CCJS Final Flashcards

Social control theory
Terms Definitions
presentence investigation “The examination of a convicted offender’s backround prior to sentencing. Presentence examinations are generally conducted by probation or parole officers and are submitted to sentencing authorites. Presentence reports usually falls to a probation or parole officer. Reports take one of three forms:i. A detailed written report on the defendants personal and criminal history, also called long form.ii. An abbreviated written report summarizing the information most likely to be useful in a sentencing decision (the short form).iii. A verbal report to the court made by the investigating officer based on field notes but structured according to established categories.
- Palestinian Islamist socio-political organization, terrorist organization.
Community policing
Conceptualized by Herman Goldstein
Nationa Incident Based Reportin System. started in the 90's, contained no hierarchy rule, colelct more data overall than the UCR
Integrated THeories
advocates a multifactorial approach
Adjudicatory hearing-
Adjudicatory hearings for juveniles are similar to adult trials, with some notable exceptions....• emphasis on privacy,informality, speed, Evidentiary standard, Philosophy of the court, and No trial by jury
BJS findings:____% of convicted sex offenders were placed on probation
Peak age of a juvi offender
Drug Treatment Strategies
Therapuetic Communities, Mult-systemic therapy, Outpatient Drug Free Programs, Balanced Restorative Justice.
PP. measures psychological and mental differences between criminals and non-criminals.
seeks to mediate conflict, assist victims, reintegrate offenders into community
General deterrence
strives to influence the future behavior of people who have not yet been arrested and who may be tempted to turn to crime.
the Community-based Era-
7th era. 1967 restoration, Rehabilitation
Mixed sentencing
Require that offenders serve weekends in jail and receive probation supervision during the week. Other types of mixed sentencing require offenders to participate in treatment or sommunity service programs while on probation.
Which governmental branch to the po belong to?
The Computer Voice Stress Analyzer. It is entirely more efficient and should be a fourth channel of the polygraphs.
Job Task Analysis
Creates job descriptions which contains duties and requirements. To construct this they talk to SMEs who are subject matter experts.
Designer Drugs
Lad-made drugs designed to avoid existing drug laws.
Lavater and Gall
Helped develop Physiognomy, the process which determines criminal presence based primarily on physical features of the face.
Routine Activities Theory
SPT. motivated offender, suitable target, absence of guardian.
BP Neuroscience
criminality due to differences in nervous system activities
Human Ecology
deals with interrelations b/t humans, organisms, physical environment
Double jeopardy
Double jeopardy is prohibited by the 5th and 14th Amendments. In jones case Supreme court did not agree that the possibility of only one punishment negated double jeopardy. The double jeopardy clause speaks in terms of “potential risk of trial and conviction-not punishment” and court concluded that two separate adjudicatory processes were sufficient to warrant a finding of double jeopardy. Jones conviction was cleared.
Patria postestas
Early court philosophy in dealing with juveniles derived from an early roman principle called parita potestas. Under roman law children were members of their family, but father had absolute control over children, and they in turn had an absolute responsibility to obey his wishes. Roman understanding of the social role of children strongly influenced English culture and eventually led to the development of the legal principle of Parens Patriate.
mandatory minimus-
6 months. under the 1984 comprehensive crime control act
the Treatment Era
6th era. 1945, focused on Rehabilitation.
Determinate sentencing-
A form of structured sentencing “A model of criminal punishment in which an offender is given a fixed term of imprisonment that may be reduced by good time or gain time. Under the model, for example, all offenders convicted of the same degree of burglary would be sentenced to the same length behind bars.
Percentage of all murders leads to the arrest of a juvenile
is not typical of the average male inmate
Robert Peel
came up with nine principles; very strict police chief.
Protection of Illegal Activities
Oportunistic Theft
"Pirate Security"
Grey area
Def. An officer receives/expects to receive an unauthorized reward (money, drugs, items/property, services)
Casefixing - trying to determine outcome of case; perjury
Kickback - unauthorized reward for referral
Shakedown - unauthorized reward for non-enforcement
Protection - " ^^ "; ongoing
Theft - stealing, shopping taking advantage
Private Security - double dipping, getting paid twice @ same time
Grey area - discounts/free products
Obstacles of Prevention Programs
Ethical concerns about early intervention, Labeling and stigmatization associated with participants in such programs. Long Delay before results can be seen.
Social Commitment
Theorized by Tobey, it suggests that you have reasons to conform as you have stakes in your community.
Dramatization of Evil
Theory by Tannenbaum. Suggests that people associate your label with how you behave. Self fulfilling prophecy.
Variation by Sex
The best known fact regarding criminology is that men commit far more crime than women.
Crime Rate: Incidence
Measured by dividing number of offenses by the number of offenders.
Containment Theory (Walter Reckless)
Social Control Theory. Deviant motivations pushes pulls into crime.
Neglected children
are those who do not receive proper care from their parents or guardians. They may suffer from malnutrition or may not be provided with adequate shelter.
the emergence of prisons
During the middle ages, “punitive imprisonment appears to have been introduced into Europe by Christian church in the incarceration of certain offenders against cannon law. Imprisonment as punishment differs significantly from the concept of imprisonment for punishment, and embodiment of this concept in American penal institutions represented the beginning of a new chapter in corrections reform. U.S. prisons came to serve as models for European reformers searching for ways to humanize criminal punishment.
Blended sentence
A form of sentencing authority, it is a juvenile court disposition that imposes both a juvenile sanction and an adult criminal sentence upon an adjudicated delinquent. The adult sentence is suspended if the juvenile offender successfully completes the term of the juvenile disposition and refrains from committing any new offense.
Ex Parte Crouse
this 1838 case clarified the power that states had in committing children to institutions. Case involved Mary Ann Crouse, who had been committed to the Philadelphia house of refuge by a lower court over the objections of her father. She was beyond control of her parents. Ann’s father petitioned the court to release his daughter on the grounds that she had been denied the right to trial by jury. (6th amendment). The decision by the appeals court upheld the legality of Mary ann’s commitment. It pointed to the state’s interest in assisting children and denied that punishment or retribution played any part in her treatment. The court also focused on parental responsibilities in general and stressed the need for state intervention to provide for the moral development of children whose parents had failed them. The court built its decision around the doctrine of Parens patriae. Applying this English concept to the American scene.
Social ecology theory
places that have high crime rates usually exhibit high rates of area poverty, low educational levels, and stability over long periods of time. It should be noted that low educational levels among these people does not suggest that they are “defective,” nor does it suggest that “defective” people likely to commit crime
Less Lethal Force
Named such because people can still die from the force applied. IE of the 14 people who got tazed in 3 of them died.
Marijuana figures
56% of teens report marijuana use by the age of 14.
Age Graded Theory
Sampson and Laub suggest that certain turning point stop crime. Marriage, Miltary Service, Reform School. Therfeore, Incpapication and Three strikes is a good think.
Crime Rate
Divide the amount of homicides by the total population and multiply it by 100,000.Is equal to the product og the pevalence and incidence.
BP Criticisms
cannot seek a genetic source for a social definition. Small samples
emphasis on privacy
Juvenile hearings are not open to the public or to the media. No transcript of the proceedings is created.
Paternoster and Brame, UMD Professors
Found that both adolescent-limited and life-course persistent offending could be predicted by delinquent peer influence
Primary goals of Police officers
Maintain Order, protect life and property. Everything else is secondary.
Drug Related Deaths
More deaths occur each year as a result of overdose on prescription drugs than overdose on Cocaine or Heroin.
Criticism of Labeling Theory
Does explain the first crime, most people desist from crime after their adolescence, puts no weight on the nature of the act itself.
Child Mental Disorders
ADHD ODD COnduct disorders can lead to more serious adult criminal behavior
Islamic Law (Shari’ah Law)
Means “path of God”, Islamic law is based on 4 sources. In order of importance, these sources are (1) the Quran, the holy book of islams, which Muslims believe is the word of god or Allah; (2) the teachings of the prophet Muhammad; (3) a consensus of the clergy in cases where neither the Koran nor the prophet directly addresses an issue; and (4) reason or logic, which should be used when no solution can be found in the other three sources.
When is force justified?
To defend self and others. To move, lead or direct a person to preserve orded or enforce a law. To repel an attack. To terminate resistance.
Evaluating Theory
Can the theory be tested? If so do the result empirically support the theory? If so, the theory merits evaluation. If the answer to any of the questions are no, fuck it, you're done.
Controlled substance act (CSA) and what it defines (Schedule of drugs)-
sets up 5 schedules that classify psychoactive drugs according to their degree of psychoactivity and abuse potential.•Schedule 1- controlled substances have no established medical usage, cannot be used safely, and have great potential for abuse. Heroin, LSD, mescaline, peyote, methaqualone, marijuana.•Schedule II- substances with high abuse potential which there is medical use. Opium, morphine, codeine, cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP).•Schedule III- lower abuse potential than do those in schedules 1 and 2 . May lead to a psychological dependence or a physical dependence. Diluted forms of most schedule 2 drugs.•Schedule 4- depressents, minor tranquilizers such as valium, Librium.•Schedule 5- prescription drugs with low potential for abuse or dependence.
Comments from the; Proponents of the Juvenile Justice System
Majority of juveniles cannot afford adequate legal representation, Juveniles receive harsher sentences in adult courts, Juvenile courts act in "the best interest of the child".
Life Course Criminality (Sampson & Laub)
Age graded theory of informal social control. Ex: Child ha family as control. Adult has marriage and job.

Timing and ordering of significant life events affect criminality.

COntinuity and Change 0 what remains the same and what changes
The first rule of law enforcement.
Make sure you go home alive, don't take overt risks.
Most cops use too much or too little force?
Too little, they are afraid of legal trouble.
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