Botany final exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Nelumbo lutea
Adiantum pedatum
Saponaria officinalis
Hypericum perforatum
Echinocystis lobata
Ribes Americanum
Ginkgo biloba
Pedicularis canadensis
Grass Pink
(Garlic Mustard)

Osmorhiza longistylis
(Long-styled sweet cicely)
Catalpa speciosa
(Northern Catalpa)
Tilia americana
(Basswood or Linden)
CysCPolar, Uncharged
Onoclea sensibilis
sensitive fern
Papaveraceaecelandinebright yellow flowers
Box Elder
Acer negundo
Gray Dogwood
Cornus Nacemosa
Sambucus canadensis
(Common Elder)
Packera Paupercula
(Balsam Ragwort)
Cat-briar, Green-briar, Carrion-flower
Oenothera biennis
(Evening Primrose)

Bellwort or Merrybells
Lonicera X bella
(Hybrid Honeysuckle)
Buttercup or Crowfoot FamilyCharacters-Leaves: Simple or variously compound or dissected, serrate to lobed, usually alternate, lacking stipules, often with sheathing petioles-Inflorescence: Determinant, cymost, or flower sometimes solitary or terminal-Flowers: Actinomorphic or sometimes zygomorphic. Usually perfect. Hypogynous (perianth parts attached beneath the gynoecium), Perianth (calyx and corolla together)often showy: Numerous distinct stamens and carpels (that is not fused) spirally arranged on the receptacle. The term apocarpous is used to describe unfused carpels. Typically 5-merous (that is calyx of 5 sepals, a corolla of 5 petals)-Fruits: Typically an aggregate of follicales, achenes, or berries; endosperm copious, oily; embryo minute-Habit: Herbaceaous plants commonly with rhizomes or tubers. Members of Ranunculaceae make up a significant portion of early-blooming spring plants in Wisconsin
Pinaceaesprucecones point down, needles are pointy, square, and arise from woody plug
Long-styled sweet cicely
Osmorhiza longistylis
Aster novae-angeliae
(New England Aster)
(Oryza sativa)
most important crop in the world
lacks gluten
seedlings grown seperately then transported to acquatic fields 
leaves needle-like, sometimes in fasciclescones: female w/ spirally arranged scales, each with ovules. males with microsporphylls. mature cones dry and woody.habit: monoecious trees and shrubs
Eastern Hophornbeam or Ironwood
Ostrya virginiana
which hormone causes adventitious roots?
functions of leaves
photosynthesis and transpiration
accessory pigments
chlorophyll b, carotenoid, xanthophylls
Pinus strobus
Pinaceaewhite pineneedles long, in bunches of 5/fascicle
an asecually produced fungal spore formed outside of a sporangium
evaporation of water through pores helps draw up water and cool off plant
plants replaced leaves with these because leaves require water
Huperzia lucidula (was Lycopodium lucidulum)
shining club moss
Iris Vesicolor
Northern Blue Flag
What are the three phyla of bryophytes?
What is the Cutical?
Where is the cutical located?
What does the cutical do?
the process of two successive nuclear divisions through which segregation of genes occurs and a single diploid cell becomes four haploid cells
having one set of chromosomes per cell, as in gametophytes; also referred to as having n chromosomes
leaves that only grow one growing season, then fall off
light independnt reactions
calvin cycle, co2, NADPH, ATP(energy),glucose(c6h12o2)
Common Yarrow
Achillea millefolium

Arisaema Triphyllum

Jack-in-the Pulpit
Goodyera pubescens
Rattlesnake of Plantain
what are the contents of sieve elements?
p slimecallose
a female sex organ of certain algae and fungi; it consists of a single cell that contains one to several eggs
the process by which leaves are shed. As the abscission zone gets weaker and weaker, eventually the leaves fall off. All leaves eventually are shed by this process even if they are evergreen. However, evergreen leaves may fall at other times of the year depending on the plant.
characteristics of a monocot
seed with one seed leaf(cotyledon)
Flower parts in threes
leaf with parellel primary veins
vascular cambium and cork cambium are abscent
vascular bundle of stem is scattered
pollen grains in one aperture
Canada Wild Rye
Elymus canadensis
Asclepiadaceae: the milkweed family
Leaves: Simple, entire, opposite or whorled, descussate
Laticifers: present in most species (exude a white latex when plant is broken)
Flowers: 5 merous with androecium and gynoecium fused to form a gynostegium, pollen sacs fused to form pollinia and corona.
Fruits: follicles, dehiscent along the adaxial suture and filled with seeds that each have a tuft of long, silku hairs (a coma).
Habit: Erect Herbs in our flora, plus one invasive vine (vincetoxicum)
what two hormones work together in concentration to affect plant growth?
cytokinin and auxin
cell wall
made of cellulose. Found only in plant cells. Permeable. Gives cells support. Held together by pectin.
example of a mutualistic relationship in plants
bacteria and nitrogen fixation
Wild Yam or Colic-root
Dioscorea villosa
where do we see collenchyma cells?
right below the epidermal cells
what is the name of the region when the three regions of a mature fruit are fused together?
a pericarp
c6h12o6 + o2 ----> co2 + h20 + ATP
what does the scutellum do?
it sucks up nutrients from the endosperm and delivers them to the embryo. it is only in monocots
lateral bud
a bud that occurs on the side of a stem
leaves have how many epidermal layers and what are they?
2, and top and bottom
What is the serial endosymbiotic theory?
the concept for the origin of mitochondria and chloroplastswith the prokaryotic ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts as endosymbionts
what does xylem transport? what does phloem transport?
xylem - water and mineralsphloem - carbohydrates (sucrose)
Asteraceae, the Aster, Composite, or Sunflower family (= Compositae)

Leaves: Highly variable. Resins and latex common.

Flowers: Actinomorphic disc flowers and zygomorphic ray or ligulate flowers, perfect or imperfect, epigynous, small, sometimes subtended by bracts.

Inflorescences: A head that may be ligulate (possessing only ligulate florets, as in dandelions, Taraxacum), discoid (possessing only disc florets, as in thistles, Cirsium) or radiate (possessing both ray and disc florets, as in daisies, Leucanthemum). Often in paniculate, racemose, cymose, or corymbose arrangement. Each head subtended by an involucre of bracts, terminal or axillary.

Fruits: An achene, compressed, sometimes winged or spiny, endosperm absent.

Habit: Annual or perennial herbs, often with taproots or tubers, some trees / shrubs.
why is a coconut a unique drupe?
the mesocarp isnt fleshy it is fibrous(the husk)
What is the broad goal of systematics?
to discover all the branches of the phylogenetic tree of life
what catergorizes a fruit as simple fleshy fruit?
develop from a flower with a single pistil. The ovay can be either inferior or superior if it is simple it derives from a single carpel if it is compound it derives from two or more carples.
where does the flesh of a pome come from? what is the texture of the fruit?
flesh comes from enlarged floral tube or receptacle that grows around the ovary. 
papery and leathery endocarp
Saturated Fats
cat's claw
M Phase
where photosynthesis occurs
prefix meaning one
onions and friends
cell division and growth
borne at the apex
ovulate cones contain...
egg-bearing ovules
the female gamete; ovum.
A highly hydrophilic polysaccharide present in the intercellular layer and primary wall of plant cell walls; the basis of fruit jellies.
Signature structure of an angiosperm
describing a pinnately-compound leaf with a single terminal leaflet (compare even-pinnate)
studies photosynthesis, hormones, gene actions, and flowering
Where does photosynthesis occur?
The chloroplast
Homeotic Genes
Genes that control other genes.
By what process does asexual reproduction occur?
trophic levels
producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, etc, decomposers. describes the position that an organism occupies in a food chain — what an organism eats, and what eats the organism
an enlarged underground structure that consists of stem tissue and thin scales; if cut in half there are no layers (compare bulb)
abbreviation for 'species'; also used when genus is know but species is not
The living world and its environment
• Internal to Vascular Cambium
• 2o Xylem
• Crushed 1o Xylem
• Remaining pith
nutritive matter in seed-plant ovules, derived from the embryo sac.
the composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region, as temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloudiness, and winds, throughout the year, averaged over a series of years.
any of various one-celled organisms, classified in the kingdom Protista, that are either free-living or aggregated into simple colonies and that have diverse reproductive and nutritional modes, including the protozoans, eukaryotic algae, and slime molds:
a symbiotic association of the mycelium of a fungus, esp. a basidiomycete, with the roots of certain plants, in which the hyphae form a closely woven mass around the rootlets or penetrate the cells of the root.
A sclerenchyma cell with a thick, lignified secondary wall having many pits. Thay are variable in form but typically not very long; they may or may not be living at maturity.
A flower having both stamens and carpels; hermaphroditic flower.
The ground tissue (parenchyma) of a leaf, located between the layers of epidermis; the cells generally contain chloroplasts.
A simple sugar, such as five-carbon and six-carbon sugars, that cannot be dissociated into smaller sugar particles.
Reproductive cells in animals and plants are __
Haploid (1n)
Vase-like structure in a flower pistil that encloses the ovary
borne at or on the side of
not exerted or protruding beyond the surrounding organ
Purpose of Petals
Attract animals for pollenation
often missing in vind pollenated plants
Some petals have UV markers for bees
Prolamellar Bodies
Semicrystalline body found in plastids arrested in development by the absence of light
metaphase 1
homologous oairs of chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate
Secondary Vascular Tissue
-secondary meristem
secondary xylem and phloem
-xylem tissue
-vessel elements
-phloem tissue
-sieve tube elements
-companion cells
-Secondary meristem
-vascular cambium
What percentage of power comes from natural gas?
a multiple fruit developed from a hollow fleshy receptacle containing numerous flowers, as in the fig.
an outgrowth from the epidermis of plants, as a hair.
the tendency of a fluid, usually water, to pass through a semipermeable membrane into a solution where the solvent concentration is higher, thus equalizing the concentrations of materials on either side of the membrane.
ground meristem
an area of primary meristematic tissue, emerging from and immediately behind the apical meristem, that develops into the pith and the cortex.
Cork Cambium
The lateral meristem that forms the periderm, producing cork (phellem) toward the surface (outside) of the plant and phelloderm toward the inside; common in stems and roots of gymnosperms and woody angiosperms. Also called phellogen.
List the 4 classes of seedless vascular plants
Whisk ferns
Result of a sperm cell fertilizing an egg cell (haploids joining to form a diploid)
second law of thermodynamics
physical world: complex state-> simple state. Living organisms: chemical subunits (disorder)->complex organization (order) LIVING ORGANISMS MUST CONTINUALLY PLUG IN ENERGY
a fleshy berry-like fruit as in some members of the Rosaceae
-deciduous habit
trees, shrubs and perennial herbs drop leaves in fall;

!aids in water-conservation and avoiding snow damage!
if the fused stamens, sepals, and petals attach to the receptacle below the ovary, they are said to be ________ and the ovary as described as __________
hypogynous, superior
if the fused stamens, sepals, and petals attach to the receptacle below the ovary, they are said to be ________ and the ovary as described as __________
what's something that's BELOW something FEMALE? and what is another name for ABOVE?
What are the bad side affects of Glycoside Salicin?
What are the charachteristics of seedless vascular plants?
Reproduce with spores.
having the form or appearance of a petal.
grass family
the large plant family Gramineae (or Poaceae), characterized by mostly herbaceous but sometimes woody plants with hollow and jointed stems, narrow sheathing leaves, petalless flowers borne in spikelets, and fruit in the form of seedlike grain, and includi
the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions.
CFC's take how long to hit the stratosphere?
11-20 years
Root pressure
The pressure developed in roots as the result of osmosis, which causes guttation of water from leaves and exudation from cut stumps.
Hard bread has a __ gluten content while soft bread has a __ content.
high; low
made up of two or more similar parts as in a leaf which has leaflets
what is a long filament composed of 2 lobes and 4 pollen sacs?
What are some examples of materials used for biofuels to power vehicles?
-Used cooking oil
-Plant matter
the bud of the ascending axis of a plant while still in the embryo.
the lower part of the axis of an embryo; the primary root.
a thin outer layer of the meristem in embryos and growing points of roots and stems, which gives rise to the epidermis.
Prothallial  Cell
The sterile cell or cells found in the male gametophytes, or microgametophytes, of vascular plants other than angiosperms; believed to be remnants of the vegetative tissue of the male gametophyte.
may take up most of (up to 90%) the cell volume. Membrane bound sacs filled with cell sap--mostly water, waste products. Store metabolites.
what is climax ecosystem?
optimum balance will stay the same unless physically changed
a part of the body of a plant that develops, typically, from the radicle and grows downward into the soil, anchoring the plant and absorbing nutriment and moisture.
In bryophytes which generation is dominant?
The gametophyte generation is most visible and the sporophyte generation is small
what is an imperfect flower?
one that has either stamens or carpels, but not both
give some examples of ascomycota
cup fungi, vegetable and fruit molds, mildews, morels, truffels, yeasts
The female gametophyte of gymnosperms can have multiple archegonia. Explain the end result of this.
Each archegonium contains a single egg that will be fertilized and will develop into an embryo
End up with seeds with many embryos, plant one seed get many plants
What is one benefactor of Algal fuels?
Requires much less land than conventional crop production
The cell wall in a plant is comprised primarily of this
Cellulose, a type of carbohydrate
Why are hydrogen ions important for photosynthesis?
They act as electrons and when they build up there is a concentration gradient which drives ATP synthesis
Why is h20 a product of photosynthesis?
Because in the calvin cycle after 6 times around there are 6 exta O's and a lot of H+'s. So they form H2O.
K. Brevis
having leaflets
Daughter Chromosomes
Seed container
twice pinnately compound
bearing small leaves
Armored dinoflagellates
cellulose plates
makes gametes by mitosis
cut into slender lobes
2° Phloem moves towards\
Charles Darwin
British Naturalist, "Evolutionary concept"
An indeterminate inflorescence in which the main axis is elongated and the flowers are sessile.
an elongate unbranched inflorescence with pedicelled flowers on the main stem
Structures within chloroplasts; seen as green granules with a light microscope as a series of stacked thylakoids with an electron microscope; the grana contain the chlorophylls and carotenoids and are the sites of the light reactions of photosynthesis
inside of cell wall
cell membrane
having closely spaced longitudinal veins, as the leaves of most monocotyledonous plants.
A sperm-producing structure that may be multicellular or unicellular.
A phosphorylated lipid; similar in structure to a fat, but with only two fatty acids attached to the glycerol backbone, with the third space occupied by a phosphorous-containing molecule; important components of cellular membranes.
The pigment within chloroplasts that absorbs the energy from sunlight
a broad flat-topped inflorescence in which the central flower is the first to open (compare corymb)
with shallow roundish or bluntish teeth on the margin; scalloped
Nuclear Envelope
The double-membrane surrounding the nucleus of a cell
Generalities for Bryophytes
larger gametophyte
smaller, dependent sporophyte
rhizoids (multicellular for mosses)
appearance of plasmodesmata
archegonium (stalk, neck, egg foot, sporophyte)
How bacterial mutualism works in roots
a sharp-pointed, hard or woody outgrowth on a plant; thorn.
any of numerous, chiefly evergreen trees or shrubs of the class Coniferinae (or group Coniferales), including the pine, fir, spruce, and other cone-bearing trees and shrubs, and also the yews and their allies that bear drupelike seeds.
Melvin Calvin
figured out how sugars are synthesized
The tough substance of which the exine, or outer wall, of spores and pollen grains is composed; a cyclic alcohol highly resistant to decay.
Prop Roots
Adventitious roots arising from the stem above soil level and helping to support the plant; common in many monocots, for example, maize.
metaphase 1
homologous oairs of chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate
Heterotrophs are known as CONSUMERS in food chains and obtain organic carbon by eating other heterotrophs or autotrophs. They break down complex organic compounds that are produced by autotrophs
the narrowed portion of a pistil between and connecting the ovary and the stigma
the upper angle formed between two structures or organs such as a leaf and the stem from which it grows
! Most mammals can’t distinguish red from green and blue. They have dichromatic color vision.
what are the pollen-producing, or male part of the flower?
what are the pollen-producing, or male part of the flower?
it's got "man" in itandr
one population following another as habitat becomes more accommodating to later population
ecological succession
Pigments in plants;Accessory pigments;Carotenoids Group
•All eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms &some cyanobacteria
•460 to 550nm
•Carotenes Reddish-yellow Xanthophylls Yellow-brown
Nastic movement
Reversible processes as opposed to non-reversible stimuli (temperature, humidity).

Nastic movements are reversible b/c they are caused by turgor pressure (pressure of the cell contents against the cell wall - like water moving in or out of the cell. Tropic movement involves actual growth, which is irreversible.
having branched veins that form a network, as the leaves of most dicotyledonous plants.
a collection or rosette of bracts subtending a flower cluster, umbel, or the like.
a flowering plant whose stem above ground does not become woody.
the loose mass of epidermal cells covering the apex of most roots, serving to protect the meristematic cells behind it.
multicellular diploid
organisms having pairs of homologous chromosomes
Spongy areas in the cork surfaces of stem, roots, and other plant parts that allow interchange of gases between internal tissues and the atmosphere through the periderm; occur in vascular plants.
each plant has both male and female flowers (pumpkin and corn!)
Stems are mostly made up of what?
Vascular tissue
the space or division usually on a leaf between two lobes or teeth
Seed Plants
Almost all common plants except ferns, mosses, and liverworts; embryo enclosed in seed coat
4 divisions of gymnosperms:
1. gingko
2. cycads
3. conifers
4. gnetophyta
Parts of necessary molecules: Nitrogen
Amino acids, proteins, chlorophyll
superior ovary
an ovary positioned above a receptacle of a flower, as in members of the mint family.
any of numerous plants of the genus Ranunculus, having glossy yellow flowers and deeply cut leaves.
(of stamens) united into one bundle or set by their filaments.
a thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns.
Sieve Plates
The part of the wall of sieve-tube elements bearing one or more highly differentiated sieve areas.
Plant growth and development can be thought of as occuring as the result of 5 processes. List these in order

Cell Division
Cell Enlargement
Cell Maturation
Patterned differentiation of cells into tissues
Organization of tissues into organs and then the whole plant
Plants that cannot conduct food and water, or support seeds or flowers, which are usually just a few centimeters tall
Nonvascular plants
Some pollinators need only _____ some need only ____ but bees need _____
necter, pollen, both
what is in between the primary cell wall of two adjoining cells?
middle lamella
what is Noctiluca an example of
a bio luminescent dinoflagellate
growth ring
an annual formation of wood in plants, consisting of two concentric layers, one of springwood and one of summerwood.
a simple pistil, or a single member of a compound pistil.
a sharp excrescence on a plant, esp. a sharp-pointed aborted branch; spine; prickle.
The basic types of plant tissue are:
1.dermal (outer skin)
2.vascular (plumbing)
3. Ground (everything else)
Golgi Apparatus
Refers to all the Golgi bodies in a given cell
give characteristics of Kingdom Plantae
adapted for terrestrial life, develop from embryoes, pigments (chlorophyll a,b,beta carotene), store starch, alternation of generation life cycle
How O2 got in the atmosphere
cyanobacteria evolved 02 as a photosynthetic biproduct
What molecule is the electron carrier for photosynthesis?
NADPH (P as in photosynthesis)
Stradivarius violins why so great?
Built using wood from coldest period of little iced age...tree rings more dense
What does the Filament do?
The filament holds up the the anther.
Plant Life Cycle
can vary from less than a month to 150 years
What are the characteristics of a monocot?
1seed, parallel veins, petals+ stamen in multiples of three's.
give some examples of poor environments cyanobacteria might inhabit
under AC units, deserts in CO, sea walls
 Energy of a photon is inversely/directly proportional to
wavelength of light (pick one)
 Energy of a photon is inversely proportional to
wavelength of light
 Greater the # of nm = Longer wavelength = less energy
What are the steps for the light independent reaction? (not detailled)
step 1: ATP is turned into ADP+P in the E.T.C.
step 2. NADPH turns into NADP-----> the H+
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