COMD Physiology of phonation Flashcards

Terms Definitions
geniohyoid
-elevator-attachments: middle mandible; hyoid-innervation: CN 12 (hypoglossal)
thyrohyoid
-depressor-attachments: thyroid; hyoid-innervation: spinal nerves
sternothyroid
-depressor-attachments: sternum; thyroid-innervation: spinal nerves
length
measured as duration
gliding laryngeal muscle
thyromuscularis
digastricus posterior
-elevator-attachments: mastoid process; intermediate tendon (hyoid)-innervation: CN 7 (facial)
oblique arytenoid
-adductor-attachments: muscular process of arytenoids; apex of opposite arytenoid-innervation: RLN of CN 10 (vagus)
Myloelastic-aerodynamic theory
3 components:-sub-glottal pressure-Bernoulli effect-tissue force (recoil)
posterior cricoarytenoid
-abductor-attachments: post. cricoid; muscular process of arytenoid-innervation: RLN of CN 10
rocking laryngeal muscles
-transverse arytenoid-oblique arytenoid-LCA
shimmer
amplitude variability between glottal cycles
decrease in sub-glottal pressure
optimal pitch
3 theories of phonation
-neurochronaxic theory-myloelastic-aerodynamic theory-cover-body theory
2 portions of thyroarytenoid muscle
thyrovocalis; thyromuscularis
pitch
measured as a fundamental frequency- Hertz; Hz
glottal attack
adduct folds before respiration starts-ex. "okay"
acoustic
what is measured with an instrument
Glottal cycle
2 phases:-open phase: opening & closing phases-closed phase
- milliseconds; ms
(interspeaker pitch changing element) as length increases...
simultaneous attack
adduction and onset of respiration occur simultaneously-ex. "zip"
Neurochronaxic theory
problem with lengths of recurrent laryngeal nerve
vocal folds are held loosely & somewhat abducted, but still vibrate; air escapes even during the closed phase
whispering
tracheostomy
incision in the trachea that forms a temporary or permanent opening
active lowering - thyroarytenoid (thyromuscularis)
3rd pitch lowering mechanism
-cricothyroid - tilts thyroid cartilage forward
2nd pitch raising mechanism
intrinsic laryngeal muscles
both origin and insertion within the larynx
extrinsic laryngeal muscles
one attachment in the larynx and the other outside the larynx
male - 125 Hzfemale - 210 Hzchild - 300-400 Hz
habitual pitch
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