buddhism exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
meditation mudra
hand movements
Middle Way
old story
individual soul
supreme wisdom mudra
Nirvana of Buddhas
voidness or emptiness
Buddhas family's caste
emptiness, transparency, spaciousness
everything is composed of space, emptiness
in that space lies reality
different groups of monks
The life of Guatama
A symbolic hand gesture
Literally, Mahayana means
big vehicle
teacher of the refuge
siddartha gautama
founder of buddhism
Three marks of Reality
Bon Religion
indigenous religion of Tibet
wanted to be a nun
In Zen, the enlightened awareness
generosity, renunciation for others' sake
guru and initiation
tradition: vajrayana
definition: secret rituals taught and explained by guru. act of inducting disciples into certain parts of the rituals, tonglen, all beings have been my mother
describes reality as a flux
The word Buddha means
Enlightened one.
greater vehicle
ultimate goal: help others get to enlightenment (turn back)
Buddha of the western Paradise.
not a real self, karmic stream
The five impermanent "heaps" or collections that comprise human beings, including the body, feelings, perceptions, volitions, and consciousness.
focosus on teaching of the Buhhda
Heart Sutra
teachings of the heart; Zen
"Three-Body Doctrine"
"enlightenment" is a broader, universal idea
all beings have the capacity to become enlightened, Buddha Nature, Mahayana
Small Car: strive to be arahat
an ancient Prakrit language (derived from Sanskrit) that is the scriptural and liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism
private, silent buddha; someone who attains enlightenment by instruction but does not go on to pass the message
preperation ceremony in the traditiono of Theravada Buddhism
experiences are the consequences of past actions
'Power from within.'
This was important to Buddhist in Zen buddhism. It said that enlightenment was attainable through individual effort, via meditation or other concentrated practice.
monk "perfect being" - ideal person of theravada
"True Word" , esoteric form of Buddhism
a thousand cycles of Maha Yugas.
type of buddhism taht is more traditional
dimensions of human beings
body, manas, atman, swabhava
a form of zen meditation. emphasized sitting meditation. rid the mind of all thoughts, reveals restlessness of the mind.
means "great assembly"; a new movement within Buddhism that opposed Theravada; first split school from scecond council; though unlikely related to the heretical practices addressed there - changed everything from first council. blinded by the literal meanings, they destroyed the teachings - created fake sutras and a false vinaya.
goal of Theravada, very difficult to achieve. one who finds nirvana
4 nobel truths #1
Life consists of suffering
the self/soul is also impermanent - there is no soul
skillful means; the way the Buddha taught
Chan School
School that focuses on meditative practices, and the concept that everything is ultimately empty; does not attach itself to formal scriptures
Life of Milarepa. Marpa studied with Naropa's disciple in India.
when one acheives supreme peace by having good karma. one must follow the 8 fold path to get this
Pali Canon
a collection of revered Buddhist writings recorded from oral traditions and codified and standardized in the first century C.E.; they contain sermons, rules, and essays on philosophy and psychology
the founder of the first independent Japanese branch of Pure Land buddhism
This dude was exiled by the Buddhist establish for preaching about nembutsus (repeating the name of Amitaba Buddha).
Unlike ...
Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra
“turning of the wheel of dharmasutra.” The first sermon of the Buddha. Preached to the 5 disciples after he obtains nirvana.
The suffering of human life. Both physical and psychological. Unease. Focus of the four noble truths.
What is nirvana?
State of eternal bliss (salvation)
New Year and Great Prayer Festivals
Feb or March
emperor of India and a convert to Mahayana
the buddha in a previous lifetime who gives away his head to a brahmin
way to achieve nirvana
following the 8 fold path
One of the Three Marks of Existence; the Buddhist doctrine that all existent things are constantly changing; impermanence
In Chan and Zen Buddhism, a question that cannot be answered logically; a technique used to test consciousness and bring awakening.
sanskrit for to know and to be awake
Mahayana Buddhism
made Buddhism easier for normal people and followers pictured Buddha as holy beings and compassionate gods. belief in heavens and hells
is an important school of Buddhism in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. In Japan the school is known as Tendai, and in Korea it is known as Cheontae. Tiantai is also called the "Lotus School", due to its emphasis on the Lotus Sūtra as its doctrinal basis. The Tiantai school has a reputation for being the most comprehensive and diversified school of Chinese Buddhism.[1] David Chappell frames the broad doctrines of the Tiantai school as being suited to adapt to other cultures, to evolve new practices, and to universalize Buddhism.
Law of karma
Lawful order of existence, determined by cause and effect
Three Jewels of Buddhism
Sangha- entire religious community, Dharma- buddhist teachings
King Kanishka
King of the Kushan empire, embraced Buddhism; supported both the Gandhara school of greco-Buddhist art and the Mathura school of Hindu art
no personal god people pray to; no creator of the world
Which type of Buddhism was the first to gain large followings in N. America?
The noble Eightfold path
the path to crushing desire.
one who is adept in the methods and philosophy of saryagraha
no soul, the Buddha says that there is no soul because everything around you changes
A shrine, usually in the shape of a dome, used to mark Buddhist relics or sacred sites
Truth of Suffering
3 obvious kinds of suffering: olda age, sickness. and death. but the problem of suffering goes much deeper, Life is not ideal it fails to live up to our expectations, suffering is unsatisfaction and unfulfillment
Eightfold Path
Basic rules of behavior and belief for Buddhists. If they follow these rules, it leads to an end of suffering.
the Mahayanas believe that Buddha was not only a ____ but a ____
teacher and god
Eight-fold path (NO one can escape suffering, but suffering can be overcome through the eight-fold path)
-Right understanding
-Right thought
-Right speech
-Right action
-Right livelihood (Kill as little as possible)
-Right effort
-Right Mindfulness
-Right Concentration
4 noble truths and 8 fold path of rightful conduct.
Religious text
Four Noble Truths
1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire. 3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirture. 4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
Dependent Arising/the casual chain of being
nothing exists independently, nothing stays the same, and every change produces another change
What are the three branches of Buddhism?
Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana
The Four Noble truths
1. Life is Suffering (Symptom): man is mentally and emotionally ill, all life is sorrow. 2. The Cause of Suffering is Desire (Diagnosis) 3. Eliminate the desire (Prognosis): become totally attached from our likes and dislikes. 4. Apply 8-fold Path (Prescription)
what three aspects to play the major role in this traditional training?
zazen, Koran , Sonzen
Believe in the 4 Noble Truths
This beleif is that suffering exists and to end suffering one must follow the 8 fold path
6.Why did Buddha believe humans suffered?
Why they belived humans suffered was because.
What dream did Siddhartha's mother have?
She dreamt that a white elephant entered her womb through her side.
How did Hindu priests interpret that dream?
They prophesied that her son would either be a universal teacher or a universal ruler.
5 Factors that are prone to change (3 Marks)
1. physical body 2. feeling 3. perception 4. mental formation 5. consciousness
with souls
a buddhist monastery
Truth of the path
constructed or manifest body
truth, law, teaching, doctrine.
Truth of interdependent origination (karma)
Three Marks
impermanence (pali), suffering (dukkha), nonself (anatman)
Hinayana Canon
Closed- tripitakaindividual salvation- only monks can reach salvation
17.Dependent Arising
Wikipedia:  refers to the causal relations between the psychophysical phenomena that sustain dukkha(dissatisfaction) in worldly experience[1].
the chain that continues suffering; if one is broken then suffering will be eliminated. chain is-suffering, faith, joy, rapture, tranquility, happiness, concentration, knowledge of things as they are, disenchantment with worldly life, dispassion, freedom/release/emancipation, knowledge of destruction
7 dimensions of buddhism
experiential/emotional: meditationdoctrinal/philosophical: 4 noble truths, eightfold path, discourses from the buddha. legal/ethical: 5 precepts and their extensions, no violence.social/institutional: sangha, monastic liferitual/practical: meditation, mantrasnarrative/mythic: jataka tales material: stupa, bodh gaya
Is Vajrayana monotheistic or polytheistic?
The Story of the Buddha's life
virtue, good conduct, morality, moral discipline, and precept. It is an action that is an intentional effort. It is moral purity of thought, word, and deed. Sila is overall ethical behavior
"Enlghtenment being"; in mahayana, a person of deep compassion, especially one who does not enter nirvana but is consistantly reborn to help others, a heavily being of compassion.
meditation or meditative states; one of three "three essential studies" or "threefold training of Buddhism"
an Indian emperor; embraced Buddhism after witnessing mass deaths during a war. he constructed many monuments that played a large role in Gautama Buddha's life. He embraced nonviolence, love, truth, and tolerance
45.Prajnaparamia literature
Prajnaparamita=Perfection of Wisdom. Describes earliest of Mahayana writings. For example: Heart Sutra & Diamond Sutra.
right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration
- Patterned icons that visually excite-Choreographed hand movements- Resonating chants
3 alternatives to causation
fate or destiny
divine intervention
chance, luck
none of these can be controlled
seen as seeking enlightenment so that, once awakened, he or she may efficiently aid other beings with the expertise of supreme wisdom. Remaining in this world of uncontrolled rebirth (wheel of life), this individual has taken vows not to pass into Parinirvana until all other beings have achieved nirvana.
four formless dhyanas
higher stages of mental equanimitybeyond anything that can be thought with human cognition
Allows one to gain freedom from habitual actions/responses. Can liberate mind by producing insight(vipassana) into the true nature of things. Must first gain awareness of self.
42.Nikaya Buddhism
Offshoot of Buddhism that incorporated some Bramanical traditions, such as their view on Karma. Focus on Dhamma, the teaching of the Buddha after his death.
3 roots of evil
greed (raga)hatred (dosa)delusion (moha)
Bodh Gaya
the place where Buddha attained englightenment for seven weeks
Yatha Bhuta
seeing things as they really are
The Bodhisattva of Compassion, of whom the 14 Dalai Lamas are Incarnations.
Rather than relying on faith, Buddhism emphasizes the development of ______?
the discovery of the truth about life
5 Skandas - create illusion of self
sense perception
Five Aggregates/Skandhas
Body--FormMind--Sensation Perception Formation Consciousness(all are dependent on each other- there is no atman)
an Indian monk from central India best known for his prolific Chinese translations. Considered one of the greatest translators of Sutras in Chinese Buddhism.
A Buddha expected to appear on earth in the future.
Theravada Buddhism
Death Ritual
Sri Lanka, Southeast Asian nations of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos
People must achieve enlightenment for themselves without reliance on the gods or on any force beyond themselves.
The goals of religion are reached through the efforts, meditation, and achievements of the individual. 
The gods, sacrifice, and prayer are of minor consequences.  There have been many Buddhas in the past and there will be more in the future.
Procession, Prayers, Pouring of water, Cremation, Final prayers
in Zen Buddhism Ananda was the 2nd Patriarch (in India); first cousin of the buddha and personal attendant; He stood up for women when the Buddha didn't want to let women become nuns.
Offering to the Buddha creates merit. Merit generates rewards in future lives of the generous person. Must give without selfish motivation & favoritism in order to receive merit.
a specific moral code for monks and nuns
Where do some Vajrayana Buddhists live in exile?
Northern India
What fraction of men in Tibet were monks?
4 passing sights/encounters suffering:
Old man
sick man
dead man
holy man (ascetic)
What are the two councils?
Theravada-the minority, and stricter group.
Mahayana-the majority, more relaxed group.
Two Schools of Buddhism
Today, the only remaining Hinayana (the exclusive way) school is Theravada (the tradition of the elders).  The larger and more liberal segment is known as Mahayana (the expansive way).
3.Amitabha (Japanese: Amida)
is a celestial Buddha in Mahayana Buddhism; exists in a divine world and will continue to do so until the final resolution of all things in the body of essence; Is a symbol of transcendental perfection and personifies infinite wisdom
Pure land Buddhism
believes that nirvana is no longer practical and difficult to attain in our present time. One should focus on devotion to Amitabha Budda to gain access to the Pure Land heaven, which is a pleasent place in which all karma disappears and nirvana is simple to attain but not an eternal dwelling.
What is the ideal person for Mahanyana Buddhism? What is his supreme virtue?
Bodhisattva- compassion
the kshatriyas
2nd of four castes- ruling or military class
What are the 3 marks of reality?
2)anatman-no self, no soul.
3) dukka-suffering
53.Siddhartha Gautama (Siddhattha Gotama)
Known as the Historical Buddha, born 500 BCE (or 400BCE), in India. Siddhartha means "he whose aim is accomplished" Gautama the name of the tribe of his father.
What are arhats typically and what practice do they engage in?
Monks and nuns- Meditation
What is the tripitaka?
It is a canon with stories about Siddhartha and his teachings. The literal translation is "3 baskets."
61.Three Gems (Three Treasures, Three Jewels, Three Refuges)
1.Buddha: Enlightened One- can mean the historical Buddha or the Buddha nature—the ideal or highest spiritual potential that exists within all beings; 2. Dharma: The Teaching- the teachings of the Buddha. 3. Sangha: The Community- The community of those who have attained enlightenment, who may help a practicing Buddhist to do the same
What did Theravada Buddhism depend upon?
The cultivation of wisdom though medidtation
Prior to Siddhartha's birth:
His father the king received word from a "see-sayer" that his son would be either a king of a new world or a redeemer.
What are the 5 skandas?
The 5 skandas are the illusions of self, or false self-identifiers.
1) Body (rupa)
2)Sense of preception
3) feelings, emotions
4) thoughts
5) conciousness 
6.In what countries does Theravada Buddhism dominate? And in what countries does Mahayana Buddhism dominate?
Theravada Buddhism dominates: Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Southern India, Sri Lanka Mahayana Buddhism dominates: Originated in India. China, Japan, Tibet, Korea, Vietnam and Taiwan
What are the equivalent of saints, in Theravada Buddhism?
Arhats- they have entered nirvana
What are the 4 passing sights?
The four passing sights are an old man, a sick man, a corpse, and an ascetic. Siddhartha learns of suffering.
On what does Mahayana Buddhism focus?
- The Buddha himself, seeing him as the divine savior
2.What are the five precepts or vows taken by lay Buddhists? (list and briefly explain)
not to: kill, steal, lie, have inappropriate sex, or drink alcohol All 5 of these precepts are seen in Buddhism as things that distract a person from reaching enlightenment. Individuals do not have to take all 5 precepts. Unlike the 10 commandments individuals can pick and choose which precepts they would like to follow. the precepts are a form of internal control.
What did Gautama's father do to ensure that his son would be a king instead of a savior?
-Pampered him with all of the comforts of the palace- His father didn't show him the outside sufferings of the world and live in complete satisfaction
What did Gautama do at age 29?
-He gave up his life as a prince and left his family- Renounced a life of power and sensual enjoyment for the austre life of a mendicant
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