Cellular Respiration Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Glycolysis is an __________ reaction.
An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP. Most ATP synthesis in cells occurs by chemiosmosis
During aerobic respiration, which of the following directly donates electrons to the electron transport chain a the lowest energy level?
In fermentation, ______ is ________.
NADH.... oxidized
An iron-containing protein that is a component of electron transport chains in the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells and the plasma membranes of prokaryotic cells
redox reactions
A chemical reaction involving the complete or partial transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; short for oxidation-reaction reaction
IMAGE Refer to figure 9.2. Starting with citric acid and ending with oxaloacetic acid, how many ATP molecules can be formed from oxidative phosphorylation?
Which of the processes in eukaryotic cells will normally proceed whether O2 is present or absent?
Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration?
electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP
acetyl CoA
Acetyl coenzyme A; the entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration, formed from a fragment of pyruvate attatched to a coenzyme
reducing agent
The electron donor in a redox reaction
The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction
ATP synthase
A complex of several membrane proteins that provide a port through which protons diffuse. This complex functions in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion (proton) concentration gradient to make ATP. ATP syntahse are found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells and in the plasma membrane of prokaryotes
oxidative phosphorylation
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reaction of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration
obligate anaerobes
An organism that only carries otu fermentation or anaerobic respiration. Such organisms cannot use oxygen and in fact may be poisoned by it
The ATP made during fermentation is generated by which of the following?
substrate-level phosphorylation
How many molecules of CO2 would be released from the complete aerobic respiration of a molecule of sucrose, a disaccharide?
Hydrogen ions flowing through a cylinder causing the cylinder and attached rod to rotate like rushing steam turns a water wheel is an analogy that best describes
ATP synthesis activity
IMAGE carbon skeletons for amino acid biosynthesis are supplied by intermediates of the Krebs cycle. Which intermediate would supply the carbon skeleton for synthesis of a 5-carbon amino acid?
α-ketoglutaric acid
substrate-level phosphorylation
The formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transferring a phosphate grou pto ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism
IMAGE Refer to figure 9.2. How many ATP molecules can be made through substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation with succinyl coA and ended with oxaloacetate?
7, apparently
Most of the energy that enters electron transport enters as
How many carbon atoms feed into the Krebs cycle?
2 (two)
Most CO2 from catabolism is released during
the Krebs cycle
A major function in the mitochondrial inner membrane is the conversion of energy from electrons to the stored energy of the phosphate bond in ATP. To accomplish this function, this membrane must have all of the following feature EXCEPT
high permeability to protons
Carbon skeletons to be broken down during cellular respiration can be obtained from
polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids
In mitochondria, exergonic redox reactions
provide the energy to establish the proton gradient
In addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?
NADH and pyruvate
When electrons flow along the electron transport chains of mitochondria, which of the following changes occurs.
The PH of the matrix increases.
Which of the following is a true distinction between fermentation and cellular respiration?
NADH is oxidized by the electron transport chain only in respiration
In the presence of a metabolic poison that specifically and completely inhibits the function of mitochondrial ATP synthase, which of the following would you expect?
an increase in the PH difference across the inner mitochondrial membrane
All of the following statements about glycolysis are true EXCEPT
the end products of glycolysis are CO2 and H2O
All of the following are functions of the Krebs cycle EXCEPT
adding electrons and protons to oxygen to form water
/ 34

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online