Community Nutrition Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
 
 
 
 
 
Bone
 
 
 
 
 
increase osteoclastic action --> increase serum Ca+ levels
hypertension
73.6 million people
 
 
 
 
Trabicular bone
 
 
 
 
 
Spongy in Apperance, forms the internal support network for the cortical shell
 
 
 
Muscle Strength increases...
 
 
 
 
muscle function
 
 
 
 
Peak capacity for physical performance is reached at?
 
20+ years
 
 
 
 
Programed Theories
 
 
 
 
 
Aging through a biological timetable
 
 
 
 
Telomere Hypothesis
non-coding functional repeat sequences at the ends of chromosomes. If chromosomes are stabilzed during mitosis it could protect them from degrading emzymes
cognitive development
symbolic thought, make comparisons, count in their heads, describe to others events, food described by color, shape quanitity
 
 
 
Mental Health Disorders
 
 
-MDD
-Schizophrenia
- Anxiety disorders
-Eatind Disorders
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
-Autism
Alzheimers Disease
- Depression
Egocentrism
condition in which the individual experiences every event in reference to her/himself
hypertension treatments
- weightloss
- regular excercise
- moderate alcohol intake
- reduce sodium
- overall healthy diet with emphasis on vegetables fruit and low fat dairy products
- medications
 
beneficence
doing good for others, actively working to benefit other people or the community, providing relief from pain and suffering, helping to feed the hungry, baby sitting for a low income women
Osteoporosis
age 40-50 bone reabsorption exceeds bone deposition, harder to put down new growth
Culture
a shared history consisting of thought, communication, actions, customs, beliefs and values
A lacto-ovo vegetarian needs increase B12, what fo
Milk
Adult food choices
sensory appeal, health, convience, price
barriers to healthy eating
- time
-cost
- money situation
-lazy
- taste
 
 
 
 

Vertebrae is made up of...
 
 
mainly trabicular bone
Cost of Diabetes
exceeds 130 billion and increasing
cultural blindness
treat everybody the same, culture makes no difference
Bone Mass
both genetic and environmental factors influence bone mass and loss, young adults bone mass is greater in males than in females, greater in taller individuals than shorter invidiudals
 
 
 
Polypharmacy
use of multiple drugs, it is problematic in the elderly
cultural knowledge
valuing diversity and viewing the world through multiple cultural lenses are at the heart of cultural competency
Bone Mass Genetic Factors
- excercise, smoker, alchohol consumption, calcium intake, greater in blacks than whites, loss is accelerated in females after menopause
Centerions consume...
- atleast 7 vegetbales/day and 7 grains/day
- 2 to 4 fruits /day
- veggies fruits and grains =72% of the diet
- tofu, other soy, green tea, seaweeds, and fish rich omega 3 acids
- meat, poultry and eggs
 
 
 
 
Elderly Health Screening...
- inappropriate Food and/or Fluid intake
- Poverty
- Social
-Social Isolation
 
proper tooth formation requires
 
adequate intake of calcium, phosphorus, protein, fluoride, vitamins A,C,D
 
 
 

Obesity increases the risk of cancer in...
- breast
- colon
- endometrium
- espophagus
- kidney
- pancreas
- gallbladder
- thyroid
-ovaries
- cervix
- prostate
 
 
 
 

Hormonal Changes in Females
with menopause, estrogen levels decrease, weight gain and decrease in muscle mass, total cholesterol
 
 
 
 
Long Bones are made up of...
 
 
 
mostly cortical bone
 
 
 
 
How Do Antioxidants affect brain functioning?
brain consumes oxygen, neuronal membraines susceptible to lipid peroxidation, this can alter neurotransmitter transport and CNS functioning
 
Antioxidants slow progression of neural damage and vascular disease
New cases of a disease during a specific period of
Incidence
By 2050...
it is estimated that 22% of Americans will be over 65 years of age
African Americans Access to care
40% decreased access, health insurance, getting a referral to a specialist, poor health care rating
preschool development motor development
improve gross motor skills, improve fine motor skills
cultural proficiency
engages in activities to add to the knowledge base, encourages cultural competence
 
 
 
 
Elderly Hearing
declines more quickly in men than in women, hearing goes as a person get older.
Trepinations
holes in skull, may be from trying to release pressure from skulls
calcified tissue, tooth buds form about 6 weeks
about 6 weeks inutero
 
 
 
 
Hormonal Changes in Males
testosterone levles start to decrease around the age of 40-50 years, weight gain is likely because of physical activity and not hormone!
 
 
 
Leading Sites of Cancer Deaths in women
 
 
 
- lungs
- breast
- colon and rectum
Why do boys need additional iron during adolescenc
To build muscle
When do Coronary artery disease and hypertension b
Childhood and adolescnece
Where do revenue matters originate in the legislat
House of Representatives
Diet prescription for Type I
- eating at consistent times
- insulin adjustments
- individuals skill and education level
Different symptoms in Female CVD
shortness of breath, extreme fatigue or feeling sever indidestion, stress related chest pain
 
 
 
 
The level of circulating calcium depends on...
 
 
 
 
- a balance of reabsorption and deposition for Ca in the bone
- intestinal absorption of dietary Ca
- Renal tubular reabsorption excertion
- Absoptive efficiency of Ca in the intestine is depended on
- the sex and age of the individual
- exposure to UV light and vitamin D intake
- Calcium sources
 
 
 
 
Programmed Senesence Theory
Aging is a result of the sequential switching on and off of certain genes
What is ethics?
it is a science that deals with judging right or wrong, good or evil, the study of standards of conduct and moral judgement
WIC farmers market Nutrition program
offered in 32 states
coupons to eligible reipients
to privide fresh, nutritious fruits and vegetables
 
What factors on pregnant women and children are co
Behavioral risk factors, vitamin/mineral adverse r
What are the most significant nutrition considerat
Iron deficiency and food allergies.
When do you start measuring children standing?
2 years of age.
What are adolescent girls frequently at risk for n
Obesity, iron-deficiency anemia, high blood choles
Where do you find the nation's goals for nutrition
Healthy People 2010
 
 
 
 
Cancer Nutrition Statistics
- 1/3 of all cancer deaths can be attributed to diet and physical activity habits, including overweight and obesity
 
- 1/3 is causes by exposure to tobacco products
 
 
 
 
 
Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes
- 7% of the day's total calories from saturated fat
- 25-35% of the day's total calories from fat
- <200 mg of dietary cholesterol/d
- limit sodium intake to 2400 mg
- just enough calories to achieve or maintain a healthy weight and reduce your blood cholesterol
What information does demographic information prov
Identifies the people ina community by sex, age, r
What are the six priority challenges of the STEPS
Obesity, Diabetes, Asthama, poor nutrition, physia
 
 
 
 
How do n-3 fatty acids affect brain functioning?
- make up phospholipid membranes, rich in brain tissue
 
- affect receptor function, neurotransmitter uptake, and signal transmitters
 
- precursors to specific prostaglandins and leukotrienes
 
- anti-inflammatory effects
How many fractures a year result of osteoporosis
1.3 million fractures/year results osteoporosis
Latinos Accesst to health care
less likely to have job based coverage regard less of hours worked or size of firm they worked for
What does the farmer's Market Nutrition Program pr
Provides women and infants over 4 months, children
A low income family recieves food stamps but compl
Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program
Asian Access to health care
1/3 fair poor health had not visited a physician during last year
What are the factors that place a household at gre
Income beow the poverty line, households with chil
What population does the YRBSS survey?
It is a combination biannual survey of representat
What is the typical growth pattren for children?
Children usualyy grow 2-3 inches per yaer and gain
Once a law is passed, regulations to enforce the l
The Federal agency that is responsible for the enf
What is the critical factor in determining infant
Maternal weight gain in the second and third trime
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