Clinical Kinesiology and anatomy Lynn S Lipper Flashcards

Terms Definitions
forces causing movement
The acromioclavicular joint has how many planes of motion?
muscle direction is not always the line of pull.  T or F
The sternoclavicular joint is the only bony attachment the shoulder has to the body.  T OR F
The first class lever FAR has the mechanical advantage of ___
The second class lever ARF has the mechanical advantage of ______
T or F
The articular disk of the sternoclavicular joint serves as a shock absorber.
What are the motions of the shoulder girdle?
upward/downward rotation
Brachioradialis is used as an example of what type of lever?
Second class  ARF
The sternoclavicular joint has Three ligaments.  Name them and list the attachment points.
Sternoclavicular ligament   Attaches to the sternum and the clavicle on both the anterior and posterior sides.  It reinforces the joint capsule

Interclavicular ligament.  attaches to the right and left superior sternal ends of the clavicles.

Costoclavicular ligaments are between the superior surface of the costal cartilage of the first rib and the inferior surface of the clavicle on both sides of the body.
Which three muscles of the shoulder girdle form a force couple to upwardly rotate the scapula.
Upper Trapezius
Serratus Anterior
Lower trapezius
page 103
What are the muscles of the shoulder girdle?
Levator scapulae
Serratus anterior
Pectoralis minor
What two muscles are the prime movers in scapular retraction?
Middle trapezius
define COG
the point of an object at which torque on all sides is equal
where the cardinal planes of the body intersect
anterior to s2
resultant force or parallelogram method
resultant forces of unequal forces moves toward the stronger force
concurrent force
two or more forces must act from a common point but pull in differnt directions  7-2 and 7-6  pages 73 and 75
what two muscles are the prime movers of depression?
Lower tapezius
pectoralis minor
There are fixed pulleys and moveable pulleys.  Fixed pulleys can change the direction of force.  What can moveable pulleys do?
Change the magnitude of force.
MA = FA / RA
Mechanical advantage = Force arm / Resistance arm
The sternoclavicular joint motions are _____ and _____.  Where does the joint move during each motion?
during shoulder girdle elevation and depression motion occurs between the clavicle and the disk.
during Protraction and retraction of the scapula motion occurs between the sternum and the disk.
The purpose of the interclavicular ligament is to ____
limit the amount of clavicular depression
What three muscles are the prime movers of upward rotation
Upper and lower trapezius
seratus anterior
Stabilizing force vs dislocating force.
Think of close packed or loose packed joints.  If a joint is in close packed position it is stable
in loose packed position the joint is further apart ie dislocated.  Not like in the injury just further apart.
Torque in the body
moment arm or torque is
the perpendicular distance between the muscles line of pull and the center of the joint which is the axis of rotation
Torque can be increased by increasing the force applied
increasing the length of the handle ie force arm
The coracoacromial ligament forms and arch over the head of the humerus.  What does the provide?
provides support when an upward force is directed along the humerus.  Prevent dislocation.
torque in the body
torque is greatest when....
the angle of pull is at 90°
Explain Newton's third Law. 
the law of action reaction
for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
A fixed pulley is a simple machine.  It is used to ____
Change the direction of force.  It is a first class level
to be stable an objects line of gravity LOG and Center of gravity COG must remain within the
BOS  base of support  the wider the BOS the more stable the object 
since the LOG passes through the COG you could say the COG must remain within the BOS to be stable
What would it take to change the class of lever of the brachioradialis from second class to third class. 
Place weight in the hand.  This moves the resistance from between the Axis and the force to further from the axis than the force.
resistance is forearm ARF <-> AFR resistance is wt in hand
page 84 fig 7-30
What kind of joint is the sternoclavicular joint? 
It is a synovial joint and has a joint capsule.
Less force is required if ou put the resistance as close to the _____ as possible and apply the force as far from the ____ as possible.
Less force is required if ou put the resistance as close to the axis as possible and apply the force as far from the axis as possible.
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