Civil war part Flashcards

Terms Definitions
vermont
Union
1861-1865
Civil War
Peninsular Campaign-Generals
McClellan/ Lee
conscription
compulsory military service
daguerreotype
An early photograph
Henry Clay
The Great Compromiser
Ironclads
Warships covered in iron
Union
The United States of America
14 amendment
gave african americans citizenship
Emancipation Proclamation
Freed the slaves forever
Provisional
created to be changed; temporary
John Rawlins
African-American gravedigger who was promoted to the rank of Sergeant Major (Glory)
leaders of fredericksburg
union-ambrose burnside; conf-jackson; longstreet
Impeachment
What happened after Johnson disobeyed Congress's orders about firing federal employees
John Brown
Abolitionist who fought pro-slavery Missouians in Kansas, tried to steal weapons at Harper's Ferry for a slave uprising, and was hanged.
Copperheads
northern democrates opposed to the war
location where Lee surrendered his army to Grant
.appomattox
ulysses s. grant
head of union army
Jefferson Davis
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
When did the Civil War take place?
1861-1865
Everett
preceded Lincoln at the podium, spent two hours giving a speech haha sucker he did two freaking hours when lincoln did 3 minutes
Missouri Compromise
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
on what date did the confederate forces fire on fort sumter?
4/12/1861
Camp William Penn
Camp outside Philadelphia where African American soldiers were trained during the Civil War
Slave Codes
Laws that denied enslaved Africans most of their rights
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States
Abe lincon
union pres. belived democracy depends on saving uion
April 1861
Fort Sumter attacked, official start of Civil War
Battle of Shiloh
Confederate forces suprised union troops & drove them across the Tennesee river; union got backup and won the battle but it was one of the most bloody battles in the civil war
North Disadvantage
had to conquer a huge area
What political party was established with the goal of stopping the expansion of slavery into the territories?
Free Soil
did without
how did southern states deal with scarcity of products?
Frederick Douglass
Ex slave, was against slavery, wrote his autobiography
radicals and conservatives
two groups of the republican party
greenbacks
def: money the North created to pay for the war
sig: did not represent any known value- this led to inflation and the value of the money to drop, by the end of the year the cost of living in North doubled
aberham lincoln
A republican who challenged douglas to his seat in senate
Antietam
the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
Fort Sumter
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
brandy station
6/63
csa jeb stuart famous rep, wants 2 regain his rep b/c of his loss.
assassination
the murder of a public person; what happened to Abraham Lincoln
Beuregard P.T.
commander of confederate army at Fort Sumter and the Bull Run
Yankee
a native or inhabitant of the northern United States
Maine
What free state joined the Union as part of the Missouri Compromise?
segregation
the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group
King Cotton
Cotton was king of the south economy-because people understood there was a huge market for cotton-England was in need for it
What was the latitude that was drawn across the state
36*30
Edwin Stanton
Secretary of War that Johnson wanted out of his cabinet b/c he was radical.
Bull Run
the first battle of the Civil War fought 25 miles from Washington D.C.
Robert E. Lee
leader of the southern army
strategy- let the north use all of their supplies
Clara Barton
A Union Nurse; the person who later formed the American Red Cross
Battle of Antietam
the bloodiest single-day battle of the Civil War and US History
Dred Scott Case
Main Questions of Case:
1) Was a black person a citizen?
2) Can residence in a free territory make someone free?
3) Did Congress have the power to prohibit slavery in a territory?
Thomas Stonewall Jackson
South general, gought under Robert E Lee
Fugitive Slave Act
Law that provided for harsh treatment of escaped slaves and for those who helped them
Ulysses S Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Fugitive Slave Law
NS North unhappy with helping slavery by returning slaves; South was fine with it as they could regain their property
Causes of Civil War
slavery; Dred Scott Decision; Missouri Compromise; Compromise of 1850; South's secession; Kansas-Nebraska Act
advantages for the south
defensive war on their own soil
military leadership
better adapted to military life
size of territory and geography
Who was Frederick Douglas?
- American social reformer, orator, writer and statesman. After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining renown for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writing
Compromise of 1850
Written by Henry Clay tried to satisfy both North and South
Spanish American War
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
a major result of the civil war was what?
slavery ended
Fort Sumpter
where the first shot of the civil war took place
What were the effect sof Uncle Toms Cabin?
It energized Abolitionist
both sides were originally
excited
thought it would be a quick war
over-confident
final solution
Battle of the Wilderness
This battle took place in almost the same area as the Battle of Chancellorsville and took place in a dense forest
Weaknesses of the South
Less of everything that the North had except the South had the best generals and were more willing to fight
Birth of the Republican Party (1854)
William Seward and Abraham Lincoln lead new party devoted to blocking slavery's expansion
The formation of political parties can be traced to the different philosophies and veiwpoints of...
Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton.
Who led the victory in the Battle of new Orleans
Major General Andrew Jackson
Trace shermans advance through the south. Wich major cities lay in his path? Why do some southerners, even today, consider him the greatest villain of the war?
The major cities wer savannah and Atlanta. They cant let go because he destroyed the south. They cannot get over how he ruined their countryside.
geogia florida alabama louisiana and texas
which states seceded in the first few months after Lincols election?
How did the Compromise of 1850 help the South?
1. Residents in Washington, DC could keep their slaves.
2. Congress would pass the Fugitive Slave Act.
3. New Mexico and Utah would decide for themselves if they want to allow slavery.
What happened at the beginning and end of the Civil War a MCClain's farm?
It started in his front yard in Manassas and ended in his parlor in the Appomattox Court House.
#29
inaugeration
score
set of twenty
Ironclad
Armored naval vessel.
Fredrick Douglass
leading black abolitionist
War ends-Lincoln shot
april 1865
emancipation
the freeing of slaves
Disease
killed more than battles did
The color of the North
Blue
Alexander Gardner
Photographer of Civil War.
strategy
the overall military plan for defeating an enemy or winning a conflict
Secession
the withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil War
Gettysburg
Bloodiest battle of the Civil War
butler
who recruited the first african americans accepted into union army
North's strategy
cut the Confederate supply line
Habeas Corpus
-basic rights are taken away
-sometimes during wartime
grant would not retreat and with reinforcements was able to win the battle
shiloh
First woman to earn medical license
Elizabeth Blackwell
Harriet Tubman
abolitionist and former slave who freed 300 slaves in 19 trips on the Underground Railroad
The Union
The North. Against Slavery. Against Succession. Lincoln = President
Bleeding Kansas
bloodshed between those who favored and opposed slavery
cottoncracy
elite ruling class of the southern cotton kingdom
Eric Foner
contemporary historian who wrote about reconstruction
the Confederacy
Lincoln had trouble finding good generals for the Union army mainly because many of the best officers had joined
South
Half the population of the North. North or South
Matthew brady
Shocked America by displaying his photographs of battlefiels corps from Antietam, posting a sign on the door of his new york gallery that read "the dead of Antietam"
Jomini
French, wrote abt how N strategy (Anaconda Plan) had to link to logistics & tactics in order for us to succeed
kepi
originally worn by the french, a wool cap with slouching front, leather visor and band, and flat circular top
US Grant
Leader of Northern Army during Civil War - Later becomes president
South Carolina
Fort Sumter is located in the Charleston Harbor in ___________.
Gadsden Purchase
Strip of land in present-day Arizona and New Mexico that was acquired by the U.S. in 1853 for $10 million. Also the worst blunder in History.
Battle of Gettysburg
General Lee's Army of Northern Virginia
Union Army of the Potomac (Gen. Meade)
Grant  fighting Battle of Vicksburg
Lee's Army advanced into Pennsylvania, hoping to draw away Grant's Army from Vicksburg (Ms.) - it didn't work
other Union forces moved to meet Lee's challenge
over the next 3 days, a massive battle ensured with 85,000 Union soldiers and 65,000 Confederates
The Union forces held a key advantage - they occupied the high ground - places known as "Little Round Top" and "Big Round Top"; in addition, Lee lacked his usual advanced scouting (or intelligence) which he relied on to make his plans
After 2 days of standoff, Lee stubbornly attempted an all-out assault ("Pickett's Charge") on the Union forces - against the advice of his subordinate officers; a disastrous charge - 13,000 men across an open field; Lee offered to resign
Total casualties over 50,000 (Union 23,000/Confederate 28,000); the July heat and the death toll required a cemetery be created - immediately
THE BLOODIEST BATTLE OF THE CIVIL WAR
Lee's Army retreated and escaped, gravely weakened and never again able to invade North; however, they bravely defended Virginia for the next 2 years
Lincoln  annoyed/disappointed  Lee's army could have been destroyed
economy
of, relating to, or based on the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
robert e lee
general of the Confederate forces during the Civil War(most celebrated)
dorothea dix
- became head of union army nurses
gettysburg address
a 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
antebellum
of a period before a war, especially the American Civil War
Border States
Slave states that stayed with the Union
Lincoln and the Civil War
Considered the best president. Southerners had a bad day when Lincoln was assassinated because he was willing to accept the South back into the Union.
Eli Whitney
"I never thought my cotton gin would change history"
Popular Sovereignty
people hold the final authority in all matters of government
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
after losing major territory the Russians surrendered and agreed to sign the treaty. The treaty sliced about a third of the Russians western territory away. This officially brought the end of the Russian empire.
Border state
slave state that remained in the Union during the Civil War
Atlanta/March to sea
Nov-Dec 1864 - Sherman destroyed GA from Atlanta to Savannah, crippling the South; Lincoln gets reelected; closing of war. Union wins
Colonel Robert Gould Shaw
Commander of the 54th Massachusettes regiment and died during the attempted siege of Fort Wagner
william t. sherman
general whose march to sea caused destruction to the south
General Johnston
Who was the Confederate general at the battle of Shiloh?
Harper's Ferrry VA
Where John Brown attacked the federal arsnenal at harpers ferry
Grant and Missisipi
capture Fort Henry and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River
Albert Johnston's Confed army surprised Grant at Shiloh, TN
Union army held its ground and forced Confed to retreat
Draw
raising money for war
Increase taxes, print more money, and borrowing money
Clenent L Vallandigham
1863 wants war to end, banished to Confederacy, inspires Edward Hale to write "The Man w/out a country"
civil rights act
all people born in the united states are citizens
African American soldiers
1. fought in the armies and navies of both the North and South
2. were paid less than other soldiers
3. were discriminated against and served in segregated units
John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry
Believed that slavery was an "unjustifiable" state of war conducted by one group of people against another. The destruction of slavery in American required revolutionary ideology and revolutionary acts. Led a group of whites and black to attack the federal arsenal in Virginia. He failed was captured quickly and executed in Charles Town, Virginia.
Confederate States of America (CSA)
the country created by the states that left the union
Attack on Vicksburg (Turning Pt)
1862- fall of Port Hudson, Miss open again, quells N-Ohio River Valley is happy, political significance, diplomatic scales tip N---F won't sell 6 naval vessels to Richmond
First Battle of Bull Run
This was the first major battle of the war. The Confederacy won and proved they could fight.
what was john brown's body about?
john brown and his attack on harpers ferry- marching song
What was the view of the Republican party on slavery?
wanted to stop the expansion of slavery even though they believed it would eventually die. thought it would be best to gradually abolish slavery to avoid causing complete chaos
Name the 5 different parts of the compromise of 1850
1. urged congress to allow CA to enter the union as a free state 2. mexican cession to be organized as a federal territory, new Mexico popular sovereignity would decide the status of slavery, 3. Texas agreed to give up its land claims in New Mexico, 4. called for an end to the slave trade, but not slavery in the country's capital, 5. called for a new more effective fugitive slave law
#6
Rebels
incoherent
unclear; not understandable
dred scott v. sandford
...
Abolitionist
one who opposed slavery
George B. McClellan
Union General
"Stonewall"
another name for General Jackson
gray
Confederate soldiers' uniforms were ______.
fredericksburg
union won(north)-the most one-sided battles of the American Civil War
Davis
elected first (and only) CSA president
Confederacy
States that seceeded from the USA
abolitionists
people who believed that slavery should be against the law
George McClellan
Ran against Lincoln in 1864
James Longstreet
Confederate General; led Pickett's charge on the third day of the Battle of Gettysburg.
who had 2 times as many people?
north
Kansas/Nebraska Act
-By using Popular Sovereignty, Kansas and Nebraska get to choose if they want to be slave or free states
-It went against the Missouri Compromise, Kansas and Nebraska are north of the 36° N 30" slavery line, so they should be free states.
casualty
death, wounded, or missing after a battle
in what year did the war begin?
1961
radical republicans
Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war
Stand Watie
last confederate general and cherokee indian
Lincoln's 10% Plan
Lincoln's reconstruction plan which would allow a southern state to reenter the union if only 10% of the voters in that state pledged alleigance to the union.
Confederacy Advantage
These soldiers were fighting for freedom and had a stronger motivation than the other soldiers.
Andrew Johnson
Was lincolns runningmate in the election of 1864. Johnson was a demcat and Lincoln hoped he would bring in votes from prowar people.
Chamberlain
medal of honor, commanded 20th Maine in Gettysburg, Maine college professor
sutler
a merchant who sold stuff you would need to soldiers
picnics
People came and had _________ to watch the first battle of the civil war.
Industrial
Of, pertaining to, of the nature of, or resulting from industry
Appomattox
Last battle of the Civil War - Virginia, Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant.
flat bottom boat, used to make bridges over rivers
pontoon
blockade
a war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy
rutherford b hayes
won 1876 election without popular vote
Merrimack and Monitor
1862- Merr=S, Mon=N, Merr destroys union ships in Ches Bay N RXN-Mon turns Merr into splinters
andaconda plan
three party stratigy by which the union proposed to defet the confederacy
Frederick Douglas
escaped slave who became a leading figure in the anti-slavery movement, wrote autobiography
Stephen Douglas
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln; he favored popular sovereignty
Sack of Lawrence
Heavily armed Pro slavery radicals burned most of the city of Lawrence to the ground, stole their hogs, scattered their women and children.
What did northern leaders call for
Direct attack on Richmond
Moniter vs. Merrimack
first naval battle; turning point in history (end of wooden ships); "Battle of the Ironclads"
Uncle Toms Cabin
written by harriet beecher stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Siege of Vicksburg
the surrounding of the city of Vicksburg, Mississippi, by Union forces
John Wilkes Booth
United States actor and assassin of President Lincoln
April 1861- Who won at Fort Sumter?
the north won
The Compromise of 1850
What compromise admitted California as a free state and enforced a Fugitive Slave law?
#3 Who declared, "Our Union- it must be preserved"?
Abraham Lincoln
Joseph "Fighting Joe" Hooker
Union general who was dismissed before the Battle of Gettysburg by President Lincoln after he failed to attack the broken up Confederate forces and allowed them to assemble in Pennsylvania
The Massachussets 54th
First group of ex-slaves who joined to fight against the South
Kansas-Nebraska Act
act in 1854 that repealed the ban on slavery north of the Missouri Compromise line
blockage
Cut off an area by means of troops or warships to stop supplies or people from coming in or going out; to close off a country's ports.
Role of technology in wars at sea
Weapons faster and stronger
Sherman's March to the Sea
from Atlanta to Savannah; 300 miles long and 100 miles wide; cut the Confederacy in half; destroyed any supplies the south could use
war of attrition
., A war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses
Who killed Lincoln? Why?
John Wilkes Booth shot him in the back of the head because he thought it would help the Confederacy
Leading General of the South at the Gettysburg battle
Robert E. Lee & George Pickett
Why didn't the Emancipation Proclomation free all slaves?
if it did, Lincoln would have lost the "border states" and he did not want to lose them
Jomini Principle (capture the capital win the war)
What was the objective of each side to capture and end the war (as the men in charge believed their goal to be)?
Why is the Civil War reffered to as the first modern war?
this was the first war that involved the used of advanced technology
#18
despotism
Anti-Federalist
Not Federalist
who won gettysburg
north
persistence
refusal to give up
emancipate
to free from slavery
fighting defensive war
southern states
copperhead
Northerner who opposed the war
Prejudice
an unreasonable, usually favorable opinion of another group
Income tax
a tax on people's earning
15th Amendment
Constitutional amendment that citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude.
International diplomatic event during the Civil War
Trent Affair
states
The South believed in _____ rights
Union victory that started with Confederates looking for shoes and ended with Pickett's Charge
Gettysburg
McClellan
defeated by Lincoln in the election
LBtLitCW (North) - Republicans
Republicans control Congress:
a. Pacific Railroad Act: Federal government gave money and land to companies
b. Homestead Act: Free government land to willing settlers
c. Raised tariff rates
• James Buchanan
(Pennsylvania) chosen for Democrats because he wasn't involved in the Kansas-Nebraska Act (Won the election)
political machine
organized group within a political party that is strong enough to control the party
Richmond, Virginia
Where the CSA white house was
north
which region wanted a stong central government?
Uncle Tom's Cabin
• Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
• An anti-slavery book
• Showed how horrible slavery was
The four border states were
Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, Delaware
martyr
a person who dies for a specific cause
Appomattox Court House
General Lee surrendered to General Grant.
Union blockade of southern ports
Savannah, Charleston, New Orleans
New Orleans
A Confederate city that the Union wanted to capture to split the Confederacy into 2
coup de main
A sudden surprise attack without warning
Lincoln's election
after whose election did the south secede
Total War
all-out war that affects civilians at home as well as soldiers in combat
winfield scott
commander of the united states army, doubted that war could be won by a single battle
• Confederate States of America
(Confederacy) February 4; delegates from seceded states met in Montgomery, Alabama (new constitution passed on February 8)
Martial Law
the body of law imposed by the military over civilian affairs (usually in time of war or civil crisis)
Minié ball
Bullet with a hollow base that causes the bullet to expand upon firing to fit grooves in a rifle
Black Codes
laws passed in the South just after the Civil War aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit African American workers`
Fort Wagner
site of two American Civil War battles the first major American military unit made up of black soldiers
Berlin Airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
What did the Emancipation Proclamation say?
The Emancipation Proclamation said that all slatves were free, but it wasn't successful. Lincoln did not have control over the Confederate States.
Confederate state of America
the government formed by the southern states that seceded from the union in 1861
advantage in the South
had skills that made them good soldiers (riding horses and shooting)
Why was the civil war a rich mans war and a poor mans fight?
...
Army of Northern Virginia
Robert E. Lee decided to command the Confederate army, and became the commander of the ____________________.
result of Bull Run I
1. long war
2. train army
3. killed morale of north and raised southern morale
1864-65 Shermans March to the sea
-Union general Sherman marched from Georgia, destroying everything in sight ("Damn Yankees")
what are some factors influenced by slavery? (other factors of the war)
abolition movement, states rights vs. federal rights, expansion of the west, election of abe lincoln
South Carolina leaves the Union (Dec. 1860)
Left before Lincoln was inagurated with 7 states; their leader was Jefferson Davis; they seize federal property right away
what did the emancipation proclamation do for slaves?
freed slaves in all states in open rebellion, but not those in border states
The Emancipation Proclamation said that
all slaves will be freed by or on January 1st, 1863
The civil war often split families apart. Wheredo students think ones loyalty should lie- with ones family or with ones country?
I would personaly be with my family. This is a hard one for me, but personally, I would not want to be fighting my family. I could not live with myself if I accidently killed one of my family members.
Why didn't the North want to upset the balance of slave and free states
there could be too much power in Congress
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