Chem Final Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Nitric Acid
8 prefix
Malt sugar, disaccharide
OH functional group
deactivating substituents
Electron-withdrawing substituents already attached to the aromatic ring. They decrease the ring's potential to react with other species. These are meta-directing, except ortho/para directing halogens.
atomic number of hydrogen
can pass through cell membrane
Formula for saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes)
unsaturated hydrocarbons
names end in -yne
General Form: C(n)H(n)
alkene to epoxide
peroxycarboxylic acids (m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid)
a monosaccharide sugar that contains the aldehyde group or is hemiacetal
O-N=O the Nitrogen bonds with C
aromatic hydrocarbons
compounds with a benzene ring
Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds
Electron Affinity
an individual atom's tendency to attract electrons in a bonding situation.
a hydrocarbon containg one or more triple covalent bonds
According to Atkins, to loose weight people need to lower their carbohydrate intake and therefore need to cut out of their diet.
Hybridization (1)
formation of hybrid orbitals, which are mixtures of individual atomic orbitals.
homoatomic molecules
one kind of atom Ie, O2
Wittig reaction
formation of ylide after reacting (C6H5)3P with alkyl halide (phosphonium salt), ylide attacks carbonyl, cyclic mechanism forms C-C double bond (strong P=O bond formed drives reaction)
a molecule formed with two or more elements
organic acids
hydrogen has been replaced with a carboxyl group (COOH)
Chiral Carbon
sp3 carbon atom attached to four non-identical groups
ketone and aldehyde
form from the oxidation of alcohols
1° - bonded to only one other carbon
Heterocylcic Aromtic Compounds
Aromatic compounds with other atoms than C in the ring, such as N
Ksp is the
the description of the ionic concentrations in the saturated solution (not solubility).
How do you form a bromide from an alkene?
Aromatic Radical
What is a Benzene with a Hydrogen Removed known as?
naming alkanes:
-first look at longest chain, name the chain, then add the things that hang off
secondary (2 degree) amine
an amine w/ gen form R2NH
simple distillation
separate liquids that boil below 150 C and at least 25 C apart
What do you use with a d.salt to form an iodide?
hybrid bonds
bonds which can be thought of as the average of double and single bonds
Carboxyllic Acid Derivatives of Special Interest Perspective (6) p.484 for molecules
Asprin or acetylsalicylic acid is derived from the bark of the willow tree is the most widely used drug in the world with hundreds of millions of dollars being spent on it each year. It is both an analgesic or pain reliever, and an antipyretic or fever reducer.It is among a group of molecules known as NSAIDs, or nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs. These drugs inhibit cyclooxygenase which helps synthesize prostaglandins which are in part responsible for pain and fever.Because NSAIDS inhibit clotting, they are not recommended for pregnant women or those with ulcurs. In those cases acetaminophen (draw structure) or tylenol is prescribed.In the search for molecules with the same effects but are gentler on the stomach, Ibuprofen and naproxen were found.Pheromones are chemicals secreted by animals that affect the behavior of the same species. These can be involved in warning, sexual attraction, trail marking. Insect pheromones are studied the most as they are often carboxylic acids, or acid derivatives. Tetracecenyl Acetate: m-CH2CH=CH(CH2)9CH2-oester-m
Atomic Number (Z)
equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of an aom of a given element.
Life Without Polymers Perspective (5)
Isoprenes make up rubber as monomers. Isoprene structure is 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene. Scientists don't have a clue how Polyacrylic acid sucks up so much water in diapers.Tetrafluoroethene is used to produce teflon in an addition polymer rxn.When you stretch teflon to make Gore-Tex it is used to protect firefighters because of its fire resistance.It is also used by military forces and amateur athletes for protection in the cold during strenuous activity. It is also used in medical procedures for sutures, synthetic blood vessels, and tissue reconstruction.
Carbon Structure and bonding is unique
Binds to itself forming chains or rings
Covalently binds to other elements
hydrocarbons C&H only
When things are shielded, the magnetic field is
smaller and they have small chemical shifts and appear upfield (to the right).
■When things are deshielded, the magnetic field is larger and they have large chemical shifts and appear downfield (to the left).
◦What if the electrons do not break apart your molecule, but merely ionizes it?
Ans: this "molecular ion" will be detected as the parent peak, also called the molecular ion peak.
Why can we not have He2  in MO theory?
b/c MO structure states we would have to pur e- in sigma*, which incrase energy of the molecule--> destabalizing
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