Cellular Respiration 11 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Products
CO2 & H20
Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of the ATP formed during glycolysis?
100%
...
Glycolysis
__net ATP from substrate-level phosphorylation
__NADH yields __ ATP (assuming 3 ATP per NADH) by oxidative phosphorylation
cytochrome
(si´-to-krom) An iron-containing protein that is a component of electron transport chains in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells and the plasma membranes of prokaryotic cells.
Thylakoid
interconnected membranous sacs that separates stroma from other campartments
gross
how many total are formed
_______-means does not require oxygen
anaerobic
Carotenoids
accessory pigment; either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis
Glycolysis
The decomposition (lysis) of glucose to PGAL and then to pyruvate after 2NAD+ take extra electrons and ADP becomes ATP. occuring in the cytosol.
Creates 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvate
Gylcolysis
Occurs in the cytosol, "glucose breaking"
energy coupling: 2 ATP used, 4 formed
glucose (6 C skeleton) is oxidized, 2 NAD+ reduced to 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate molecules formed. Occurs with OR without oxygen
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
the name for NAD+
one
the number of chemical reactions required for ATP to quickly release its energy
Where does Krebs take place?
Mitochondria matrix
Krebs Cycle
part of aerobic respiration; also known as citric acid cycle
2 pyruvate, 2 CoA, 2 Nad+
Link reaction:
inputs:
Lactic Acid Fermentation
the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that is called ______ as the main end product
heterotroph
an organism that must consume organic material for energy
Calorie
Amount of energy needed to raise temperature 1 gram of water 1 degree C
Rotor
A structure within ATP synthase that spins as H+ flows past it down the H+ gradient.
fermentation
When sugars are partially broken down with the help of oxygen.
electron carrier
an entity that receives electrons (reduction) and shuttles them to a step further along (oxidation)
substrate molecule
refers to an organic molecule generated during the catabolism of glucose
food
the ultimate source of energy for animals
How many ATP's are produced per molecule of Glucose?
38
What is reduction?
Gain of electronsGain of energy
(ets) each FADH can produce ___ ATP
2
Cytochromes
proteins that help make up the ETC, similar in structure to hemoglobin but transport e- instead of oxygen
OXYGEN (O2)
excess gas released by plants during photosynthesis; used by both plants & animals for respiration
substrate-level phosphorylation
when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP (rather than adding an inorganic phosphate by oxidation)
Electron Transport Chain
electrons move from molecule to molecule until they combine with oxygen and hydrogen ions to form water
the energy carried by these electrons is stored in the mitochondrion in a form that can be used to synthesize ATP via oxidative phosphorylation
energy payoff phase
major phase of glycolysis
ATP is produced by SLP
cytosol
In what part of the cell does glycolysis occur?
ADP
a low energy molecule that can be recharged by adding a phosphate
Cellular respiration
the catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules for the production of ATP; but it is also a synonym for aerobic respiration
oxidation
The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
What is pyruvate reduced by to form lactate?
NADH
3 main types of monosaccarides absorbed by the body
glucose, galactose, fructose
pyruvate (3 carbons) is converted to Acetyl CoA (2 carbons)
Link reaction:
Important fact!!!:
aerobic respiration
The process of breaking down sugars to create ATP with the use of oxygen.
oxidative phosphorylation
NADH + FADH2 donate an electron to protein of membrane. The production of ATP from high energy electrons pushing H+ across the membrane to create a proton-motive gradient. this gradient is then used to make ATP in chemiosmosis
reduced
If a molecule gains a hydrogen, it is _______________
What is the energy stored in food molecules used for?
Synthesis ATP
Pyranose
a glucose ring that can come in alpha or beta form
1ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH₂
Krebs Cycle
outputs: With each spin, these are produced (spins twice)
high permeability to protons
A major function of the mitochondrial inner membrane is the conversion of energy from electrons to the stored energy of the phosphate bond in ATP. To accomplish this function, the membrane must have all of the following features except...
What is lactic acid fermentation?
Uses only glycolysisDone by human muscle cells und
three stages of cellular respiration
glycolosis, citric acid or Krebs, ETP
FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)
a compound that acts as a hydrogen acceptor in dehydrogenation reactions
2 pyruvate, 2 water, 2 ATP, 2NADH, 2H+
net products of glycolysis
What is the net product of glycolysis
2 ATP per glucose2 NADH
How is Cellular Respiration like Combustion?
CH + O2 » CO2 + H20
What is involved in cellular respiration"
The energy is released from the chemical bonds in
the creation of a proton gradient
When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into the intermembrane space, the result is...
What are the three parts to cellular respiration?
1. Glycolysis2. Krebs cycle3. Electron Transport C
What happens in the ETC and chemiosmosis?
NADH and FADH2, give up electrons tot eh chain and energy is released to produce O2 and ATP
What is the difference between strict vs facultati
Strict: can only do Rs this one wayFacultative: Ca
What happens to the acetyl group in the third stage of the krebs cycle?
it is oxidized in a series of nine reactions, which occur in the matrix of the matrix of the mitochondria
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