chinese immigration Flashcards

Terms Definitions
chinatowns
ethnic neighborhoods
ccba
chinese consolidated benevolent association
When was the First Wave?
1850-1882
Tongs
Chinese organized crime
-People who aren't welcomed in the 6 companies
-People who are kicked out of the 6 companies
Leland Stanford
founder of Stanford University
When was the Fourth Wave?
1965- present
Chinatown
-Was a bachelor society
-Formed the Six Companies
Gum Saan
Means "Gold Mountain" in Chinese
The Chinese Question
pros/cons of having chinese
Homestead Act
allowed citizens and permanent immigrants to purchase 160 acres of land for ten dollars
Pull factor 4th
-better lifestyle -freedom -less discrimination
Angel Island
Processing center for all Chinese immigrating to the U.S.
Qing Dynasty
This corrupt government forces smaller clans to look out for themselves.
Exclusion Act 1882
restriction of chinese immigrants, excluded current chinese living in U.S. from citizenship
queue
braid worn down back, sign of allegiance, could be killed if had it
yellow peril
color metaphor for race, Kaiser Wilhelm II, late nineteenth century
repealed the chinese exclusion act
president franklin roosevelt
who worked for Central Pacific Railroad
the chinese
Push factors-1st
-poor farmers with no power -starving -hard manuel labor -trying to escape violence
Chinese Communist Revolution
-Mao Ze Dong takes over
-Brings stability to the Chinese government
Opium War
fought between China and Britain and set the tone for China/Western relatioChina resented how the British imported large quantities of opium (an addictive drug) into China Through opium, British traders were able to gain control over Chinese merchants and the Chinese government ns
Yung Wing
first chinese student to graduate U.S. university, graduated yale in 1854
English/Chinese Phrase Book
1875 phrasebook aimed to help newcomers from China adjust to life in the United States
Knights of Crispin
1867, Labor union of shoeworkers, largest union in country
national origins act
restricted immigration to the united states from every country in asia
china towns
ethnic enclaves in major west coast cities where chinese live
- san fran most improtant chinatown
cable act 1922
- prevent american immigrationa dn miscengetnion between whites and asians
- enabled to ablitity to remove civil rights from any white woman that married an asian
Push factors 3rd
-lived in crowded housing -lack of political freedom -economy was poor because of communism -shortage of food
Rock Springs Massacre of 1885
28 Killed, 75 homes burned
Denver Riot of 1880
Uproar about Chinese labor disputes. They have to be jailed for their "protection".
laundry ordinance
made laundry owners pay 15 dollars if they didnt use a wagon
opium use and micengentaion
americans feared that Chinese opium use harms not just the Chinese but also corrupt white society especially white women who are seen as particularly vulnerable to the seductive power of opium
1. Feared Chinese men would seduce women through drug addiction into sexual relationships causing miscegenation (mixing of races)
Naturalization Act of 1943
Ends the Chinese Exclusion Act because of WWI
Page Law of 1875
enacted by U.S. to deal with Chinese/Japanese immigrants, required asians to be processed ("interview", etc.) at port
who worked for Union Pacific
Irish Immigrants and ex-Civil War soldiers
Queue Ordinance
allowed the sheriff to cut the hair of all male prisoners to within one inch of the scalp
certificate of residence
a document proving that the holder was in the country legally
tape v. hurley 1885
- case over segregation of asian children in schools
- case ruled taht asians have right to public education
- established separate but equal schools for asians
..clear precedent to plessy vs. ferguson
Anti-Coolie Act of 1862
monthly 2.50 tax for all of mongolian race, 18+, affects everyone in production except sugar, rice, coffee, tee..
classic period of chinese immigration
demographics - young men, with gender imbalance; fort men to every woman

common geographic orgina - Guangdon, near taishan

settlement patterns - west coast

reutn mingration - chinese wanted to return to china
Chae Chan Ping V US 1889
Supreme Court case holds that Chinese Exclusion Act is in fact constitutional
foreign miner's license law
tax of 20 dollars a month on foreign miners
knights of labor, supreme order of caucasians
two poltiical organization seeking to restrict chiense immigration and inflame racial violence
What was the reason behind the Chinese exclusion act?
Overpopulated Chinese people so the Chinese stole all the jobs in America
why charles crocker didnt want to hire the chinese
he thought they were smal weak
The 6 Companies
-Make jobs
-Banking
-Burial
-Individual support
-Similar to the Irish Catholic Church
When was the Third Wave?
1940-1964
North Adams
75000 immigrants brought in
kongsi
Chinese instituitons designed to assite new immigrants enterting the united states
1. Also known as the Chinese benevolent soceiteis
2. Helped immigrants get jobs, housing and services
3. In exchange, the kongsi demanded that immigrants maintain their Chinese culture and traditions
Push factors 2nd
-starving/poor -laborers -empire collapsed -civil war -mostly men
Fu Manchu
Movie: Diabolical scary Asian stereotypes used (World domination, criminal, etc.)
Dennis Kearney
racist views against Chinese immigrants, though had no opinion really before he knew it would give him political power
chinese exclusion act
banned immigration of chinese
triad society
- chinese criminal organizations, simliar to mafia
- operate drug tarfficking, prositution, and extortion
Pull factor 3rd
-freedom -luxuries -even less restrictions against immigrants
Paper Sons
Fire caused by earthquake burns California state records. These Chinese immigrants use this window to claim that they were already citizens.
Hawaii
not part of U.S. at the time
Ellis Island
first place immigrant would be taken
Coolie
racial slur for people of Asian descent, however used as well in formal writing (Anti-Coolie act)
fongs
social centers for the chinese, ran clubs and provided jobs and housing
vice districts
areas in chinatown were illegal pleasures can be sought
- no effort to assimilate making americans susipicous
Opium
Opium, from the poppy plant, had long been used in China for medicinal purposes
gold mountain
chinese term for north america, esp. CA because of gold rush
Calvin Sampson
union with Knights of Crispin in 1870
where the Union Pacific start building the railroad
Omaha Nebraska
chinese exclusion act 1882
effectively ended Chinese immigration with a few loopholes, it was the only piece of legislation targeting a specific race
Why?
Because americans feared the increasing immigrants coming from china. They feared they were taking over their jobs and since the Chinese refused to assimilate it set them apart. Society also feared that they would use their opium to seduce women into sexual relationship and prosiution – this all went along with the theory of the yellow peril which is a concept that all asians have a conspiracy to overthrow the western nations
Significance?
Ended all Chinese immigration
- gender imbalance – by freezing immigration this ensured that no new women would enter therefore few chiense children were born and the national Chinese population would decline
Loopholes?
Paper sons – based on provisions, direct relatives of Chinese immigrants already in America could emigrate. Chinese seeking entry would forge their identity and pay those Chinese already in the country if they stated that they were the son
Repeal of Chinese exclusion act ?
Act was repealed in 1943 during [email protected] in order to win over ally but restrictions on Chinese immigration continue until 1965
Pull factor 2nd
-allied with the US during WWII -freedom -less starvation
Push factors 4th
-less freedom -Hong Kong became apart of China and people feared that communist rule would cut into their freedom
The Boxer Rebellion
-Locals decide to fight against the imperialist occupation
-They relied on spiritual factors and were killed
5 Causes of Anti-Chinese Sentiment
1. Vice Districts
2. Race
3. Religion
4. "Yellow Peril"
5. Labor Disputes
People vs. Hall
1854, supreme court ruled that chinese could not testify in court
why america accepted chinese refugees
china was a communist country
tong system
- secrety societies taht offer aid and protection to immigrants(especially to those who dont go to kongsi)
- sometimes involved in criminal activity
credit ticket system
a third party buys the immigrants ticket and the immigrant pays off the ticket slowly over time
Chinese Massacre of 1871
mob of 500+ anglos/latinos --> LA Chinatown, robbed, attacked, murdered chinese. triggered by killing of robert thompson, local rancher. calle de los negros 18+ chinese deaths, 8 attackers convicted
cubic air law
required that all houses to have at least 500 feet of cubic air per person living there
immigratino act of 1924
- loopholes existin in teh chinese exclusion act closed iwth teh immgiration act of 1924
china in 19th century
Machu dynasty harsh rule – the ruling dynasty and government during the 19th century, they had difficult and harsh rules and were unable to protect the nation
1. Adopting machu cultural forms like forcing every man to wear a queue/ponytail

Foreign imperliasm, interal unrest – foreign powers preyed upon the weakness of the Manchu government taking Chinese wealth for their own nations..because of this inability to protect the nation, repeated revolts against Manchu power erupted in the 19th century causing enormous damage

Opium war – series fo wars beween chian and England over the trade over opium..england was using opium as a trade good to take out Chinese wealth SO the machu goenrment wants to stop English sale of opium (which has caused drug addicition and social problems)
-China loses both of these wars further weakening the Manchu dynasty

Taiping rebellion – devastating fourteen year rebellion agasint the Manchu dynasty that cost millions of lives, causes great upheaval and social disruption

push factors - chinese leave for economic opportunity since little exists in chane because of these problems
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Federal law that prohibits any Chinese to immigrate to the United States
China dolls and Dragon ladies
These are how Chinese woman are portrayed
Consequences of Opium War
The Treaty of Nanjing set a dangerous pattern of unequal treaties between China and western countries
Who wanted the Chinese exclusion act?
The American workers and the congress wanted it
Scott Act of 1888
If a Chinese citizen goes too far away from the U.S. (i.e. international waters) they aren't allowed back
why didnt americans like the chinese
they felt that the chinese were stealing the gold and the jobs away from them
Who was against the Chinese exclusion act?
The Chinese people were against it because they wanted a better lifestyle in America
The Chinese Question of 1867
"What are we going to do about Chinese Immigration?"
what the chinese did that white miners refused to
use the nitroglycerin, dangle over ridges
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