Chemistry of Organic Molecules Flashcards

Terms Definitions
methyl
CH3-
ethyl
CH3CH2-
secondary
bonded to two carbons
glycogen
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
cellulose
polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls
quaterary
bonded to four other carbons
lipid
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms that tends to be soluble in nonpolar solvents; includes fats, oils, and waxes
peptidoglycan
a protein carbohydrate compound found in bacterial cell walls
hydrophobic
Repelling, tending not to combine with, or incapable of dissolving in water.
ribose
a five-carbon monosaccharide found in RNA
monomer
small molecular unit that is the building block of a larger molecule
wax
a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain
isomer
compounds with the same simple formula but different three-dimensional structures resulting in different physical and chemical properties
deoxyribose
five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides
coenzyme
an organic molecule that helps an enzyme catalyze a reaction, An organic molecule serving as a cofactor; most vitamins function as this for important metabolic reactions
functional group
An assemblage of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions and behaves in a predictable way
enzyme
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions; specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions
globular protein
tightly folded, soluble in water, tertiary structure is the most important, functional (they do something) e.g.: hemoblobin, enzymes, antibodies, hormones.
adenosine
Portion of ATP and ADP that is composed of adenine and ribose
polysaccharide
any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules, large carbohydrate made up of monosaccharides, ex. starch and glycogen
protein
an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
chaperone protein
protein that helps new proteins fold into their normal shape; correct any misfolding of a new protein; found in the cell
dehydration reaction
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
polypeptide
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
peptide
amide combining the amino group of one amino acid with the carboxyl group of another
nucleic acid
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
inorganic chemistry
The study of all substances not classified as organic, mainly those compounds that do not contain carbon
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
energy storing molecule in cells composed of an adenosine molecule, a ribose sugar and 3 phosphate groups energy is stored in the molecules chemical bonds and can be used quickly and easily by cells
oil
A common name for a triglyceride that is a liquid at room temperature and contains a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids; composed of glycerol and three fatty acids
peptide bond
A covalent bond that links amino acids together in a protein
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton.
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