Configurations and the Periodic Table Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Shielding
Electrons in lower CLOSED-SHELLS shield the valence electrons from the full charge of the nucleus. Only CORE e- can shield valence e-.
(AKA effective nuclear charge)
Frequency
The number of complete traveling waves passing a point in a given period of time (cycles per second)
Planck's constant
The proportionality constant, h, that relates energy of a photon to its frequency. The value of h is 6.626 X 10 ^-34 J - S
Paramagnetic
Refers to atoms, molecules, or ions that are attracted to a magnetic field because they have unpaired electrons in incompletely filled electron subshells
Electron Configuration
The complete description of the orbitals occupied by all the electrons in atom or ion
valence electrons
Electrons in an atom's highest occupied principal shell and in partially filled subshells of lower principal shells; electrons available to participate in bonding
atomic radius
One-half the distance between the nuclei centers of two like atoms in a molecule
Orbital Shape
The shape of an electron density distribution determined by an orbital
Isoelectronic
Refers to atoms and ions that have identical electron configurations
Diamagnetic
Describes atoms or ions in which all the electrons are paired in filled shells so their magnetic fields effectively cancel each other
Continuous Spectrum
A spectrum consisting of all possible wavelengths
Hund's Rule
Electrons pair only after each orbital in a subshell is occupied by a single electron
Radial Distribution plot
A graph showing the probability of finding an electron as a function of distance from the nucleus of an atom
Line Emission Spectrum
A spectrum produced by excited atoms and consisting of discrete wavelengths of light
Excited State
The unstable state of an atom or molecule in which at least one electron does not have its lowest possible energy
Electronegativity
The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself.
Electronegativity goes increases going across the periodic table.
Electronegativity decreases going down the periodic table.
Ionization Energy
The amount of energy it takes to remove an e- from an atom.
Ionization energy decreases going down the periodic table.
Ionization energy increases going across the periodic table.
Removing that 1 e- gets easier and easier as we move down the column. Therefore, the reaction happens faster and more vigorous.
Principle Quantum Number
An integer assigned to each of the allowed main electron energy levels in an atom
Ionic Radii
radius of an anion or cation in an ionic compound
Z Effective (Net), Z*
Z* increases going across the periodic table.
Z* decreases going down the periodic table.
(1s2 e- shield 2s2 e-; 1s2 2s2 2p6 e- shield 3s and 3p e-)
The nucleus still has an attraction to the valence e-, it's just diminished.
wavelength
The distance between adjacent crests in a wave
Ferromagnetic
A substance that contains clusters of atoms with unpaired electrons whose magnetic spins become aligned, causing permanent magnetism
photons
A massless particle of light whose energy is given by hv, where v is the frequency of the light and h is Planck's constant
Noble Gas Notation
An abbreviated electron configuration of an element in which filled inner shells are represented by the symbol of the preceding noble gas in brackets
screening effect
Reduction of the effective attraction between nucleus and valence electrons as a result of repulsion of the outer valence electrons by electrons in inner shells
Quantum Number
a number that specifies the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals
photoelectric effect
The emission of electrons by some metals when illuminated by light of certain wavelengths
Lewis dot symbol
An atomic symbol with dots representing valence electrons
Core electrons
The electrons in the filled inner shells of an atom
Effective Nuclear Charge
The nuclear charge experienced by a valence electron in a multi-electron atom, as modified by the presence of electrons in lower, closed shells.
(AKA shielding)
transition elements
Elements that lie in rows 4 through 7 of the periodic table in which d or f subshells are being filled; comprising scandium through zinc, yttrium through cadmium, lanthanum through mercury, and actinium and elements of higher atomic number
Ground State
The state of an atom or molecule in which all of the electrons are in their lowest possible energy levels
Electron Affinity
The measure of the amount of energy it takes to strip away an e- from an anion.
Electron affinity increases going across the periodic table.
Electron affinity decreases going down the periodic table.
Atomic Radii of the Main Group Elements
For the main group elements, atomic radii increase going down a group in the periodic table and decrease going across a period.
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