Botany Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Rubus
Rosaceae
Dryopteris
Dryopteridaceae
Magnolia
Magnoliaceae
Selaginella
spikemoss
Mallow
Malva
(Malvaceae)
Malva
(Mallow)
Malvaceae
Dipsacus
(Teasel)
Dipsacaceae
Antennaria
(Pussy-toes)
 
Asteraceae
Conopholis
(Orobanchaceae)
(Sqawroot)
Methionine
MetMNonpolar
Podophyllum peltatum
Berberidaceae
Pteridium aquilinum
Denstadtiaceae
Ceratophyllum demersum
Ceratophyllaceae
Jeffersonia diphylla
Berbeidaceaetwinleaf
Blue-eyed-grass
 Sisyrinchium campestre
Iridaceae
 Sagittaria

(Arrow Head
Alismataceae
Coreopsis Palmata

Heliantheae
Asteraceae
Prairie Tickseed or Prairie Coreopsi
Sambucus canadensis
(Caprifoliaceae)
(Common Elder)
 
Catilleja coccinea
(Scrophulariaceae)
(Indian Paint-brush)
Asclepias syriaca
(Asclepieadaceae)
(Common Milkweed)
Arginine
ArgRPolar, Charged
Adiantum pedatum
maidenhair fern
Smooth Sumac
Rhus glabora
(Anacardiaceae)


Bellwort or Merrybells
Uvularia
Liliaceae
Jacob's Ladder
Polemonium reptans
(polemoniaceae)
Uvularia
 


 Bellwort or Merrybells
Liliaceae
Dodecatheon meadia
(Shooting Star)
Primulaceae
Aesculus
(Horse-chesnut or Buckeye)
Hippocastanaceae
Pyrola
(Pyrolaceae)
(Wintergreen or Shin-leaf)
Sanicula
(Apiaceae)
(Black Snakeroot or Black Sanicle)
Ranunculus hispidus
Ranunculaceaeswamp buttercuppointy leaflets, has sepals and petals?
Heuchera richardsonii
Saxifragaceaeprairie alumrootbasal leaves w/ tall stalked raceme
Hybrid honeysuckle
Lonicera X bella
(Caprifoliaceae)
Tilia americana
(Basswood or Linden)
Tiliaceae
bran
pericarp + seed coat
Ulmus americana
UlmaceaeAmerican elmleaf margins doubly toothed and strongly asymmetrical, fruit a samara
Small Yellow Lady's Slipper
Cypripedium parviflorum
Orchiadaceae
what is parthenocarpy
fruit w/o seeds
nucleus
control center. Contains DNA. Surrounded by a porous membrane.
carbohydrates
fructose and glucose, starch cellulose, sucrose, lactoseC:H:O-----> 1:2:1
Morus alba
Moraceaewhite mulberrysimple & toothed or deeply lobed leaves
symbiosis
an intimate association between two dissimilar organisms that benefits both of them (mutualism) or is harmful to one of them (parasitism)
tuber
a short fleshy usually underground stem bearing minute scale leaves each of which bears a bud in its axil and is potentially able to produce a new plant
xylem
is dead, bigger and on top
Pickeral-weed
Ponterderia cordata
Ponteridaceae
Carex lacastris

Cyperaceae
Lake Sedge
Elements of Phloem
sieve tube elements (angiosperms)sieve cells (gymnosperms)
tissue
an aggregation of cells having a common function
alternation of generations
alternation between a haploid gametophyte phase and a diploid sporophyte phase in the life cycle of sexually reproducing organisms
anaphase
chromosomes are pulled apart into two separate DNA molecules. The DNA then moves to opposite ends of the poles.
photosynthates
travel from a source(leaves) to a sink(growing part) through the phloem
Common Spiderwort
Tradescantia ohiensis
Commelinaceae
Goodyera pubescens
Rattlesnake of Plantain
Orchidaceae
Erythronium albidum

( Liliaceae)
(White Adder's Tongue)
imbibition
when the seed coat breaks because the aleurone layer imbibes water and it expands the integument.
annulus
a specialized layer of cells around a fern sporangium; it aids in spore dispersal through a springlike action; also a membranous ring around the stipe of a mushroom
cytoplasm
all the living part of the cell, excluding the nucleus
mutation
a mistake in the genetic code. It usually results in negative effects but sometimes can be beneficial. Mutations are usually corrected by enzymes.
what is the hypocotyl?
stem below the attachment point
Eragrostis silianesis
Love Grass or Stink Grass
Poaceae
Ericaceae: the Heath or Blueberry family
Leaves: Typically coriaceaous (Leathery), evergreen, alternate, and simple
Flower: More or less pendulous with some exceptions. The pollen disperses from terminal pores in the anthers
Fruits: Capsules or berries
Habit: Acidophilic (love to grow on low PH soil) shrubby plants with mycorrhizal roots. Look for this family on nutrient-poor soils, generally sand or peat
climacteric fruits/non-climacteric fruits
climacteric have a quick growth spurt. non climacteric grow slowly.
node
hold buds which grow into one or more leaves
any given element differs from all other elements based on the number of?
protons it contains
Apiaceae: the Parley or Carrot Family
Synonym : Umbelliferae
Leaves- usually dissescted with sheathing petiole bases. The degree of dissectionis fairly plastic in some species (varying from one habitat to another) Basal leaves are common
Stems- internodes: generally hollow
Flowers: Perfect: 5 merous. Separate petals, actinomorphic, in umbels, inferior 2 fused carpels.
Fruits: schizocarps (Split into two, one-seeded segments)
Ethereal oils, resins, or gums present throughout, Often Aromatic, in many cases toxic (surficially or internally) this family is said to include hemolck of which socrates drank while his students wept.
Habit: herbs with some coarse, tall "shrubs"
what is the purpose of sclerieds?
protection against herbavores (they can't bite through them)
what is after rippening?
the seed germinates after the embryo has developed fully with the aid of food materials stored in the endosperm.
when does fermentation occur?
when there is no oxygen for respiration
how many rings of the sporophyl? and what are they called?
4calyx, corolla, androcium, gynocium
what is an annual plant?
complete their life cycle in one growing season
Light + water =
ATP + NADPH + O2
What is the phylogenetic tree of life?
 
the family tree depicting the genealogical relationships of organisms with a single ancestral species at its base
 
what are the two types of sclerencyma?
fibers - longer than widesclereids - isodiametric (equal diameters around), or anisodiametric (with 'arms')
Campanulaceae, the Bellflower family (sensu lato, including the traditional Lobeliaceae)
Leaves: Simple, alternate, no stipules.Milky latex generally present.Flowers: Actinomorphic or zygomorphic (in the Lobelioideae, which = the traditional Lobeliaceae), usually perfect, mostly epigynous, with nectariferous disc, sometimes resupinate (pedicel twisted 180 degrees, making the flower "upside down.")Fruits: Mostly capsules, sometimes a berry, seeds numerous, small; endosperm copious, fleshy, and oily.Habit: Annual or perennial, mostly herbs, sometimes shrubs.
what is a multiple fruit?
a fruit that derives from a flower in a inflorescense
What is a monophyletic group?  What is is also known as?
 
a group composed of an ancestor and all its descendents
(a clade)
what does the stamen consist of?
a pollen bearing anther and a stalk or filament
what is the function of the coleoptile and coleorhiza in a grains?
to protect the plumule and the radicle with the seed as it germinates
stigma
female
Alpha-glucose
?
Pallid
pale
maidenhair
ginkgoaceae
Flagella
...
Moss
Gametophyte Dominant
 
Corolla
all petals
Pit Cavity
...
apical meristem
primary growth
Ovoid
an egg-shaped solid
gametes
sperm and eggs
All leaves have?
Auxillary buds
Ultimate Carrying Capacity
cannot support
diploid
two SETS of chromosomes
margin
a border or edge.
Algin
An important polysaccharide component of brown algal cell walls; used as a stabilizer  and emulsifier for some foods and for paint.
Male structure of a flower
Stamen
Reflexed
abruptly bent or curved downward
abiotic factors that affect distribution of plants [6]
temperature
water
sunlight
wind
soil
disturbances
What is RuBP?
A helper molecule.
antheridia
male reproductive structure which produces gametes in ferns, mosses, fungi and algae
Cutin
Fatty substance deposited in many plant cell walls and on outer surface of epidermal cell walls, where it forms a layer known as the cuticle.
Bryophytes appear in fossil record during...
silurian
ecosystem
COMMUNITY + ENVIRONMENT the entire complex of a community of living organisms & their interactions w/ the environment --lvl at which we study nature--functional unit in nature. Contains a biotic & abiotic component
Determinate
describes an inflorescence in which the terminal flower blooms first; thereby halting further elongation of the flowering stem (compare indeterminate)
Bud
a developing leaf stem or flower
Heterotrophs
Cells that satisfy their energy requirements by consuming organic compounds produced by external sources
group of interbreeding (same species) living in a defined area
Population
Cup fungus (Phylum Ascomycota)
these are ascomata
bulb
a usually subterranean and often globular bud having fleshy leaves emergent at the top and a stem reduced to a flat disk, rooting from the underside, as in the onion and lily.
woody
resembling wood, as in appearance, texture, or toughness:
Imperfect
A flower lacking either stamens or carpels.
Humans get all resources from ___ which are supported by the ___.
plants;sun
Tissue in a plant that transports food
Phloem
Fertile
having the capacity to produce fruit; having a pistil
Stem
the main upward-growing axis of a plant which bears the leaves and flowers
Protoplasm
General term for the living substances of all cells
self-pollination
male and female gametophytes are on the same plant
Which direction does secondary phloem move towards?
outside o
What percentage of power comes from solar energy?
1%
wing
any leaflike expansion, as of a samara.
beggar-ticks
any of several other plants having seeds or fruits that cling to clothing, as those of the genus Desmodium.
perennial
(of plants) having a life cycle lasting more than two years.
dentate
having a toothed margin or toothlike projections or processes.
lily family
the large plant family Liliaceae, characterized by chiefly herbaceous plants growing from bulbs, corms, rhizomes, or tubers, having narrow, parallel-veined, usually basal leaves, often showy flowers, and fruit in the form of a berry or capsule, and includ
phloem
the part of a vascular bundle consisting of sieve tubes, companion cells, parenchyma, and fibers and forming the food-conducting tissue of a plant.
Phelloderm
A tissue formed inwardly by the cork cambium, opposite the cork; inner part of the periderm.
Gametophyte
In plants that have an alternation of generations, the haploid (n), gamete-producing generation, or phase.
What is the dominant generation in mosses?
Haploid phase
electromagnetic spectrum
all wavelenghts of energy. the portion of it that is VISIBLE LIGHT (480-730 nm) is essential to life on earth because autotrophs use light for photosynthesis
Whorl
a circle of three or more structures radiating outward from the same node
Outcrossing
Transfer of pollen from one flower to the stigma of a flower of a different plant of the same species.
an arrangement in which the fused stamens, sepals, and petals attach above the ovary is said to be ________ and the ovary is __________
epigynous, inferior
an arrangement in which the fused stamens, sepals, and petals attach above the ovary is said to be ________ and the ovary is __________
think above, say epi. since the workload for finals is above my head, i'm going to miss the EPI of desperate housewives tomorrow.
What are the bad side affects of Glycoside Salicin?
Nausea
where does meiosis occur in zygomycota
in the zygosporangium
root hair
an elongated tubular extension of an epidermal cell of a root, serving to absorb water and minerals from the soil.
angiosperm
a plant having its seeds enclosed in an ovary; a flowering plant.
Ozone formation
O + O2 + UV light -> O3
Cell Wall
The rigid outermost layer of the cells found in plants, some protists, and most prokaryotes.
Leaf atttachment variations can be __,__ or ___.
alternating, opposite or whorled.
Clasping
having the lower edges of a leaf blade partly surrounding the stem
when the parts attach halfway up the ovary, the arrangement is ___ and the ovary is ________
perigynous, semi-inferior
when the parts attach halfway up the ovary, the arrangement is ___ and the ovary is ________
this doesn't make sense. but whatever.
What are some common challenges of biofuels?
--Falling oil prices
--Sustainability
--Carbon accounting
-Net energy gain
--Soil erosion, increased land conversion
petiole
the slender stalk by which a leaf is attached to the stem; leafstalk.
temperate zone
the part of the earth's surface lying between the tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere or between the tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere, and characterized by having a climate that is warm
venation
the arrangement of veins, as in a leaf or in the wing of an insect.
CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism)
A variant of the C4 pathway; phosphoenolpyruvate fixes CO2 in C4 compounds at night then, during the daytime, the fixed CO2 is transferred to the ribulose bisphosphate of the Calvin Cycle within the same cell. Characteristic of most succulent plants, such as cacti.
Where gas exchange happens in a plant
Spongy cells (Parenchyma cells)
Name three plant adaptions for surviving cold temperatures
thick covering of leaves
protected respiration (small pores in pits)
store reserves below ground
Describe flowering maturity in bamboos and the effects it has on humans



–the bamboo flowers and produces fruits, this causes an explosion in the rat population, and once the bamboo fruit is eaten, the rats turn to the cities and eat everything in sight, this results in famine for the humans 
what is a perfect flower?
one that has both stamens and carpels
where do red algae live
deeper tropical waters but also at other depths
In the seedless vascular plants which generation is dominant?
The sporophyte generation is dominant with the gametophyte being small. The sporophyte is photosynthetic, long-lived, and often highly branched. The gametophyte is short-lived.
•Transpiration is greatest when...
 Hot (but not too hot), windy, low humidity
Cons of industrial farming (environmental)
1. uses alot of foreign oil
2. lots of pesticides
3. energy used to make food is 10 times more than the food contains
4.17% of total commercial energy use is for food production in the U.S.
-bio-diversity loss
-soil depletion/erosion
-air pollution
-water depletion
Describe what occurs during the reaction phase of the Calvin cycle
6 3C PGA molecules are reduced to 6 mol of 3C biphosphoglycerate which is then converted to 3C PGAL
What are the main parts of a flower and label it on a picture.
The Anther, filament, stamen, pistil, ovary, ovule, stigma, style, petal, sepal.
Liverworts
Hepataphyta
PAR
?
echniaceae
asteraceae
Initials
...
transpiration
gas exchange
Apetalous
lacking petals
Primary Wall
...
Bryophyta
Moss plants
chromatin
stretched out DNA
Implicate
twisted together; intertwined
Whats happening
Whats happening
Welwitshia
Contains only two leaves
Interrupted
not continuous; with gaps
2° Phloem moves towards\
outside
3 types of plant tissue
groundvasculardermal
Eudicots
Secondary growth, netted veination, and flower parts in 4's and 5's.
secondary succession
human disturbance (agriculture, logging) --> poor depleted soil remains--> 100's of years-->ecosystem repair. PREEXISTING SOIL
plastid
no color
stores oil in seeds
storage of starch in roots 7 underground stems.
leucoplast
embryo
the rudimentary plant usually contained in the seed.
Polysaccharides
A polymer composed of many monosaccharide units joined in a long chain, such as glycogen, starch, and cellulose.
Stroma
(Anything spread out) The ground substance of plastids.
An arrangement of light absorbing pigments and their reaction centers
Photosystems
Prokaryote
No nucleus, lacks organelles, lacks cytoskeleton, DNA contained in nucleoid

Ex. archaea and bacteria
Parts of a Flower
Sepals (calyx)
Petals (corolla)
Stamens (androecium)
Carpels (gynoecium)
Essential Elements...how many are considered essential?
Only 17
endosperm
nutritive matter in seed-plant ovules, derived from the embryo sac.
abscisic acid
a growth-regulating plant hormone, C15H20O4, that promotes dormancy and the aging and abscission of leaves.
sedge family
the plant family Cyperaceae, characterized by herbaceous plants, often found in wet areas, having solid stems, narrow, grasslike leaves with closed sheaths, spikes of very small flowers set in a scalelike bract, and a dry, flattened, convex fruit, and inc
agricultural sales
bigger than auto,steel, and housing combined
Radial micellation
The radial orientation of cellulose microfibrils in guard cell walls; plays a role in the movement of guard cells.
Perigynous
A form of floral organization  in which the sepals, petals, and stamens are attached to the margin of a cup-shaped extension of the receptacle; superficially, the sepals, petals, and stamens appear to be attached to the ovary. 
Guttation
The exudation of liquid water from leaves caused by root pressure.
alternation of generations
sporophyte and gametophyte alternate in producing each other
telophase
no arms left--two balls 1. chromosomes localized at poles--start stretching out & become invisible 2. new nuclear membrane begins forming around each set of chromosomes 3.cell plate beings forming
Cleft
deeply cut ; usually more than one-half the distance from the margin to the midrib or base
Allelopathy,
! Inhibition of seed germination and growth of seedlings within a sphere of chemical influence emanating from roots !

Helps to space plants as a way to avoid competition for water
Phytoremediation
To stimulate growth of plants, deter pests, control weeds in crops, form hybrid plants
factory, helps in production of non-functional proteins
rough ER
How do nutrients enter plants?
Via the soil
Gravitoropism
Gravitropism is a turning or growth movement by a plant or fungus in response to gravity. Roots show positive gravitropism and stems show negative gravitropism. That is, roots grow in the direction of gravitational pull (i.e., downward) and stems grow in the opposite direction (i.e., upwards).
hormone
any of various plant compounds, as auxin or gibberellin, that control growth and differentiation of plant tissue.
crenate
having the margin notched or scalloped so as to form rounded teeth, as a leaf.
taproot
a main root descending downward from the radicle and giving off small lateral roots.
bark
the external covering of the woody stems, branches, and roots of plants, as distinct and separable from the wood itself.
meristematic
consisting of or having the properties of meristem.
chlorophyll
green coloring of leaves and plants needed for photosynthesis
Sieve Cells
A long, slender sieve element with relatively unspecialized sieve areas and with tapering end walls that lack sieve plates; found in the phloem of gymnosperms.
Carbon fixation
The conversion of CO2 into organic compounds during photosynthesis.
Life Cycle
sequence of stages leading from the adult of one generation to the adult of the next
Fruits that develop from many separate ovaries
Compound fruits
Palmate
radiating from a single point like the spreading fingers of an outstretched hand
Decumbent
prostrate at the base but ascending at the end
Lateral Meristems
The vascular cambium and cork cambium; responsible for secondary growth
Factors that affect transpiration rate are:
relative humidity
CO2 concentration
wind speed
air temp
light intensity
Parts of necessary molecules: Phosphorus
ATP, ADP, Nucleic Acids
internode
a part or space between two nodes, knots, or joints, as the portion of a plant stem between two nodes.
bamboo
any of the woody or treelike tropical and semitropical grasses of the genera Bambusa, Phyllostachys, Dendrocalamus, and allied genera, having woody, usually hollow stems with stalked blades and flowering only after years of growth.
nut
a dry fruit consisting of an edible kernel or meat enclosed in a woody or leathery shell.
mitochondria
an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production.
Parallel venation
The pattern of venation in which the principal veins of the leaf are parallel or nearly so; characteristic of monocots.
 
 
 
Explain the roles of auxins and cytokinins in apical dominance.  
 
Auxins-enforces apical dominance and root formation
 
Cytokinin-breaks apical dominance, produces bushier plants
Openings in the bottom of a leaf that take in or release gasses
Stroma
Mesocarp
the middle layer of the pericarp of a fruit (compare endocarp exocarp)
inter-specific interaction where both species benefit
mutualism - acacia & ants
what are the three components of multicellular algae
holdfast, stipe, blade
swell
to grow in bulk, as by the absorption of moisture or the processes of growth.
gynoecium
the pistil or pistils of a flower; the female parts.
leaf primordium
a group of cells that will develop into a leaf, seen as small bulges just below the shoot apex.
Scientific method
A way of making sense of the natural world.
Plant adaptations to deserts (strategies a, b . . . etc) :
A. some use deep groundwater available throughout the year (trees with deep taproots)
B. grow only when water is available, become dormant when it is not i.e. desert annuals.
C. Store water in thick leaves or stems (succulents) Pleating within cacti show if plant has water or not.
Give some examples of symbiotic fungal species
parasites-athlete's foot, ringworm, Candida, wheat rusts, corn smuts
root
a part of the body of a plant that develops, typically, from the radicle and grows downward into the soil, anchoring the plant and absorbing nutriment and moisture.
What a plant zygote develops into
An embryo within a growing seed
Camptothecins: what are the Alkaloid Camptothecin beneficial affects..what exactly do they do?
anti-cancer properties
-1985 - Found as topoisomerase I inhibiter Inhibition halts DNA replication
-Leads to cell death
1996 - Two derivatives have been approved by FDA
 Topotecan = Advanced ovarian cancer
 Irinotecan = Colon cancers
What is a complete flower?
Has all four main parts. (calyx, corolla, stamens, and a pistil or pistils (the four "regular parts").
6 most common elements found in living organisms
CHONPS carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur. …FMA ;)
What is an example of seedles vascular plants?
Ferns, Horsetails, and club mosses.
Those is favor of cladistics want to replace what with what
Phylocode: no more Linnean taxonomy, clades only
mmobile = Not moved easily in plants
 B, Fe, Ca
 If deficient, symptoms appear where?
what are the petals known together as?
corolla
what are the petals known together as?
what is a type of car (tons of pieces) known as?
/ 238
Term:
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