
reduction
treatment for bone fracture
eight bones composing the cranium
.fontal.parietal.temporal.lacriminal.occipital.sphenoid.mandible .maxilla
break down bone through resorption
osteoclasts
Mastoid Process
Big Bump behind Jaw
Epiphysis:
Expaned end of long bone
the structural classification is freely moving
synovial
Long Bones Structure
· Diaphysis· Epiphysis· Epiphyseal line
Osteoblasts
the hyaline cartilage model is completely covered with bone matrix by bone-forming cells
material located between the bone cells
matrix
Alveolar margin
Bone between teeth on mandible
bone remodeling
bone reformation and bone resorption
Elongated shaft of a long bone
Diaphysis
ili/o
R. upper part of pelvic bone
three cranial bones containg paranasal sinuses
.frontal .ethmoid.sphemoid
Long (bone)
more long than wideshaft at ends
Inferior
lower in place or position; situated beneath another
Catilage/Endochondrial Bone
bone develped by replacing hyaline cartilage during endochondral ossification
OSTEOBLAST
BAY BONE CELLS ALSO CALLED BONE BUIDERS
Bone Markings are irregular areas on the surface of bones that indicate areas where blood vessels, ligaments, or nerves enter bone tissue or assist in formation of a joint.Common Bone MakingsForamen = Opening or notch. Ex.. Foramen magnum (occipital bone) Fissure = narrow opening between two bones Ex..inferior orbital fissure (maxilla)Process = protrusion of bone Ex.. olecranon process (ulna) Trochanter = a projection of bones Ex.. greater and lesser trochanters (femur)Tuberosity = a thickened or rounded projection Ex. ischial tuberosity (ischium)Crest = a ridge like projection. Ex.. iliac crest (ilium)Condole = a round projection that assists in the formation of a join Ex. medial and lateral condyles (femur)
this classification of fracture is open(compound)-penetrates skin, closed(simple)
skin penetration
Open compound fracture
broken bone penetrates through the skin
facet
a small, smooth surface or process for articulation
an air space found in some skull bones
sinus
Sella Turcica
Column in front of the sting ray
CALCITONIN
THIS IS RELEASED WHEN THERE IS TOO MUCH CALCIUM IN THE BLOOD STREAM AND IT TRIGGERS THE BONES TO DEPOSIT CALCUIM IN THEIR STORES
what covers the end os the epiphysis
atricular cartilage
the inner layer of periosteum consists of _____ what makes bones and _____ which destroys bones
osteoblast, osteocyte
nasal bones
two small oblong bones that form--at their junction--the bridge of the nose
Steps of Ossification:
Step 3
Primary ossification center: center of diaphysis expands because more osteoblasts becomes osteocast
properties of sesamoid bones
-kernal-like bones
-do not exist in every body (save for patella), some bodies have more than others
-no periosteum
-no repair
-adds support to joint
what is articular cartilage?
cartilage that covers the diarthrodial joints (hyaline cartilage)
name 6 parts of the bone
diaphysis, epihysis, periosteum, medullary cavity, articular cartilage, endosteum
parts of a vertebra 5
body, intervertebral disk, spinous process, transverse processes, neural canal
Steps of Ossification:
Step 2
 
Bony Collar: the cartilage is replaced by bone
4 Major Cell Types Found in Bone
osteogenic, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts
COMPACT BONE
THE DENSE OUTER BONE CLOSE TO AND ON THE BONE SURFACE HAS VERY SMALL AIR SPACES
capitate bone (2)
The largest and central bone of the carpus, articulating with the second, third, and fourth metacarpal bones.
what are the primary curvatures?
the curvatures in the spinal and sacral region (present when we are born)
What are the causes of Osteomalacia
Bone isn't adequately mineralized in adults
Structure Articular cartilage
Other bones consist of thin plates of compact bone with spongy bone inside – in flat bones, spongy layer diploe
spongy cone consists of thin sheets of bone called ____
trabeculae, that are aligned alng lines of stress
What does it mean to have homeostasis of bone density?
A Stable and normal bone density.
In layman's terms, what is a greenstick fracture?
one side of the bone is broken, the other is bent
skull
cranium
Occipital
Foramen Magnum
Tubercle
small rounded projection
occipital (c's)
occipital condyles
pubis
-pubic crest
-pubic symphisis
 
Rounded articular projection
Condyle
Fissure
narrow slit like opening
What is a Groove?
Furrow.
temporal (c) foramen
carotid foramen
acetubulum
marking articulates with the femur
cavity
a hollow space or place
ear ossicles (3)
stapes, incus, malleus
Condyle
A smooth, rounded articular process
Smooth, nearly flat articular surface
Facet
Head
Projection that helps form joint:Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck.
trochlea
this marking articulates with the ulna
Tuberosity
large rounded projection, may be roughened
What is a Condyle?
Rounded articular projection.
thoracic (vertebral column)
medium size (round hole)
Neck

A narrow connection between the epiphysis and diaphysis
line
narrow ridge of bone, less prominent than a crest
greater trochanter
the gluteus medius muscle inserts here
mandibular condyle
this marking articulates to the temporal bone
ramus
a branch, a smaller structure given off by a larger one
What is a smooth, nearly flat articular surface?
Facet
Crest
narrow raised ridge found on certain bones (iliac crest)
Epicondyle
Raised area on a or above a condyle
head of femur
marking articulates with the coxas bone
Sinus
Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane
sphenoid (sella turcica)
"turkish saddle" which holds the pituitary gland
DEPRESSION OR OPENING FOR NERVE OR BLOOD ( FISSURE)
NARROW ,SLITLIKE OPENING
deltoid tuberosity
this marking is the insertion site for the deltoid muscle
angle
the area of junction point of 2 or more surfaces
infraspinous fossa
this marking is the origin site of the infraspinatus muscle
Round or oval opening through a bone
Foramen (Foramina = Pleural)
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