heart muscle cells require oxygen-rich blood
when blood exits the aorta, several coranory arteries branch off to supply the heart muscle
if one or more of these muscles become blocked, the heart muscles cells die from
the contraction phase
glucose + oxygen --->--->--->carbon dioxide+water+ATP (energy)
Platelets: function in blood clotting
Platelets adhered to collagen fibers in connective tissue of broken blood vessel and releases substance that makes nearby platelets sticky
most caused from atherosclerosis
cholesterol and other substances accumulate into plaque -form in arteries-narrows passages for blood flow-vessels narrowed by plaque raise blood pressure-trap clots
partial blockage casuses che
movement of molecules along a concentration gradient from an area of higher concentration to lower
|name the types of respiratory organs||
facilitates the exchange of materials by providing a rapid long distance internal transport system that brings resources close enough to cells for diffusion to occur
Stem cells that produce blood cells are located in spleen, liver befor birth; after birth: red bone marrow
Kidney releases hormone called EPO that stimulated erythrocyte production when tissues dont recieve enough O2
|Fish and Gills||
Move gills for ventilation
Counter current exchange: since the blood moves in the opposite direction as the water that comes in contact with the gills, the amount of oxygen in the blood will always be less than that of the water it comes in contact with
|Annelida: Circulatory and Respiratory||
Live in freshwater/damp habitats
Don't have respiratory system
Do have coelom, digestive tract, and closed circulatory system
Gas exchange: across moist skin to circulatory system
Most animals outer body is either impermeable to gases or lacks sufficient area to exchange gases for the whole body.
therefore, specialized regions of the body have extensivily folded or branched surface area for gas exchange.
|which type of cellular transport is responsible for moving respiratory gases between the circulatory styema dn the rest of the body?||
cycle that the heart relaxes and contracts
distole - relaxation phase
cistole - contraction phase
|The Human Heart||
Atrium on top, Ventricle on bottom
Superior vena cava leads to right atrium from head and forelimbs
Inferior vena cava leads right atrium from lower half of body
Aorta leaves from left ventricle to boody
Pulmonary veins lead from lungs
|Open Circulatory System||
Arthropods and most molluks have this
Circulatory fluid bathes the organs directly
Circulatory fluid, hemolymph, is also the interstitial fluid
Red blood cells would interfere with this form of circulatory system
|talk about arteries||
arteries carry blood away from heart
branch into smaller arterioles as they approach the organs.
the blood then flows from arerioles into capillary beds
|Amphibian Double Circulation||
Heart has three chambers: two atria and one ventricle
Poor oxygen heads into pulmocutaneous circuit (skin and lung capillaries)
how a human breathes
rib cage expands as rib muscles contract
diaphragm contracts -moves down
inhalation - air pressure is higher in atomosphere than in lungs
results is that air rushes in through the mouth and nostril
How a human breathe
rib cages get smaller as rib muslces relax
diaphragm relaxes - moves up
this decreased volume increases the air pressure inside the lungs, forcing air out of resp system.
exhalation - air pressure is lower in atmospher than in lungs
|what are capilaries||
one cell thick; allow exchange of substances between the blood and interstitial fluid.
blood cells must pass through single file.
|what is the systemic circuit?||
exchange of materials (gases, nutrients, wastes) between the blood and the rest of the body.
oxygen and nutrients transported to tissues
carbon dioxide & wates transported away from tissues
|what is a vetricle?||
compartment that receives blood from the atrium and pumps it out of the heart
place the following in the order that describes how blood travels from the heart to cells throughout the body and back to the heart:
capillaries, arteries, arterioles, venules and veins
hemoglo can also bind to CO2, colourless , odorless gas. binds even more so than to oxygen
interferes with the delivery of O2 to cells
interferes w cellul resp, can cause death
mostly microscop particles of carbon
4000 dif chemicals
epithelial tissue lining our resp systemis delcate. main protection is mucus coverthing cells and the beating cilia that sweep dirt particles and microorganisms off their surfaces
toba smoke damages the cells that line the bronchi and trachea, inhibiting their ability to remove foregin substances from the airway.
leads to interference w how the body eliminates ]foreign sub, making them reach and damage the lungs delicate alveoli.
frequent coughing - attempt to clean itself
smoking kills 440,000 more then all deaths by accidents\
die 13 - 14 yrs earlier
90% of lung cancer deaths
15% llung can paiteints survive 5 yrs
|Plathyelminthes: Circulatory and Respiratory||
They lack a body cavity, circulatory ssystem, and respiratory sytstem
They have a digestive tract with one opening
|Nematoda: Circulatory and Respiratory||
Have exocuticle which makes it harder for them to do respiration
Don't have circulatory or respiratory system
They have a pseudocoelem
Diffusion through cutcile and fluid in pseudocoelom
|what is the cardia cycle?||
the cycle of contraction and relaxation of the heart
diastole - relaxation (filling) phase
systole - contraction (pumping) phase
valves - one way; opened during systole
|what is a cardiovascular system?||
the closed circulatory system of humans and other vertebrates, consisting of a heart and blood vessels is called a cardiovascular system.
|what is blood pressure?||
the force that blood exerts against the walls of your blood vessels is called blood pressure.
|what is the role that the cardiovascular system plays in homeostasis||
circulatory system - exchanging nutrients and waste, helps control the composition of blood by constantly moving it, helps regulate body temp, hormone distribution, protect against foreign invaders
|how does smoking damage the lungs/||
smoking damages the epithelial tissue that lines the resp system preventing pollutants from being removed. these pollutants can then damage the delicate alveoli of the lungs where gas exchange occurs
|in the human cardiovascular system, what is the difference between the pulmonary circuit and systemic circuit?||
the pulmonary circuit transports blood between the heart and lungs, whereas the systemic circuit transports blood between the heart and body tissues other than the lungs.
|what causes the valves to open?||
blood pressure from the heart contraction
|The aorta transports blood _________.||
the aorta transports blood to the bodily tissues
|two main types of circulatory systems||
open - blood is pumped through open-ended vessels and out among the body's cells
closed - blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from interstitial fluids - cardiovascular
fill in the blanks
one _________beat is one complete circuit of the ___________cycle. in a healthy adult person at rest, the number of beats per minute, or heart rate, ranges between _____ and ____.
one heart beat is one complete circuit of the cardiac cycle. in a healthy person at rest, the number of beats per minute, or heart rate, ranges between 60 and 80.
|lungs r located in the chest cavity bordered along the bottom by the diaphram||
diaphragm, a sheet of muscle
|what is an open circulatory system?||
in an open circulatory system the circulating fluid is pumped through the open ended vessels.
once the circulating fluid leaves the vessels, it can bathe the organs/cells
only in small organisms
|Blood pressure is lowest in _____.||
Venae cavae, which complete the return of blood to the heart, are farthest from the pumping force of the heart.
|why do all human cells require a continuous supply of oxygen and disposal of carbon dioxide?||
oxygen is required for cellular respiration, which generate ATP for cellular work and also produce carbon dioxide as a waste product.
|which of the following statements best describes the function of the left ventricle?||
It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation.
The left ventricle receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body.
|talk about the process of blood returning through the veins in detail.||
froms veins into the inferior and superior venae cavae, the two large blood vessels that flow intot he heart. by the time blood exits the capillaries and enters the veins the pressure originating fromt eh heart had dropped near 0. but skeletal muscles contract to squeeze blood along
|how does an open circulatory system work?||
in an open system, the heart pumps circulating fluid into body tissues, where nutrients diffuse directly into body cells. contractions of body muscles move the fluid toward the tail. fluid returns to the hear through several pores.
|what is the difference between open and closed circulatory systems?||
in an open cir sys, circulating fluid is pumped through open ended vessels and circulates frealy among cells. in a closed circulatory system , the circulting fluid (blood) is confined within vesslls.
|the function of the pulmonary circuit is to?||
carry carbon dioxide to the lungs and pick up oxygen from the lungs
As blood flows through the capillary beds in the lungs, it loads up on oxygen and unloads carbon dioxide.
|talk about the path of blood flow through the human heart.||
the atria collect blood returning to the heart and pump it into the ventricles.
the ventricles, which pump blood out of the heart to the other body organs, are much more powerful than the atria.
four valves in the heart prevent backflow and keep blood moving in the correct direction.
the 4 chambered structure of the heart prevents the oxygen rich and oxygen poor blood from mixing.
the right atrium recieves oxygen poor blood from body tissues via two large veins, and the right ventricle pumps in to the lungs.
the left atrium recieves oxygen rich blood from lungs
and the left ventricle pumps it out to body organs via the arteries.
in the lungs O2 moves from air spaces inside the alveoli into capila surrounding the alveo. at the same time CO2 exits.
exchange by diffusion - o2 moves out of the air and intot he blood because air is richer in o2 , co2 also diffuses alonga gradie
O2 does not dissolve in blood
o2 in blood is carried by hemoglobin mol within red blood cells.
hemogl consists of 4 polypeptides chains
attached to each poly is a chem group called hem at the centre of which is an atom of iron
each iron can hold one oxygen mol
each hem can carry a max of 4 oxy mols
each red blood cells has 250 mil mols of hemog, so one tiny cells can carry 1bil oxy mols.
|in what basic way do insects carry out gas exchange different from the way fishes and humans do?||
t respir system of insects uses trachea that bring oxygen directly to body cells and carry Carbon dioxide directly away; fishes and humans have a circulatory system that trasports oxygen from the respiratory surface to body cells and carbon dioxide back
Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
numerous -25 trillion
carb containing mol on surf of RB cell det blood type A,B,AB, or O
250 million mols of hemoglobin
hemo is a iron-contain'g proteins that transpo oxygen.
RB cells pass through
Main function: transport O2
Lack nucleu which leaves more space for hemoglobin (usually contains about 250 million hemoglobin)
Hemoglobin: quarternary structure binds 4 O2 to each subunit
|what is hypertension||
high blood pressure
affects 1/4 of population
live a healthy life and it will lower your blood pressure
bits of cytoplasm
pinched off from larger cell in bone marrow
|arteries carry blood _____from the heart, and veins carry_______ _________ the heart. ___________ allow for exchange between the bloodstream and the tissue cells (via interstitial fluid)||
|red blood cells||
most numerous type of blood cell
carbohydrate containing molecules - determine blood type
contains hemoglobin - transports oxygen
Marine worms of the phylum Annelida have parapodia which serve as gills
|Inhalation and Exhalation||
Inhalation: Diaphragm contracts and rib muscles contract, creating lower air pressure in lungs which draws in air
Exhalation: Diaphragm relaxes and air is let out passively
|Talk about blood||
blood is connective tissue
water (90% plasma)
salts (ex. sodium, potassium, calcium)
substances being transported (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, horomones)
cellular elements (45%)
red blood cells (erythrocytes)
white blood cells (leukocytes)
entire body surface
extensions of the body surface
plasma makes up 50% of volume of blood
90% water - 10% is dissolved salts, proteins
|Arthropoda: Circulatory and Respiratory||
Dont have: hemoglobin
Have: coelom, digestive tract, open circulatory system, and respiratory system
Respiratory system: book lungs in spiders, tracheal system in insects, gills in crustacea
|Fish Single Circulation||
Single circulation: blood goes from heart to gills to body then back to heart
Two chambered heart
|talk about capilaries||
networks of tiny vessels called capillaries infiltrate nearly every organ and tissue int he body.
the thin walls of capillaries allow exchange between the blood and interstial fluid.
ex. in fish, blood is oxygenated in gill capilaries and then travels via arteries to other capillary beds, where oxygen enters tissue cells.
capilaries converge into venules, which in turn converge into larger veins
a rhythmic stretching of the arteries caused by the pressure of blood forced into the arteries during systole.
the second number is the blood pressure that remains in the arteries during diastoel.
|look at figures on pages 498 - 513||
|Avian Respiratory System||
Birds have sites of gas exchange called parabronchi, tiny channels in lungs
Birds inhale and fill posterior (first) air sac with fresh air and anterior air sac with stale air
During exhalation, both sets of air sacs deflate which forces air from posterior to lungs with parabronchi and anterior air sac to out of bird
|Make up of Arteries||
Inner lining is endothelium, next layer is smooth muscle, and the last layer is connective tissue
endothelium minimizes restistance to flow of blood
|define blood pressure||
the force that blood exerts against the walls of your blood vessels is called blood pressure.
created by the beating of the heart, blood pressure is the main force driving the blood from the heart through the arteries and arterioles to the capillary beds.
when the ventricles contract, blood is forced into the arteries faster than the it can flow into the arterioles and the faster flow creates pressure that stretches the elastic walls.
surivival depends on close cooperatiiong between the circulatory and respiratory systems
the circul system transports gases andother substan to and from body cells
cellular respiration uses oxygen and glucose to produce water, carbon dioxide, an
atmosphere - 21% O2
Terrestrial animals breath O2
Oceans,lakes etc contain O2 In the form of dissolved gas 3-5% of environment
|What is transported in Cardiovascular System?||
Nutrients, minerals, hormones, waste products
|Plaque and Cardiovascular Disease||
Plaque is oxidized LDL molecules and builds up in between endothelium and smooth muscle
Heart attack: the damage or death of cardiac muscle tissue
|Valves and Veins and Muscles||
Rhythmic ontractions of smooth muscles in the walls of venules an veins aid in the movement of the blood
Contraction of skeletal muscles squeezes blood through the veins toward heart
Skeletal muscle contraction squeezes and constricts veins; flap of tissue within the veins act as a one-way valves that keep blood moving only toward heart
|Talk about Red Blood Cells||
the avg person has 25 trillion
carbohydrate-containing molecules on thier surface det blood type (A, B, AB, or O)
Each blood cell contains approx 250 million hemoglobin; the iron containing protein that transports oxygen.
|does the pulmonary and systemic circuits operate simultaneously?||
the two ventricles pump almost in unison, sending some blood through the pulmonary circuit and the rest through the systemic circuit at the same time.
takes blood one minute to travel through the circulatory system
|blood is confined in 3 main types of blood vessels, what are they?||
|Refer to page 497 and 498 of your text bood to reveiw the two systems.||
|what are the 3 types of blood vessels in order of pressure||
arteries, capiliaries, veins
|Elements of the Respiratory System||
From trachea fork two bronchi, which branch into bronchioles
Gas exchange occurs in alveoli, air sacs cluster at tips of the tiniest bronchioles
Alveoli must be moist for gas exchange
|list the 3 major types of blood vessels in order of pressure of blood within them, from highers pressure to lowest||
arteries, capillaries and veins
fill in the blanks
heart chambers called the ___________ receive blood returning to the heart via blood vessels called ___________. the __________ are the chambers where blood is pumped out of the heart to blood vessels called ________
heart chambers called the atria recieve blood returning to the heart via blood vessels called veins. the ventricles are the chambers where blood is pumped out of the heart to blood vessels called arteries.
|what animals have a close circulatory system>||
earthworms, octopuses and vertebrates (humans) are some.
|what part of the respiratory system in order||
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchiolies, alveoli
|Temperature of Body and Capillary Beds||
When body wants to conserve heat, smooth muscle cells in arterioles constrict to limit blood flow
Hypothalamus controls body tempterature
|which chamber(s) of the heart hold(s) oxygen-rich blood?||
left atrium and left ventricle
The left side of the heart receives blood from the lungs and provides it to the arteries.
|how does a close circulatory system work?||
blood is contained within vessels, seperate from the interstitial fluid bathing the cells.
|What is unique about blood in pulmonary arteries compared with blood in other arteries?||
it is loaded with carbon dioxide
The blood in pulmonary arteries has not yet delivered its load of carbon dioxide to the lungs, so it is the only arterial blood that is oxygen-poor.
|what does the systemic circuit do?||
carries blood between the heart and the rest of the body. it supplies oxygen and nutrients to body tissues and organs and picks up carbon dioxide and other wastes from them. the oxygen poor blood then returns to the heart via the systemic circuit.
|what is the structure of blood vessels?||
arteries branch into smaller vessels called arterioles
arterioles branch into capillaries
chemical exchange between blood and interstitial fluid occurs across the thin walls of capilaries
capillaries converge into venules, whcih deliver blood to veins
all of these vessels are lined by thin , smooth epithelium
arteries and veins have two additional layers
|in what order does blood travel through the different types of vessels||
heart -> arteries -> arterioles -> capilaries -> venuloes -> veins -> heart
|talk about the double circulation system||
has a pulmonary circuit and a systemic circuit
pulmonary : in organisms with double circulation, the pulmonary circuit transports blood between the heart and lungs
systemic circuit: the systemic circuit transports blood between the heart and the rest of the body
amphibians use muscles to push air intot heir lungs - positive pressure breathing.
nerves from breathing ctrl centre in the brainstem send signals that maintain a resp rate of 10 - 14 inhal per minute.
1. levels of CO2 in the blood affect breathing.
when u exerdcise, cellular resp kick in, producint more ATP for ur muscles and raising the amt of CO2 in the blood.
2. when the brain senses the higher CO2 level
3. breathing ctrl cent increase the breating rate and depth.
as a result more CO2 is eliminated in the exhaled air and more O2 is provided to musclels.
air enters resp sys through external openings:
nasil cavity, air is filtered by hairs, warmed, humidified adn sampled by smell receptors
|Most animals are to large or complex for exchange to take place by diffusion alone. so what is used?||
A circulatory system, facilitates the exchange of materials, providing a rapid, long distance internal transport system that brings resources close enough to cells for difffusion to occur. once there, the resources that cells need , such as nutrients and oxygen, enter the cytoplasm through the plasma membrane. and metabolic wastes, such as carbon dioxide, diffuse from the cells to the circulatory system for disposal.
|explain how blood travels through the circulatory system.||
lets start at the right atrium, where 2 large veins empty O2 - poor blood from the body into the heart.
the blood is then pumped to the right ventricle, which pumps the O2 -poor blood to the lungs via 2 pulmonary arteries
as the blood flows through capillaries in the lungs, CO2 diffuses out of the blood and O2 diffuses into the blood.
the newly oxygenated rich blood then flows through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium of the heart, completing the pulmonary circuit.
The blood is pumped a short distance from the left atrium to the left ventricle
blood leaves the left ventricle through the aorta, the largest blood vessel in the body
branching from the aorta are several large arteries that lead to the head and arms and the abdominal region and legs.
near each abdominal organ, arteries lead to arterioles that in turn branch into capilaries that penetrate the body's tissues.
diffusion of Oxygen into the cells and carbon dioxide out of the cells takes place across the thin walls of the capillaries.
downstream , the capillaries join into venules, which convey the blood back into veins.
oxygen poor blood from the upper body and head is channeled into a large vein called the superior vena cava
another large vein, the inferior vena cava, receives blood from the lower body.
the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava complete the systemic circuit by returning blood to the heart.
|how are capillary walls an examples of form fitting function?||
the thinness of capillary walls helps the exchange of substances with cells
|talk a bit more about blood pressure||
created by the beating of the heart, BP is the main forcre driving the blood fromt he heart through the arteris and arterioles to the capillary beds.
when the ventricles contract, blood is forced into the arteries faster than it can flow into the arterioles.
this faster flow creates pressure that stretches the elastic walls of the arteries.
|what are the three main components of a circulatory system?||
a central pump, a vascular system (a set of tubular vessels), and circulating fluid.
|air passes to the pharynx, where the dege and resp systems meet||
from the phaynx, air is inhaled into the larynx (voice box) and then into the trachea (windpipe)