Bones and Joints Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Osteoblast
Immature bone cell
Fasciectomy
Removal of fascia
Myositis
Inflammation of muscle
what gland secretes calcitonin?
thyroid
Peroneal
Pertaining to the fibula
Metacarpectomy
Removal of hand bones
Myelopoiesis
Formation of bone marrow
Polyarthritis
Inflammation of many joints
Rhabdomyosarcoma
Tumor (malignant)of skeletal muscle
Chondroma
Tumor (benign) of cartilage
Chondromalacia
Abnormal softening of cartilage
Bursitis
Inflammation of a bursa
Rhabdomyoma
Tumor (benign)of a skeletal muscle
Scoliosis
Abnormal condition of lateral curvature of the spine
Decalcification
Removal of calcium from bones
Supraclavicular
Pertaining to the collar bone
Craniotome
Instrument to cut the skull
Metatarsalgia
Pain of the foot bones
Epiphysis
End of a long bone
Hypercalcemia
Excessive calcium in the bloodstream
Sternal
Pertaining to the breast bone
Patellar
Pertaining to below the kneecap
bone stores which minerals?
calcium and phosphorus
Acetabular
Pertaining to the acetabulum (HIP SOCKET)
Ankylosis
Abnormal stiffening and immobility of a joint
Osteoporosis
Condition of increased porosity of bone with loss of bony tissue and decrease in bone mass
Electromyography
Process of recording the electricity in muscle
Amyotrophic
Pertaining to loss of muscle development (in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscles can't move becasue of degeneration of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord)
Radial
Pertaining to the lateral arm bone
Spondylolisthesis
Forward displacement of a vertebra over a lower segment
Chondrocostal
Pertaining to the cartilage attached to the ribs
Leiomyoma
Tumor (benign) of a smooth muscle
during bone formation, what does the perichondrium surrounding the diaphysis become?
periosteum
cancellous bone consists of a meshwork of struts or ____
trabeculae
in the diaphysis, what do chondrogenic cells differentiate into?
osteoblasts
Ischial
Pertaining to the ischium (LOWER AND POSTERIOR PART OF THE HIP BONE)
Abduction
Process of carrying away (muscle is pulled away from the midline of the body)
Dorsiflexion
Bending of the foot backward and upward
Adduction
Process of carrying toward (muscle is pulled toward the midline of the body)
Atrophy
Decrease in size of a normally developed organ or tissue; wasting of tissue
Orthopedics
The specialty of medicine dealing with bones and bone diseases. (orthopedists originally straightened (orth/o) the bones of children (ped/o)
Ulnar
Pertaining to the medial lower arm bone
what ties the periosteal membrane to the bone surface?
sharpey's fibers
calcitonin inhibits what?
osteoclast activity and thus bone resorption
describe endochondral ossification.
occurs when a hyaline cartilaginous model continues to grow and forms as a scaffold for the developing bone
Myasthenia gravis
Condition of muscle weakness caused by a failure in transmission of nervous impulses from a nerve tp muscle cell
Spinal Stenosis
Narrowing of the neutral canal or nerve root canals in the lumbar spine
Laminectomy
Removal of a lamina to relieve the sysmptoms of a ruptured intervertebral disk
Lumbosacral
Pertaining to the lower back and the sacrum
the sutures of the skull are what types of joints?
fibrous joints
what are howship's lacunae?
small cavities that form when osteoclasts resorb bone
osteoblasts are stimulated by what to resorb bone?
positive piezoelectric charges
according to the mechanostat hypothesis, an above acceptable strain level results in what two things?
modeling stimulated and remodeling suppressed
what are the primary organic components of bone?
collagen (mainly type 1)
proteoglycans
glycoproteins (osteocalcin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, & osteonectin)
what does the ruffled border of osteoclasts secrete?
H+ ions
lysosomal hydrolases
collagenase
what are canaliculi?
small canals that connect the lacunae and allow the osteocytes to communicate via long processes with gap junctions
what is appositional growth?
growth that increases diameter by adding new bone under the periosteum
Pubic Symphysis
Junction of the pubic bones on the midline in front of the body
Plantar Flexion
Bending downward of the sole of the foot
what are volkman's canals?
canals that allow central canals of adjacent osteons communicate
the production of parathyroid hormone results in what?
osteoblasts have receptors that recognize this hormone and they stimulate osteoclasts to resorb bone to liberate calcium
define modeling (aka surface remodeling)
the process by which bones modify their gross morphology and internal architecture - limited in mature bones. it is also the primary process by which bones adapt to their mechanical environment
what are the two types of lamellae?
1. outer circumferential lamellae found on the periosteal surface
2. inner circumferential lamellae found on the endosteal surface
what are the three distinct processes involved in the microstructure of bone?
1. growth
2. modeling - primary bone
3. remodeling - secondary bone
what are the two ways bone can form?
1. intramembranous ossification (like bones of the cranial vault, face and clavicles)
2. endochondral ossification (all other bones)
Synarthroses
Immovable joints
produce oil
sebaceous glands
MATURE BONE CELLS
OSTEOCYTES
Hemopoiesis
Blood cell formation
RELATIONSHIP TO THE NOSE
NASAL
Condyloid joint
Diarthrotic joint
Biaxial joint
Articular surfaces are oval
Rotation not possible
Where radius meets carpals at wrist
Saddle Joint
Diarthrotic joint
Biaxial joint
Rotation is restricted
Two articulating bones have concave and convex surfaces, respectively
Convex surface of one bone fits the concave surface of another
Carpals and metacarpals
what gives water surface tension
cohesion
do fibroblasts mature into cytes?
True
Extension
Stretching out

movement of joint where angle between bones increases
Osteoblasts
Highly active
make protein (collagen) and hydroxyapatite of bone
most abundant type of cartlidge
hyaline cartilage
a gomphosis is functionally classified as
synarthrosis
THE EXPANDED ENDS OF A BONE
EPIPHYSIS
Crystals consisting mostly of calcium phosphate form a component of bone called
Hydroxyapatite
Hinge joint
Diarthrotic joint
Movement occurs in only one plane
Elbow, knee, fingers
Hydroxyapatite
Crystals made of calcium phosphate that are embedded in collagen (protein) fibers
Adds hardness and strength to bones
spongy bone do/do not hae osteons
do not
what is not a epidermal derivative
d. papillae
connects the dermis to the underlying organs and tissues
hypodermis
a__________ is a fibrous joint in which a cone-shaped peg fits into a socket.
gomphosis
THE LOWERMOST PORTION OF THE SPINE (IT IS JOINED TO THE ILIUM) IS CALLED THE _______
SACRAL
THE THIN MEMBRANE WHICH LINES THE MARROW CAVITY OF A BONE
ENDOSTEUM
Two examples of short blocklike obnes in the body are the bones of the wrist called carpals, and the bones of the ankles known as
Tarsals
Bone is remodeled and dissolved by substances secreted by bone-destroying cells referred to as
Osteoclasts
Osteocytes
Inactive bone forming cells that have become trapped within the bony tissue they produce

Nourish bone and remove wastes from surrounding bone
Wherever it lacks a cartilege cover, the long bone is covered with a connective tissue membrane known as the
Periosteum
What other two joint pathologies are similar to AS?
DJD
DISH
the distal or proximal end of a bone
epiphysis
the portion of the bony pelvis superior to the pelvic brim
false pelvis
What is 90% of the epidermal cells?
d. keratinocytes
THE ADJECTIVAL FORM OF THE TERM "CORTEX" WHICH REFERS TO THE OUTER LAYER
CORTICAL BONE
THE LUMBAR PORTION OF THE SPINE JOINS WITH THE LOWERMOST PORTION OF THE SPINE. TOGETHER, THIS IS CLLED THE ________ JUNCTION
LUMBOSACRAL
Fibrous Capsule
Encases two bones and forms synovial cavity
When a body part moves toward the midline, the movement is
Adduction
Perforating canals
connect the bone cells with one another and link central canals
The thick fluid found within the synovial cavity of a diarthrotic joint is called
Synovial fluid
Bone formation taking place near the ends of the long bones occurs by the process of
Endochondral ossification
Flat Bones
Two thin plates of compact bone enclosing a central region of spongy bone.
What is the pathognomic lesion of gout?
Tophus formation
which is the thickest layer of skin
a. dermis
________ is a thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the epiphyses where the bone forms a joint with another bone
articular carilage
Ischemia in bone leads to what?
Increased osteoblastic activity, resulting in bone sclerosis
All the bones of tghe skull, vertebral column, and the ribcage are considered together as the
Axial skeleton
What three areas of the body are typical locations for ankylosing spondylitis?
SI joints
heels
spine
where are the osteogenic cells of a long bone?
periosteum and endosteum
Which cell within bone mediates Wolff's Law?
OsteocytesThey regulate the cell environment
What are the other (aka's) names for calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crytal deposition disease?
CPPD, pseudogout, chondrocalcinosis
In Reiter's Syndrome, what are the three parts of the triad?
1. Conjunctivitis
2. Urethritis
3. Arthritis
Gout
What gender is most susceptible, and what percentage?
95% of patients are male
name some functions of sweat
sweat... removes water and heat from body, helps excrete sm amts of salts, sweat helps excrete ammonia and urea
What are the four macroscopic components of a bone?
1. Cortical bone2. trabecular bone3. periosteum4. endosteum
Ankylosing Spondylitis:
Does exercise diminish or exacerbate the pain?
It diminishes the pain and is improved with exercise.
What are the characteristics of cortical bone?
- Lemellar collagen fibers- dense and strong- outer covering supports and protects bone
What are the four stages of gout? Describe each.
1. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia
2. Acute Gouty arthritis - formation of monosodium urate crystals in joint fluid and synovial membrane >> acute inflammatory synotivits

3. Chronic gouty arthritis - precipitation of urates into synovial linings. Synovial proliferation and pannus formation. Destruction of cartilage and erosion of bone

4. Tophus formation - local accumulation of monosodium urate crystals surrounded my intense inflammation.
What are the characteristics of trabecular bone?
- lamellar and woven- found in bone medullary cavity, skull, vertebral bodies
What are the clinical features of the skin in a patient with psoriatic arthritis?
1. Erythematous patches covered with silvery scales
2. Auspitz Sign - removal of scales results in pinpoint bleeding
3. On the elbow, knee, scalp, back
red bone marrow is found in the spongy bone of
ribs, hip bones, brestbone, ends of long bones
If you were to look on an x-ray, what would you see in a patient with psoriatic arthritis?
1. soft tissue swelling
2. Erosions and bone proliferation
3. "Pencil in Cup" erosion
4. Periostitis with "fluffy" new bone
5. Ankylosis in interphalangeal joints
6. SI joint involvement in 30-50% of patients
7. in the spine >> syndesmophytes
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