where it lives
provide E for sperm
(herbivores) eat primary producers
stimulate uterine contractions that help sperm move into the uterus
Male, female reproductive structures are born in pollen-bearing male cones and ovule-bearing female cones. Together, make a group called GYMNOSPERMS = naked seeds in unprotected megaspores near surface of reproductive structure. Fertilization takes 1-3 years.
(spiders, insects, crustaceans) jointed appendages, well-developed nervous system, specialization of body segments, exoskeleton of chitin.
|biome: fresh water||
ponds, lake, streams, rivers
coevolution of finely-tuned traits between the flowers and their pollinators
red, tubular flowers with no odor coevolve with hummingbirds who are attracted to red adn have long beaks and little sense of smell. (lots of nectar for pollen transfer)
(operant conditioning) form of associative learning. occurs when an animal connects its own bx with a particular environmental response. if desirable (+ reinforcement), repeated to elicit the same response. if undesirable (painful), animal will avoid the bx
|gastrulation: 3 germ layers||
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
GASTRIC JUICE, contains digestive enzyme and HCl
"imperfect fungi" no sexual reproductive cycle observed. EX: Penecillin
|Examples of coevolution||
unique heritable characteristics that enable them to more successfully elude predators:
camouflage (cryptic coloration),
aposematic (warning) coloration,
mimicry (mullerian + batesian), pollination
coniferous forests (pines, firs, trees with needles for leaves). cold winters, precipitation is snow.
Begins in habitats where communities were entirely or partially destroyed by some kind of damaging event (fire, floods, insect devastations, overgrazing, forest clear-cutting, abandoned agricultural fields, roadsides, etc). Substrates already bear soil. ex: germination of r-selected species from seeds already in soil... on abandoned cropland
autotrophs that convert sun energy into chemical energy. plants, photosynthetic protists, cyanobacteria, chemosynthetic bacteria
|animal communication: chemical||
PHERMONES: chemicals that cause immediate and specific bx changes are RELEASER pheromones (release or trigger bx). those that trigger physiological changes are called PRIMER pheromones.
1. herds, flocks, schools
3. search images
(fallopian tube) eggs move from ovary to the uterus through the oviduct. there are two oviducts, one for each ovary
|What is morula?||
successive cleavage divisions result in a solid ball of cells (morula)
rapid, involuntary response to a stimulus
group of different kinds of tissues functioning together to perform a particular activity. (ex: heart contain tissues from all four categories to pump blood throughout body)
NMJ: stimulates muscles to contract. At other junctions, inhibitory postsynaptic potential
|3 different neurons:||
sensory (afferent) neurons: receive initial stimulus
motor (efferent) neurons: stimulate effectors, target cells that produce some kind of response.
association (interneuron) neurons: in spinal cord or brain and receive impulses from sensory neurons or send impulses to motor neurons.
absorption and excretion of water and dissolved substances (solute) so that proper water balance (and osmotic pressure) is maintained between the organism and its surroundings.
* hypoosmotic, hyperosmotic
|leaf: guard cells||
specialized epidermal cells that control opening/closing of stomata.
lack septa, except when filaments border reproductive filaments. Reproduce sexually by fusion of hyphae of different strains (+ plasmogamy, karyogamy, meiosis). Haploid zygospores. EX: BREADMOLD!
|Groups under Pterophyta||
ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns
lack septa, but don't produce zygospores. Only exist in mutualistic associations with roots of plants (r/s = mycorrhizae). Plant provides carbs to fungus and fungi increase the ability of plant root to absorb nutrients.
|characteristics of autotroph:||
Manufacture their own organic molecules.
|limiting factors: density-independent||
factors occur independently of the density of the population.
ex: natural disasters, extremes of climate
2 or more species resemble one another
1) Mullerian mimicry: several animals share same coloration (has the same defense mechanism) Single pattern among several animals is more easily learned by a predator than would be different pattern for every animal (bees, wasps = both yellow, black)
2) Batesian mimicry: animal without any special defense mechanism mimics the coloration of an animal that does possess the defense mechanism
2 species that live together in close contact during a portion (or all) of their lives.
study of behavior that seeks to explain how specific bx increase indivdual reproductive success
|Frog: gray crescent||
sperm penetrates frog egg and reorganization of cytoplasm gives a gray crescent. each individual cell could develop into a normal frog if contain some gray crescent.
|vas deferens mucus||
provide a liquid medium for sperm
consists of the thickening of the endometrium of the uterus in preparation for implantation of a fertilized egg and shedding of the endometrium if implantation does not occur.
|Hormone: calcitonin: source, target, action?||
action: lowers blood Ca2+
|function of anterior pituitary||
(endocrine) releasing hormones are produced by neurosecretory cells in hypothalamus and secreted into blood. this blood flows directly into anterior ptiuitary, where the hormones stimulate the release of tropic hormones produced in anterior pituitary.
|Hormone: ADH (antidiuretic hormone). source, target, action?||
source: posterior pituitary
action: increase reabsorption of water
|synapse: gap junctions||
action potential reaches axon end, depolarization of membrane open Ca2+ gates to open and enter cell >> synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitter in synaptic cleft >> neurotransmitter binds with postsynaptic receptors >> postsynaptic membrane excited or inhibited >> NT degraded/recycled
response of plants to changes in photoperiod (relative length of daylight and night). to respond to changes in photoperiodism, plants maintain circadian rhythm.
openings in epidermis that allow gas exchange between the inside of the leaf and the external environment
(sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars) coelomate deuterostomes and usually complete digestive tract. Adults have radial symmetry, some bilateral (usually larvae).
have septa and reproduce sexually by producing haploid ascospores. Produce more filaments by mitosis. EX: yeast
have tests (shells) that fit together like box + lid. tests made of silica (SiO2)
1 USE/DISUSE: how body parts of organisms develop with increased usage, while unused weaken
2 inheritance of acquired characteristics
3 natural transformation of species
|coevolution: aposematic coloration (warning)||
conspicuous pattern or coloration of animals that warns predators that they sting, bite, taste bad, or otherwise avoided.
* predators associate yellow/black bodies of bees with danger
|size of population||
(N) total number of individuals in population
|N cycle: How are N released?||
DENITRIFICATION: Denitrifying bacteria convert NO3- back to N2
AMMONIFICATION: detrivorous bacteria convert organic compounds back to NH4+
* animals excrete NH4+ (or NH3), urea, or uric acid
|Biome: tropical rain forest||
high temperature, heavy rainfall. tall trees that branch only at tops, forming a spreading canopy allowing little light to reach the forest floor
|animal communication: tactile||
touching is common in social bonding, infant care, grooming, and mating. wolves greet the dominant male in the pack by licking his muzzle
|extraembryonic membrane development: allantois (birds/reptiles)||
initially stores waste products. later with chorion, act as membrane for gas exchange with blood vessels below
most of LARGE bird yolk is not involved in cleavage. cleavage occur in blastula that has flattened, disk-shaped region sitting on top of yolk (called blastodisc)
blastula stage has outer ring of cells (trophoblast) and inner mass of cells (embryonic disc)
|secondary sex characteristics||
human features such as body hair (pubic hair, beards), distribution of muscle and fat, voice quality, and breasts
|first line of defense: stomach||
gastric juice kills most microbes
|digestive hormones: cholecystokinin||
produced by small intestine when sense FATS. stimulates gallbladder to release bile and pancreas to release its enzymes.
|nephron's three steps w/ urine:||
1. FILTRATION (glomerulus) pressure forces water/solutes into BC. large substances remain in capillaries
2. SECRETION (proximal tube): additional material from interstitial fluid joins filtrate (from capillary network surrounding nephron) by selective secretion by both active, passive transport
3. REABSORPTION (loop of henle, convoluted tube): water passively removed out of collecting duct and into interstitial fluids before filtrate drains into renal pelvis as concentrated urine
|Digestive hormones: gastrin||
produced by cells in stomach lining. gastrin enters blood stream and stimulates other cells of stomach to produce gastric juices
|digestive hormones: secretin||
produced by cells in duodenum when food enters. secretin stimulates the pancreas to produce bicarbonate, which neutralized acidity of chyme in small intestine
|3 parts of neuron:||
cell body, dendrite (receive stimuli), axon (sends nerve impulse)
|Dicots vs Monocots: root||
D: taproot (large, single root)
M: fibrous system (cluster of many fine roots)
|Distinct features of bacteria||
Cell walls made with peptidoglycan (polymer of monosacc with amino acids). Bacterial DNA not associated with histone proteins. Ribosome activity inhibited by antibiotics streptomycin + chloramphenicol.
|What characteristics of "fungus-like"protists are similar to fungus?||
form either filaments or spore-bearing bodies similar to fungi
|factors contributing to biotic potential||
* age at reproductive maturity
* clutch size (# offspring produced at each reproductive event)
* frequency of reproduction
* reproductive lifetime
* survivorship of offspring to reproductive maturity
|survivorship curves: type III||
species in which most individuals die young, with only a relative few surviving to reproductive age and beyond (oysters, free-swimming larvae, frogs). those that survive being eaten become adults.
|4 ways of communication in animals||
|What happens in ovulation?||
release of secondary oocyte from the follicle (containing most of cytoplasm) - if fertilized by sperm, moves through oviduct and begin meiosis 2 to produce an egg that combines with chromosomes contributed by the sperm.
|What enzymes are expelled from pancreas to help digestion in the small intestine?||
trypsin + chymotrypsin (protease); lipase (digest fats); pancreatic amylase (digest starch). enter duodenum through pancreatic duct
|excretory mech: flame cells (protonephridia)||
distributed along branched tube system that permeates the flatworm. body fluids filtered across, whose internal cilia move fluids through. wastes excreted from tube through pores exiting body
1. ATP binds to myosin head and forms ADP + Pi
2. Ca2+ binds to troponin molecule and exposes positions on actin filament for myosin to bind
3. Myosin heads bind to actin to form cross bridges
4. Attachment of cross bridges causes release of ADP + Pi, which changes shape of myosin head and generates a sliding movement of actin towards center of sarcomere
5. new ATP molecule binds to myosin head, breaking bridge and returning myosin head to unattached position
|primary structure of roots:||
1 epidermis (+ root hairs)
2 cortex (stores starch, LG cells spaces for respiration)
3 endodermis (prevent water movement back out of cortex with water-impermeable barrier)
4 vascular cylinder (tissues inside endodermis, contains vascular tissue)
|Difference between primary structures of roots and stems:||
roots contain endodermis and casparian strips (impermeable membrane), as these tissues are specialized for water absorption
|What's different about whisk ferns?||
Branching stems WITHOUT roots. Leaves reduced to small appendages or absent. (absence of roots+leaves considered SECONDARY LOSS- structures lost as whisk ferns diverged from their ancestors)
|Protostome vs Deuterostome: early cleavage||
P: slight angle (spiral cleavage)
D: straight down (radial cleavage)
|N cycle: nitrification||
NH4+ to NO2- and NO2- to NO3- by various nitrifying bacteria
NH4+ or NO3- to organic compounds by plant metabolism
|sperm consists of the following structures:||
1. sperm head (contain lysosome containing enzymes that penetrate egg)
2. midpiece (has mitochondria that spiral around flagellum and supply ATP for flagellar movement)
3. tail (whiplike motion of tail and midpiece)
|How do stomach's enzymes participate in physical breakdown?||
muscles churn contents in stomach, physically breaking food down into smaller particles. HCl from gastric juice denatures proteins and loosens cementing substances between cells of food. HCl also kills bacteria that come with food.
|What's special about skeletal muscle cells?||
they are multinucleate. Nuclei lie along the periphery of cell, forming swellings visible through sarcolemma
|Disadvantages of a closed stomata? Open stomata?||
CLOSED: CO2 is not available, photosynthesis can't occur. OPEN: CO2 enters leaf, but plant risks desiccation from excessive transpiration
|What does the reproductive process of bryophytes look like?||
Gametes produced in protective structures called gametangia on the surface of gametophytes (haploid stage). Male gametangium (antheridium) produces sperm that must SWIM through water to fertilize eggs from archegonium. Zygote is a diploid structure, still connected to gametophyte. Spores are dispersed by wind, germinate, and grow into haploid structures.
|Why are plants more likely to establish stable succession (climax community) than animals?||
Animals are transient, because they reside in communities in response to their attraction to kinds of resident plants, not because of any way in which previous animals have changed the habitat. Plant communities inhabit a region over time.
|What are the various ways in which competition is resolved between species?||
* competitive exclusion principle (Gause)
* resource partitioning
* Character displacement (niche shift)
* realized niche
|What kind of gas exchange mechanisms are found in animals?||
1. direct with environment (large surface areas, gas exchange through skin)
2. gills (countercurrent exchange between water and blood vessels maximize diffusion of O2 into blood and CO2 into water)
3. trachae (insects: permeate bodies. O2 enters and diffusion occurs across trachae endings)
|Dicots vs Monocots: Flower parts||
D: in 4s, 5s, or multiples thereof
M: in 3s or multiples thereof
|Factors that affects opening/closing of stomata:||
1 close in high temperatures
2 open in low [CO2]
3 close at night, open in day
4 open in increasing [K+] gradient
|Why are the pharyngeal gill slits important?||
provide channels across the pharynx (muscular structure @ beg of digestive tract). In some, slits become gills for O2 exchange or filter feeding. In some, disappear during developmetn
|What are some characteristics of fungi?||
1 Fungi grow as filaments called hyphae, with some having septa (cross walls that divide filament into compartments with a single nucleus).
2 Cell walls with CHITIN (N-containing polysacc).
3 Either parasite or saprobes, absorbing the breakdown products from the action of digestive enzymes that they secrete.
4 Dominantly haploid.
5 Reproduce sexually and asexually
|Why is a stable climax community so hard to obtain?||
Successional stages don't always occur in expected order, the establishment of some species is random, influenced by season, by climatic conditions, or by whoever arrives first. Fire/other disturbances occur frequently.
|What happens when B cells encounter antigens that specifically bind to their antibodies?||
B cells proliferate and produce two daughter B cells:
1 PLASMA CELL: release their specific antibodies which then circulates through body, binding to antigens
2 MEMORY CELLS: circulate in body and respond quickly to eliminate any subsequent invasion by same antigen
|How do hormones bind to the receptor protein in the nucleus?||
(steroid usually) diffuses through the plasma membrane, through cytoplasm, and into nucleus to bind to a receptor protein on the nucleus. The receptor protein activates a portion of the DNA that turns on specific genes
|Observations made in plants for P(r) and P(fr):||
1 P(fr) resets the circadian rhythm clock
2 P(r) is the form of phytochrome synthesized in plant leaf cells
3 P(r) and P(fr) are in equilibrium during daylight
4 P(r) accumulates at night
5 At daybreak, light rapidly converts the accumulated P(r) into P(fr)
6 Night length is responsible for resetting the circadian-rhythm clock
|How can you recognize an organism as part of a fungi group easily?||
divisions bear the -mycota suffix
or classes bear the -mycete suffix
|growth of a population is described by the following equation:||
r = (births - deaths)/N
r = growth/reproductive rate
N = pop size
|How do aquatic animals get rid of Nitrogen?||
excrete NH3 (or NH4+) directly into surrounding water
|Which hormones do not respond to gravity?||
ALL do not respond to gravity. auxin don't concentrate on lower roots/stems as a direct response to gravity.
|What are some of the major plant adaptations for survival on land?||
1 diploid structure more apt to survive genetic damage because 2 copies of each chromosome allow recessive mutations to be masked.
2 cuticle, waxy covering to reduce desiccation
3 vascular system to reduce dependency on water (all cells don't have to be super close to water)
4 flagellated sperm require water to swim to eggs. sperm sometimes packaged as pollen for wind/animal delivery
5 in advanced Angiosperms, gametophytes enclosed/protected inside ovary
6 seasonal adaptations
|How has the vascular system reduce plants' dependency on water?||
All cells don't have to be super close to water, so plants can be DIFFERENTIATED as well. True leaves focus on photosynthesis, true stems provide framework to support leaves, and true roots obtain water and anchor plants.
development of organs
(=homeotherm) maintain constant internal temperature as "warm-blood". generate their own body heat.
(+, +) both species benefit
opening into archenteron. becomes mouth or anus
flowering plants: pistil, stamen, petals
animal-like protists. Heterotrophs: consume either living cells or dead organic matter.
grasslands with scattered trees. tropical and high T. less water than rainforests
description of abundance of individuals of each age.
a fertilized ovum implants (attaches) on the inside wall, or endometrium, of the uterus. development of embryo occurs here until birth
meiotic cell divisions that produce eggs in females (oogenesis) and sperm in males (spermatogenesis)
directs contractions of skeletal muscles
(protozoa) animal parasites. Have apical complex (organelles located at end of cell). No physical means of motility.
(hydrozoans, jellyfish, sea anemones, corals): has 2 body forms as medusa and polyp.
develops from mesoderm. Cushions internal organs and allows for expansion and contraction. (Coelomate - lack- vs pseudocoelomate- not completely lined)
freezing winter. during summer, upper topsoil thaws but deeper soil still frozen. melted topsoil during summer support a grassland type community (soggy soil)
fluctuations in population size in response to varying effects of limiting factors.
occurs on substrates that never previously supported living things. (ex: lichens/fungi on rock or lava, grasses on sand dunes)
animal recognizes (learns) that 2+ events are connective.
* type: classical conditioning
|agonistic behavior of animals||
(aggression, submission) originates from competition for food, mates, or territory. most is ritualized, so injuries and time spent in contests are minimized
organ where eggs are produced. female has 2 ovaries
because of its accordionlike folds, walls of the stomach can expand to store 2-4L of material
|excretory mech: nephridia||
(annelids) tube-type excretory system, where body fluid are selectively filtered as they pass through tube. materials to be retained are secreted back into body fluids, while concentrated wastes continue through tube to be excreted at the end.
|Plant hormones: cytokinins||
stimulate cytokinesis (cell division). stimulate growth of lateral buds, weakening apical dominance. delay senescence (aging) of leaves
include extinct woody trees. Have a rough texture due to presence of silica (SiO2). bear spores
|Examples of coniferophyta?||
Pines, firs, spruces, junipers, redwoods, cedars, etc
(water molds, downy mildews, white rusts): Fungus-like. Either parasites or saprobes.
(red algae) contain red accessory pigments (phycobilins). Multicellular, gametes w/o flagella
SPONGES! parazoa... feed by filtering water drawn through sponge wall by flagellated cells that pass food to amoebocytes that wander between the two cell layers of sponge wall, digesting and distributing nutrients.
|define: limiting factors||
elements that prevent a population from attaining its biotic potential. categorized into density-dependent and density-independent factors
hot, dry. growth of annual plants limited to short periods following rains. animals have thick skins to conserve water
found: atm (CO2), fossil fuels, peat, organic material
from: plants use CO2 in photosynthesis
to: plants/animals release CO2 through respiration and decomposition. CO2 also released when organic material is burned
|social bx of animals||
1. agonistic bx
2. dominance hierarchies
4. altruistic bx
|Bird: primitive streak||
rather than a circular blastopore, form elongated blastopore
at birth, the fetus passes through the cervix (opening in uterus), through vagina, and out of the body
|What is cleavage?||
rapid cell divisions without cell growth.
embryo polarity, polar/equatorial cleavage, radial/spiral, indeterminate/determinate
|Hormone: mineralcorticoids (ex: aldosterone): source, target, action?||
source: adrenal gland (cortex)
action: increases absorption of Na+ and excretion of K+
|kidney: collecting duct||
distal convoluted tube empties into collecting duct. empties into renal pelvis, which drains to ureter
|Hormone: oxytocin. source, target, action?||
source: posterior pituitary
target: mammary glands
action: stimulate release of milk
|Hormone: ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone). source, target, action?||
source: anterior pituitary (tropic hormones)
target: adrenal cortex
action: secretion of glucocorticoids
|leaf: spongy mesophyll||
(under palisade mesophyll) more loose, free: contain parenchyma cells loosely arranged. numerous intercellular spaces provide air chambers that provide CO2 to photosynthesizing cells and O2 to respiring cells
|leaf: vascular bundles||
xylem, phloem tissues. xylem delivers water for photosynthesis, phloem transports sugars and other carbohydrate by-products of photosynthesis to other areas of plant.
|Which plant divisions are characterized by their ability to produce seeds?||
(both considered most complex)
Because they're wind-dispersed pollen (+animal for angiosperms), they don't have flagellated sperm
(body parts same and repeated) vs (body parts modified and adopt specialized functions)
|Common bacteria: chemosynthetic bacteria||
autotrophs. called nitrifying bacteria because they convert nitrite (NO2-) to nitrate (NO3-)
|(5) Evidence of evolution:||
1 paleontology (fossil records)
2 Biogeography (geography for species distribution)
3 Embryology (similar stages in development)
4 Comparative anatomy (structures)
5 Molecular biology (DNA, protein of species)
|Exponential and logistic growth patterns are associated with two kinds of life-history strategies:||
R-selected species and K-selected species
|survivorship curves: type I||
describe species in which most individuals survive to middle age. after that age, mortality is high. (humans)
|animal mvmt: taxis||
directed movement in response to a stimulus. movement is directed either TOWARD or AWAY from the stimulus.
cells from the vegetal pole rich in yolk material form a yolk plug near dorsal lip
|female reproductive system consists of following structures:||
ovary, oviduct, uterus, vagina
|Hormone: glucagon: source, target, action?||
source: pancreas (alpha cells)
action: increases blood glucose
|Which 2 hormones influence osomoregulation by regulating concentration of salts in urine?||
1. ADH (antidiuretic) increase permeability of collecting duct to water, so that urine becomes more concentrated as water diffuses out of collecting duct as filtrate descends into renal pelvis
2. Aldosterone: increase permeability of distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to Na+. More Na+ diffuses out of tubule/duct, and since Na+ increases salt concentration outside tube, water passively follows.
|Stomach: controlled release||
movement of chyme into small intestine is regulated by a valve at the end of stmach called PYLORIC SPHINCTER
|small intestine: duodenum vs remainder||
duodenum continues digesting starches, proteins, fats, nucleotides, etc. remaining absorbs the breakdown of food, characterized by villi and microvilli that increase its total absorptive surface area.
|What's different about the association neurons compared to sensory/motor?||
they're INTEGRATORS, evaluating impulses for appropriate responses
|How does germination begin?||
Absorption of water: water initiates various enzyme activity, which activate biochemical processes (respiration)
|animals: Protostomes vs deuterostomes||
dependent on cleavages during eearly development that result in particular embryonic features
|Invertebrate vs vertebrate||
Vertebrate chordates have a series of bones, the vertebrae, that enclose the spinal cord.
|animals: Gastrovascular cavity||
(guts) some have one opening. others have two = digestive tract
|Common bacteria: N-fixing bacteria||
heterotrophs that fix nitrogen. Have mutualistic relationship with plants
|What are the characteristics of animals?||
multicellular, heterotrophic, dominant generation is the diploid. most are motile for some part of their life cycle. undergo a period of embryonic development, during which 2-3 layers of tissues form.
|interspecific competition: resource partitioning||
some species may coexist competing for the same resources. these occupy slightly different niches: slightly different feeding behaviors, feeding on different types of insects, etc
|interspecific competition: character displacement||
(niche shift) 2 species of finches that live on 2 different Galapagos Islands have similar beaks, both suited for using the same food supply (seeds). On a third island, they coexist, but due to evolution, the beak of each bird species is different. This minimizes competition by enabling each finch to feed on seeds of a different size.
|survivorship curves: type II||
organisms in which the length of survivorship is random: the likelihood of death is same at any age. (rodents, invertebrates)
|examples of taxis (animal movement)||
moths move towards light at night
sharks move towards food when food odors reach them by diffusion or by bulk flow (ocean currents)
female mosquitos find mammals (on which they feed) by moving toward CO2 and lactic acid
|purpose of large intestine?||
reabsorption of water to form solid waste (feces). feces stored at end of large intestine (rectum) and excreted through anus.
|4 components of blood||
1. RBC (erythrocytes) transport O2 and catalyze the conversion of CO2 and H2O to H2CO3.
2. WBC (leukocytes) fight disease
3. Platelets: cell fragments in clotting
4. Plasma: liquid portion w/ dissolved substances
|NT: epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin||
derived from AA and secreted between CNS neurons
|How does water enter the root?||
water, dissolved minerals enter through root hairs by osmosis
|What will high concentrations of Gibberellins (GA) do?||
rapid elongation of stems (bolting)
|roots vs stems: cortex||
stem has various ground tissue types that lie between epidermis and vascular cylinder. most contain CHLOROPLASTS
|characteristics of eukaryotic cells:||
1 chromosomes have long, linear DNA molecule package with histone proteins
2 chromosomes in nucleus
3 specialized membrane-enclosed bodies isolate metabolic activities (organelle)
4 flagella, cilia made of protein tubulin arranged in "9+2" microtubule arrays
|Darwin's theory of natural selection:||
1 Populations have a LARGE reproductive potential
2 Population sizes are stable
3 Resources are limited
4 Individuals compete for survival
5 Variation exist among individuals in population
6 Variation is heritable
7 Survival of the fittest
8 Favorable traits are passed on generations
|K-selected species (think K as in equilibrium constant)||
population size remains relatively constant at the carrying capacity (K). Such as humans produce a small number of relatively large offspring that require extensive parental care until maturation. Reproduction occurs repeatedly during their lifetimes.
|How have humans learned to supplement natural body defenses?||
3 Passive immunity
|How does the cardic/heart cycle begin?||
SA (sinoatrial) node, also called pacemaker @ R atrium spontaneously initiates cycle by simultaneously contracting both atria and by sending a delayed impulse that stimulates the AV (atrioventricular) node.
|first line of defense: lungs||
cilia that line lungs sweep invaders out
|Why do stomata open/close in increasing K+ gradient?||
stomata opening is accompanied by diffusion of K+ into guard cells from surrounding subsidiary cells. So an increase of K+ creates a gradient for the movement of water into guard cell, which results in guard cell expansion and opening of stomata.
|What tissues originate from the structures that give secondary growth?||
Vascular cambium: 2ndary xylem + phloem
Cork cambium: periderm (woody protectant)
|How do archaea differ from other prokaryotes?||
Cell walls contain various polysaccharides, but not peptidoglycans, cellulose, or chitin. Plasma membranes contain phospholipids with a different structure.
|interspecific competition: competition exclusion principle (gause)||
no two species can coexist in the same niche. (always a victor, the loser becomes extinct)
|What are some advantages of herds, flocks, and schools?||
concealment: most individuals in the flock are hidden from view.
vigilance: individuals can trade off foraging and watching for pedators
defense: a group of individuals can shield their young or mob their predators
|If not into the circulatory system, where do some waste and excess interstitial fluids go?||
Returned to circulatory system by LYMPHATIC SYSTEM: a second network of capillaries and veins. Lymph acts to return blood to the circulatory system, as a cleaning filter, and as immune response centers that defend against infection
|Ground tissue includes three basic kinds of cells:||
1 PARENCHYMA cells: thin walls, serve various fct such as storage, photosynthesis, secretion
2 COLLENCHYMA walls: thick but flexible cell walls, serve mechanical support functions
3 SCLERENCHYMA walls: thicker walls, mechanical support functions
|How do the bryophytes differ from other plants? What adaptations did bryophytes take on to survive with this disadvantage?||
They lack specialized vascular tissues (xylem+phloem), so they must be SMALL and water must be readily available for absorption through surface tissues and as a transport medium for sperm.
|How does biogeography provide evidence of evolution?||
Biogeography is the study of geography to describe species distribution. This study found that similar species are found in the similar environment. Provides strong evidence for the role of natural selection in evolution.
|What happens when the reproductive rate (r) reaches maximum? When it becomes negative? When it's zero?||
@ max = intrinsic rate of growth (biotic potential)
r > 0, deaths exceed births + pop size decrease
r = 0, births = deaths + pop size remains constant
|How is the food passed through the throat?||
via PHARYNX. Epiglottis blocks trachea (respiration)
|What's different about the function of cotyledon in monocots and dicots?||
In dicots, there are two fleshy cotyledons that take up most of the space when seen. In monocots, most of storage tissue is endosperm and a single cotyledon just transfers nutrients from the endosperm to the embryo.
|What are the four main features of chordata?||
notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal gill slits, muscular tail
|some behaviors that appear to be learned may actually be innate bx that require maturation. ex:||
birds appear to "learn" to fly by trial and error or by observational learning. BUT if birds raised by isolation, will fly on their first try if physically capable of flying.
|How do birds, insects, and reptiles get rid of Nitrogen?||
convert urea to uric acid. Uric acid is insoluble in water, so it precipitates and forms a solid. Allows water conservation
|Where does growth occur for young seedlings?||
At tips of roots and shoots, called "apical meristems" (protected by root cap). This first growth is called "primary growth"
|What are the two possible ways fungi can reproduce sexually?||
1 PLASMOGAMY: fusing cells from 2 different fungal strains to produce a single cell with nuclei from both strains
2 KARYOGAMY: fusing 2 haploid nuclei to form a single diploid nucleus
|What are the 2 methods in which the hormones trigger activities in target cells?||
1 hormone binds to receptor protein in nucleus
2 hormone binds to receptor protein on plasma membrane