Changing society terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
landslide lyndon
Lyndon B. Johnson
When was Canada's 100 birthday?
1967
During the war the provinces transferred their powers to manage the economy to which government?
Federal
One in five bachelors ____ overseas
Married
hungarian uprising
*Hungary against Russia *Gain independence from Russia *A new Hungarian government in 1956 announced its withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact
Betty Friedan
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
Who became an increasingly important consumer group during the 1950s?
Teenagers.
Veterans and war widows were given priorty for which jobs?
Government
What does CCF stand for?
Cooperative commonwealth federation
bobby seale
militant founder/leader of the Black Panthers, organized the militant group the Black Panthers & Hugh Newton wanted black rights through violence.
brinkmanship
the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)
black panthers
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
viet cong
a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.
military-industrial complex
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
great society
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
gov. george wallace
segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever of alabama, He ran on saying he didn't want any integration, he passed a law that said Protests are illegal
medicare/medicaid
a federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older / for the poor
thurgood marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Rachel Carson
United States biologist remembered for her opposition to the use of pesticides that were hazardous to wildlife (1907-1964). Wrote Silent Springs.
Under whose leadership was the Massachusetts Bay Colony founded?
John Winthrop.
In contrast to the Puritans, _____ believed that all persons had an 'inner light,' which allowed them to communicate w/ God.
Quakers.
peace corps
a civilian organization sponsored by the United States government
When did baby boomers move away from their radical political linings and lifestyles?
1980s
What kind of programs did Canadians want the government to continue to provide?
Social support
When did Mackenzie King retire? How old was he?
1948, 73
new frontier
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
suez crisis
July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power
eugene "bull" connor
police commissioner of Birmingham AL, arrested 2200 in 5 weeks, police commissioner personally supervised a brutal effort to break up the peaceful marches Martin Luther King Jr. led, arresting hundreds of demonstrators and using attack dogs, tear gas, electric cattle prods, and fire hoses, all in view of TV cameras.
jackie robinson
The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
ngo dinh diem
South Vietnamese president that was catholic and strongly opposed communism. His poor leadership and corrupt government spelled doom
de jure segregation
racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies.
de facto segregation
racial segregation that occurs in schools, not as a result of the law, but as a result of patterns of residential settlement
senator barry goldwater
Election of 1964: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Barry Goldwater, Republican Senator from Arizona who ran for president in 1964 but lost to Johnson.
john foster dulles
United States diplomat who (as Secretary of State) pursued a policy of opposition to the USSR by providing aid to American allies (1888-1959)
beat generation
The generation of writers who rebelled against American Culture for its conformity, blind faith in technology, and materialism.
gov. orval faubus
didn't allow de-segregation to occur in Arkansas, of AK; sent NG to surround school to keep out black students
war on poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly
Camp David Accords
The first signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
True or False: In the 1630s, England stopped granting charters to joint-stock companies and began granting them to individuals or group of individuals.
True.
What was the political tendency of the "Sunbelt" states during the 1980s?
Conservative.
True or False: After 1830, a strong anti-Catholic element was strengthened after waves of immigrants came to America from Catholic Ireland and southern Germany.
True.
freedom summer
a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters. The project was organized by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a coalition of four established civil rights organizations: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), with SNCC playing the lead role.
m.a.d.
a policy created during the 1950s by the Soviets and the US that if the Soviets (or US) launched missiles at the US and we knew then we would fire everything we had and then the Soviets would do the same resulting in the destruction of both countries.
Pearson was the first prime minister whose father was not what?
British or French
the lonely crowd
Book written by David Riesman that criticized the people of the 50s who no longer made decisions based on morals, ethics and values; they were allowing society to tell them what is right and wrong.
freedom riders
Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
eisenhower republicanism
Refer to type of philosophy he had. Wasn't extremely liberal or conservative
the ugly american
how JFK based his foreign policy. American shouldn't think that they own the place.
malcolm x
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
u-2 incident
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
nation of islam
a group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans
Gulf of Tonkin
in August of 1964, United States President Lyndon B. Johnson said that North Vietnamese forces had twice attacked American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin. Although there was a first attack, claims of a second attack were later said to be exaggerated or unfounded. Known today as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, this led to the open involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War, with the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
The two religious groups that settled Plymouth Colony were ______ and ________.
Puritans and Separatists.
economic oppurtunity act
created job corps, which trained 16-21 years olds in work skills
After the war what played a big role in politics?
The media
What values did the suburbs bring?
Stay-at-home mother and the traditional family
What is Pearson most remembered for?
Introducing Canada's flag and improving Canada's social welfare system
little rock nine
In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.
eisenhower doctrine
policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country
civil rights act of 1968
this law banned discrimination in housing, the segregation of education, transprotation, and employment, it helped African Americans gain their full votin rights.
dien bien phu
the French military base fell after a 56-day siege by Vietnam troops
National Environmental Policy Act
A law passed in 1969 requiring agencies to issue an environmental impact statement before undertaking any major action affecting the environment.
What phrase was used to describe the 1970s generation?
The "Me Generation".
What was Social Darwinism?
A philosophy of survival of the fittest.
Who was convicted of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing?
4 Arab terrorists.
voting rights act
1965 act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote
What did the Medical Care Act do?
Provincial and Federal governments would split the cost of medical care with funding coming from taxes
What were the downfalls for Newfoundland joining Canada?
Higher taxes and loss of identity
southern christian leadership conference
An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.
civil rights act of 1957
Primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted by Republicans in the United States since Reconstruction.
volunteers in service to america
one of the several volunteer service organizations sponsored by the federal government
j.d. salinger
wrote in the Catcher in the Rye of a prep school student, Holden Caulfield who was unable to find any are of society—school, family, friends, city - in which he could feel secure or committed.
immigration and nationality act
(1965) This law made it easier for entire families to migrate and established "special categories" for political refugees. This act increased the amount of immigration.
What was the 'social gospel'?
Social gospel was a belief that settlement houses and better health and education services should be offered to immigrants.
What restriction on abortion was lifted by the Clinton administration in January of 1993?
The "Gag Rule," which forbid discussion of abortion with patients at federally funded family planning clinics.
What explains the growth of organized crime during the 1920s?
Prohibition, because organized crime helped meet the demand for illegal alcohol.
Who were the 'carpetbaggers'?
Northerners who came to the South to take part in Reconstruction governments.
What were two things drivers did in the 50's that would be a concern today?
Drink and not wear seatbelts
What was chretiens solution to the debt?
Put more money into the economy.
What happened at Kent State University in May 1970?
4 antiwar student protesters were killed by the National Guard.
Who was Dwight Lyman Moody?
Dwight Lyman Moody was the leader of an urban revivalist movement during the 1880s.
Why did Kansas become known as 'Bleeding Kansas'?
Full-scale guerrilla war erupted there after the election of 2 opposing territorial government.
elementary and secondary education act
The Act is an extensive statute which funds primary and secondary education. This allowed the government to help those who cannot achieve a good education.
Where did many of the ideas for new products come from?
Inventions made during the war
Why did the Carolinas attract few settlers?
The proprietors set up a hierarchal, almost feudal, society that proved to be totally unworkable.
What precipitated the Los Angeles riots of 1991? How many people died in those riots?
1) The acquittal of LA police officers charged in the videotaped beating of Rodney King. 2) 52.
As towns across Canada grew, what did the government recognize?
The need to improve roads, sewer systems, power plants, hospitals and schools
Why were working mothers at a disadvantage?
They were made to feel guilty about being working mothers by society and had lower wages
Why may it be said that the Enlightenment further weakened the church's influence in society?
The Enlightenment placed less faith in God as an active force in the universe.
What was the role of women in society immediately after WW2?
A cult of female domesticity re-emerged. Countless magazine articles promoted the concept that a woman's place was in the home.
What was the purpose of John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry? What was the reaction to this event?
1) John Brown hoped to capture the federal arsenal and start a slave uprising. 2) Many in the North began to view Brown as a martyr, but many in the South saw this as evidence that the North wanted to end slavery. This event also played on one of the South's deepest fears, slave revolt.
List 3 reasons why English interest in American colonization subsided after the Roanoke experiment failed.
1) England was hampered by an ongoing war with Spain. 2) It had inadequate financial resources. 3) It had unrealistic expectations for successfully colonizing the New World.
What even started the Waco crisis in 1993? How did the crisis end?
1) In February 1993, the US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms raided the headquarters of the Branch Davidian religious cult near Waco, Texas, resulting in the killing of 4 federal agents.
genevea accords
War peace plan
Diefenbaker was from which background?
German
radio free europe
broadcasts supporting democratic principles and ideals transmitted to people living behind the Iron Curtain
Feminism
The doctrine advocating equal social, economic, and political rights for women. The assertion of the importance of processes, work, and ideas traditionally considered "feminine." Opposition to patriarchy and patriarchal forms of behavior.
What was the fastest-growing consumer product in the 1950s?
Television.
What was the first proprietary colony?
MD.
When finally completed, the ______ Highway was the longest in the world.
Trans -Canada
What is OPEC?
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
james meredith
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi (born in 1933)
mohammed mossadegh
Prime Minister of Iran before overthrown in CIA coup, accused of treason, and convicted as a Communist
"payola" scandals
secret payments made by record promoters to disk jockeys or station owners to get their songs on the air, these payola payments produced a sensational series of scandals when they were exposed in the late 50's.
kitchen debate
was a famous discussion between Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev. It signaled that the U.S acknowledged their setback in technology since Nixon focused on technological luxuries.
Earth Day
a holiday conceived of by environmental activist and Senator Gaylord Nelson to encourage support for and increase awareness of environmental concerns; first celebrated on March 22, 1970
What colony was established for freed slaves in 1830?
Liberia.
Who were the 'scalawags'?
Southerners who supported Reconstruction governments.
Canada was more _____ than it was before the war
Materialistic
What new strategy did CD Howe introduce?
Private industry
Who gave status Indians the right to vote in federal elections?
Diefenbaker
head start
a preschool program for children from low-income families that also provides healthcare, nutrition services, and social services
the affluent society
John Kenneth Galbraith's novel about America's post-war prosperity as a new phenomenon. Economy of scarcity --> economy of abundance.
black power
the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.
rosa parks
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
jack kerouac
was the author of the best-selling book On the Road, which epitomized the Beat Generation of the late 1940s and early 1950s.
17th parallel
line of latitude that separated North and South Vietnam
michael harrington
Author who wrote The Other American. He alerted those in the mainstream to what he saw in the run-down and hidden communities of the country.
Invasion of Cambodia
1970, Nixon ordered troops into Cambodia to disrupt the Ho Chi Minh Trail and other supply lines used by North Vietnam, even though Cambodia was neutral. In 1970, he ordered air and ground strikes in Cambodia. This is the most controversial act of his to end the Vietnam War.
National Women's Political Caucus
Established by Betty Frieden, encouraged women to seek help or run for political office.
True or False: Charles ll granted 8 English noblemen a charter for the lands lying south of Virginia and north of Spanish Florida for helping him regain his throne.
True.
During the early part of the 19th century the only professional training was in the subject of ________.
Theology.
By how much did home ownership grow between 1945 and 1960?
50%
southern manifesto
The manifesto was a document written by legislators opposed to integration. Most of the signatures came from Southern Democrats, showing that they would stand in the way of integration, leading to another split/shift in the Democratic Party.
Did mulroneys attempt to cut debt work?
No, debt increased
Which peoples did Pearson base his vision of Canada on ?
French and British
throwaway society
a social group in which it is acceptable to squander usable materials and products
montgomery, alabama bus boycott
the first organized movement by african americans to fight segregation; intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. Many historically significant figures of the civil rights movement were involved in the boycott
march on washington
In August 1963, civil rights leaders organized a massive rally in Washington to urge passage of President Kennedy's civil rights bill. The high point came when MLK Jr., gave his "I Have a Dream" speech to more than 200,000 marchers in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
the other america
book by michael harrington about poor americans. 1/5 living below poverty line
fulgencio batista
He was a pro-American dictator of Cuba before Castro. His overthrow led to Castro and communists taking over Cuba, who was now friendly to the Soviets.
What immigrant group was the target of job discrimination during the 1st half of the 19th century?
Irish Catholics.
What was the American population by 1930?
Roughly 123 million.
What was the 1st year that a majority of Americans lived in urban areas?
1920.
What did the Commision suggest?
Canadian culture needed to be protected from American influences. Strengthen the National Film Board by federal funding in universities
What was significant about malls?
They quickly became popular gathering and purchasing areas
What is unhyphenated Canadianism?
Belief that all Canadians should be equal
southeast asia treaty organization
(DDE), A regional defense pact pulled together by Dulles to prevent the "fall" to communism of South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia., SEATO; A regional defense pact pulled together by Dulles to prevent the "fall" to communism of South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
Three Mile Island
An accident at the nuclear plant at this location that caused a radiation leak and forced the evacuation of 140,000 people near the site. The story made headlines around the world and seemed to confirm people's fears about nuclear power.
What was the Anti-Imperialist League?
The Anti-Imperialist League was an organization of Americans who opposed the United State's creating colonies out of territories it had captured from Spain.
Who were the peninsulares?
The peninsulares were natives of Spain who were ranked at the top of New Spain's rigidly stratified society.
What was the purpose of the Massey Comission?
To investigate Canadian Culture
gamal abdul nasser
dictator in Egypt who wants US to help build Aswan Dam while he's also buying weapons from Soviets; nationalizes Suez Canal
What was the position of antislavery northerners regarding the legality of slavery in the newly acquired territories?
Antislavery northerners felt that Congress had the right to prohibit slavery in the territories, based on the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
What were some of the characteristics of the 'Jazz Age' of the 1920s?
Greater sexual promiscuity, drinking, and new forms of dancing considered erotic by the older generation.
List several problems that persisted in urban areas during the 1830s and 1840s.
Bad water, poor sanitation, poor housing and transportation, and inadequate fire and police protection.
What did the commission recommend about TV in Canada?
To be used for national communication and cultural education in music and drama
What were the three goals of NEP?
Reduce consumption of oil, protect Canadians from rising oil prices and make Canada self-sufficient in oil
What did car makers forget about as they rushed to make new cars?
Gas consumption and atmospheric pollution
How did many slaves survive the horrors of slavery?
They developed a distinctive network of tradition and interdependence.
What 3 cities each had a population of over 1 million by the year 1900?
NY, Chicago, and Philadelphia.
List 3 incentives offered by William Penn to attract people to his colony.
Full religious freedom, generous terms on land, and a representative assembly.
What was the White Citizens' Council?
The White Citizens' Council was the leading organization throughout the South in resisting the Brown v. Board of Education decision.
Why did children growing up know more about the US culture than any generation before them?
Canadian TV was mostly broadcasting American shows
Why did men outnumber women in Chesapeake Bay colonies?
Most Chesapeake settlers came to the colonies as indentured servants to work in the tobacco fields.
Why was the Act of Religious Toleration approved in Maryland?
The Act of Religious Toleration was intended to protect the Catholic minority by granting freedom of worship to all Christian persuasions.
What and who was indentured servant that was the headright system?
1) Indentured servants were people who exchanged their labor for passage to the New World. Many times, these were sons who, due to primogeniture and the excessive labor supply in England had few economic prospects at home. 2) The headright system gave grants of land in the New World to those who paid the passage of indentured servants.
Usa looked to Canada as a ______ when their raw material sources were low
Storehouse of minerals and natural resources
Where did most of the people who settled in Kansas during the 1850s come from? What was their attitude toward slavery?
1) They were midwesterners in search of good farmland. 2) They were generally opposed to the spread of slavery.
What brought about the rise of the nativist movement during the late 1840s and early 1850s?
The alarm of native-born American over the rising tide of German and Irish immigration.
Who founded PA? Why was PA founded?
1) William Penn. 2) He founded PA as a haven for Quakers, a religious sect whose followers were pacifists and believed all people had an 'inner light' that allowed them to communicate w/ God.
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