Cisco 6 Flashcards

IP address
Terms Definitions
Question 2
 
The elements of communication include a message source, a message destination, and a ___________, or medium to transport the message.
channel
QUESTION 39:   DRAG DROPYou work as a network administrator at Certkiller .com.Your boss, Mrs. Certkiller, is interested in the OSI layers. Match the items with the appropriate layers. Note that not all options are used. 
Answer: 
Downside of Segmentation
Added complexityIncreased overhead (breaking the message down and reassembling it, sequencing, etc).
Session
A related set of communications transaction between two or more network devices.
 
Both the source and destination devices use application layer protocols during a communication session.
Bits
Binary digit used in the binary numbering system. Binary digits are units of information storage and communication in computing. Each bit can be either a 0 or a 1.
Protocol Suite
A delineation of networking protocols and standards into different categories, called layers, along with definitions of which sets of standards and protocols need to be implemented to create products that can be used to create a working network.
 
Theses rules, or protocols, that work together to ensure successful communication are grouped into what is known as a protocol suite.
Client
A network device that accesses a service on another computer remotely by accessing the network.
 
In the client/server model, the device requesting the information is called a client and the device responding to the request is called a server.
Name the layers of the OSI model.
*Application*Presentation*Session*Transport*Network*Data Link*Physical
Real-time
Events or signals that show output as fast as possible, or as they happen.
Network access protocols
Network access protocols describe two primary functions: data-link management and the physical transmission of data on the media
Server
Can refer to computer hardware that is to be used by multiple concurrent users. Alternatively, this term can refer to computer software that provides services to many users. For example, a web server consists of web server software running on some computer.
 
Client and server processes are considered to be in the application layer.
DCHP Process
When a DHCP-configured device boots up or connects to the network, the client broadcasts a DHCP DISCOVER packet to identify any available DHCP servers on the network.  A DHCP server replies with a DCHP OFFER, whcih is a lease offer message with an assigned IP address, subnet mask, DNS server, and default gateway information as well as the duration of the lease.
 
The client can receive multiple DHCP OFFER packets if the local network has more than one DHCP server.  The client must choose between thema nd broadcast a DCHP REQUEST pcaket that identifies the explicit server and lease offer that it is accepting.  A client can choos to request an address that it had previously been allocated by the server.
 
Assuming that the IP address requested by the client, or offered by the server, is still valid, the chosen server would return a DHCP ACK (acknowledgment) message.  The ACK message lets the client know that the lease is finalized.  If the offer is no longer valid for some reason, perhaps because of a timeout or another client allocating the lease, the chose server must respond to the client with a DHCP NAK (negative acknowledgment) message.   When the cleint has the lease, it must be renewed prior to the lease expiration through another DHCP REQUEST message.  The DHCP server ensures that all IP addresses are unique. (An IP address cannot be assigned to two different network devices simultaneously)
What types of authentication does RIPv2 support?
Plaintext or MD5.
Which one of the following characteristics is true regarding the use of hubs and switches?
A. Hubs can have their ports be configured with VLANs
B. Using hubs is costly with regard to bandwidth availability.
C. Switches can not forward broadcasts.
D.
Answer: E
Explanation:
 Switches increases the number of collisions domains in the network. Switches that are configured with VLANs will reduce the size of the collision domains by increasing the number of collision domains in a network, but making them smaller than that of one big, flat network.
Segmentation
In TCP, the process of taking a large chunk of data and breaking it into small-enough pieces to fit within a TCP segment without breaking any rules about the maximum amount of data allowed in a segment.The answer to this problem (dedicated circuits) is a process called segmentation, in which all messages are broken into smaller pieces that can be easily transported together across a medium.
Syntax
The structure and order of words in a computer language.
 
Within the application layer, protocols specify that messages are exchanged between the source and destination hosts, the syntax of the control commands, the type and format of the data being transmitted, and the appropriate methods for error notification and recovery.
nslookup
A service or a program to look up information in the DNS (Domain Name System).
 
Computer operating systems also have a utility called nslookup that allows the user to manually query the name servers to resolve a given host name.  You also can use this utility to troubleshoot name resolution issues and to verify the current status of the name servers.
FIN
A 1-bit field int he TCP header that is used by a device that wants to terminate its session with the other device. This is done by inserting the FIN flag in the flag field found in the TCP segment.
Explain PIM-DM.
PIM-DM is based on the premises that all segments wants data. It then pushes this data out, and expects everyone that doesnt want it to prune it.
QUESTION 23:You need to describe the various types of flow control to your co-workers. Which ofthe following are types of flow control that can be used in a network? (Choose three)A. Congestion avoidanceB. WindowingC. Cut-throughD. BufferingE. Load Balanc
Answer: A, B, D 
Protocol Data Unit (PDU) Naming Conventions
Data -> Application layer PDU
 
Segment -> Transport layer PDU
 
Packet -> Internetwork layer PDU
 
Frame -> Network access layer PDU
 
Bits-> PDU used for the physical transmission of binary data over media.
Challenge Questions
2.  Describe the two forms of application software and the purpose of each.
Application software has two forms: applications and services:
 
Applications are designed to interact with us.  Application is software for the user.  If the device is a computer, the application is typically initiated by the user.  Although there can be many layers of support underneath, application software provides an interface between humans and the hardware.  The application will initiate the data transfer process when the user clicks the Send button or performs a similar action.
 
Services are background programs that perform a particular function in the data network.  Services are invoked by a device connecting to the network or by an application.  For example, a network service can provide functions that transmit data or provide conversion of data in a network.  In general, services are not directly accessible or seen by the end user.  They provide the connection between an application and the network.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
An application protocol typically not used by end users. Instead, it is used by the network management software and networking devices to allow a network engineer to monitor and troubleshoot network problems.
 
Two examples of application layer protocols are Post Office Protocol (POP) and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).
Control Data
Data that directs a process. A flag in a data-link frame is an example of control data.
 
To support these reliability operations, more control data is exchanged between the sending and receiving hosts.  This control information is contained in the Layer 4 header.
Explain EIGRP autosummarization?
EIGRP will autosummarize (if it is on) by a major network boundary, but it must be a connected route advertised with the network command. Routes received by another neighbor are not summarized.
QUESTION 27:As the Certkiller network administrator, you are required to have a firm understanding of the OSI model. Why does the data communication industry usethe layered OSI reference model? (Choose two)A. It enables equipment from different vendors to
Answer: B, C Explanation:  The OSI (Open System Interconnection) reference model was created as a reference pointfor communications devices. A layered approach is used to segment the entiretelecommunications process into a series of smaller steps.A is correct because it encourages a level of standardization by encouraging thatfunctions be compared to known layers. D is also correct because it allows engineers tofocus on the development, refining, and perfection of simpler components.
OSI Data Link Layer - 2
Creates and addresses framers for host-to-host delivery on the local LANs and between WAN devices
E-Mail Server Processes: MTA and MDA
The e-mail server operates two separate processes:
 
Mail Transfer Agent (MTA)
Mail Delivery Agent (MDA)
 
The Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) process is used to forward e-mail.
 
The Mail Delivery Agent (MDQA) accepts a peice of e-mail from a Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) and performs the delivery.  The MDS receives all the inbound mail from the MTA and places it into the appropriate users' mailboxes.  The MDA can also resolve final delivery issues, such as virus scanning, spam filtering, and return-recept handling.
How do you define a primary vlan?
vlan <vlan> private-vlan primary
QUESTION 22:Network equipment supporting the use of flow control mechanisms has beenrecently installed in the Certkiller network. What is the purpose of flow control in adata network? A. It ensures that data is retransmitted if an acknowledgment is not re
Answer: C   Explanation:  Flow control paces the transmission of data between a sending device and a receiving device. Flow control ensures that the receiving device can absorb the data sent to it before the sending device sends more. When the buffers on the receiving device are full, a message is sent to the sending device to suspend transmission until the data in the buffers has been processed. Incorrect Answers:   A. Data retransmission mechanisms are not handled by control. They are most often handled by transport layer protocols such as TCP. B. This describes the reassembly portion of the segmentation and reassembly (SAR) function of network equipment.
14.  DHCP allows the automation of what?
Assignment of IP addresses, subnet masks, and default gateway.  The protocol automates the assignment of IP addresses, subnet masks, gateway, and other IP networking parameters.
- Root guard = Err-inconsistent.- BPDU guard = Err-disabled.- Loop guard = Loop-inconsistent.
What port/transport protocol is used for LDP hellos?
QUESTION 4:
The LAN needs are expanding at the Certkiller corporate office, which is quickly growing. You are instructed to enlarge the area covered by a single LAN segment on the Certkiller network. Which of the following are layer 1 devices that you ca
Answer: D, E
Explanation: A hub simply repeats the electrical signal and makes no attempt to interpret the electrical signal (layer 1) as a LAN frame (Layer 2). So, a hub actually performs OSI layer 1 functions, repeating an electrical signal, whereas a switch performs OSI layer 2 functions, actually interpreting Ethernet header information, particularly addresses, to make forwarding decisions. Hubs can be used to increase the number of stations that can be supported on a LAN. Because the repeater does not interpret what the bits mean, but does examine and generate electrical signals, a repeater is considered to operate at Layer 1. Repeaters can be used to physically extend the LAN to greater distances.
The transport layer is the link between the application layer and the lower layers that are responsible for network transmission.
This layer accepts data from different conversations and passes it down to the lower layers as manageable pieces that can be eventually multiplexed over the media.
 
Applications do not need to know the operation details of the network in use (without regard to the destination host type, the type of media over which the data must travel, the path taken by the data, the congestion on a link, or the size of the network).
 
Additionally, the lower layers are not aware that multiple applications are sending data on the network.  Their responsibility is to deliver data to the appropriate device.  The transport layer then sorts these pieces before delivering them to the appropriate application.
Either by manually configured RID, or then by the same process as OSPF. The router-id must be reachable from the neighbor. If a loopback is used, it must be a /32.
What is the transport address in LDP?
Question 4
 
When a server responds to a web request, what occurs next in the encapsulation process after the web page data is formatted and separated into TCP segments?
D = The server adds the source and destination IP address to each segment header to deliver the packets to the destination.
 
Encapsulating into TCP segments occurs at OSI Layer 4, so the next encapsulation is at OSI Layer 3, which includes adding source and destination IP addresses to the segment headers and converting them into packets.  Then the physical addressing is added and the data is converted to bits.
"snmp-server host <ip> community> <what-traps>"+"snmp-server enable traps <what-traps>"
How do you log to a local file on flash, while also limit the usage?
It will settle on 10Mbit full-duplex.
If one end of the link is a 10Mbit interface, and is manually set to full-duplex and the other end is 100Mbit and autonegotiates, what will the end result be?
It originates at the point where the SPT and RPT diverge. (Different RPF neighbor).
In HSRP, you can have routers in what states?
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