Chapters 257 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
GABA
major inhibitory.
Name 4 depressants
-alcohol-barbiturates-tranquilizers-opiates
THALMUS
“Switchboard”; Organizes input from sensory organs and routes them to appropriate areas of the brain; visual, auditory and body senses have relay stations here.
Charles Darwin
"Father of Child Psychology"
brought structuralists to america
edward titchner
identity
understanding of one's unique characteristics and how they have been, are, and will be manifested across ages.
adrenaline secreted into the bloodstream
catecholamines
acculturation
the process by which immigrant(nondominant) groups adapt to the social customs and expectations of the host country or dominant culture
The dimension of auditory experience related to the frequency of a pressure wave is called ___.
pitch
______ psychologists illustrate how we perceive separate pieces of information as integrated wholes
gestalt
grouping
the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups.
Display Rules
Culture-specific rules that govern how, when, and why expressions of emotion are appropriate.
antidepressant drugs
treatment of mood disorders, especially depression and anxiety
Abnormalty
-behavior that causes people to experience distress and prevents them from functioning in their daily lives
dendrites
receive chemical signals from cell- have receptor sites that receieve specific neuro transmitters
investigators study infants becoming habituated to objects over a period of time. infants pay more attention to new objects than habituated ones, which shows they are learning.
physical development
telling stories would be the _____ kind of memory
episodic
Define: Primary Group
Collection of individuals whoare together over a relatively long period, whose members have direct contact with a feel emotional attachment to one another.
study sensation and perception using introspection
wilhelm wundt
Fight or Flight
body's psychological arousal to survive a threat
opponent-process theory
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green.
Leptin
Hormone produced by fat cells, helps to tell us when we are full.
Psychodynamic Theories:
Carl Jung:
Extraversion
the Jungian personality dimension involving turning one's attention outward, toward others
primary emotions
considered to be universal and biologically based
achievement motivation
refers to the desire to excel,especially in competition with others.
demand characteristics
subject and experimentor may be pulled to act in ways based on cues about nature of experimentthey have expectations about what is giong to happen and the proper way to respond
Cocaine's affects(2)
-depends on dosage, form, personality and situation-euphoria, followed by depression and agitation
action potential
a neural impulse. brief electrical charge that travels down an axon and is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
Parietal Lobe controls:
an area concerned with bodily sensations
Observer bias
Expectation or biases of the observer that might distort or influence his or her interpretation of what was actually observed.
When memories are stored in long-term memory, which of the following forms of information is used?
Maintenance rehersal
behaviorism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2). 
People who are attempting to become extremely thin by refusing to eat suffer from____
anorexia nervosa
Actualizing tendency
According to Rogers, the drive of human beings to fulfill their self-concepts, or the images they have of themselves...
feelings of fear and anger inbolve a similar general autonomic arousal but they avtivate different brain areas for example stimulate one area of a cats ______________ and the cat draws back in terror stimulate another area of that structure and the cat hi
amygdala
avoidance goals
framed in terms of avoiding unpleasant experiences
an experience that is happening to the self
emotion
Id
the part of the psyche, residing in the unconscious, that is the source of instinctive impulses that seek satisfaction in accordance with the pleasure principle and are modified by the ego and the superego before they are given overt expression.
the earliest age of conscious memory is around 3 1/2 years. a 5 year old can produce more long term memories.
cognitive development
 
Define Fixed Ratio
A Fixed ration is a reinforcement given after a number non reinforced responses.
 
(Pidgeon pecking a button 8 times to get a reinforcement)
What is consciousness?
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
formal operational stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts. 
Arouses behavior, maintains behavior, and directs behavior
3 things that motive does.
Psychodynamic theorists and therapists tend to reject freuds view that sex is the basis of personality but they would agree with freud about the
existence of unconscious mental processes
methods for studying the brain
1. electrical stimulation2. case studies (injury , birth defects)3. eeg4. ablation (removal of parts of the brain)5. cat pet mri
NEGITIVE REINFORCEMENT
The reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or advoidence of an unpleasurable stimulus
When will attitudes determine behavior
assess attitudes specific to behavior, when soc. pressure is low, when attitudes are accessible to us
Jane is 22 years old. for her job, she needs to take and intelligence test. which would be the most appropriate test for her age group?
WAIS-IV
four central areas of human motivation
food, love, sex and achievement
sociocultural theory
the view that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in personality, behavior, and adjustment
The Physiology of drug effects 3
Environmental setting "refers to the context in which a person takes the drug
Acquisition (3) (in classical and operant conditioning)
-the initial stage in classical conditioning. -the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response-in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
Stage Three: Stage of Exhaustion
when one or more of the organs targeted by specific metabolic processes can no longer meet the demands placed upon it and fails to function properly. This can result in death to the organ, and possibly the organism.
Is psychology free of value judgments?
No. Psychology emerges from people who subscribe a set of values and judgments.
cardiologists meyer friedman and ray rosenman obserbed that heart attacks were more frequent in tyoe a men in those appeared to be hard driving verbally aggressive and anger prone the component of type a behavior is linked most closely to coronary heart
feeling angry and negative much of the time
What are the 2 hemispheres of the brain?
The left and right: sensory and motion are oppositely controlled
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