Electrons in lower CLOSED-SHELLS shield the valence electrons from the full charge of the nucleus. Only CORE e- can shield valence e-.
(AKA effective nuclear charge)
The number of complete traveling waves passing a point in a given period of time (cycles per second)
The proportionality constant, h, that relates energy of a photon to its frequency. The value of h is 6.626 X 10 ^-34 J - S
Refers to atoms, molecules, or ions that are attracted to a magnetic field because they have unpaired electrons in incompletely filled electron subshells
The complete description of the orbitals occupied by all the electrons in atom or ion
Electrons in an atom's highest occupied principal shell and in partially filled subshells of lower principal shells; electrons available to participate in bonding
One-half the distance between the nuclei centers of two like atoms in a molecule
The shape of an electron density distribution determined by an orbital
Refers to atoms and ions that have identical electron configurations
Describes atoms or ions in which all the electrons are paired in filled shells so their magnetic fields effectively cancel each other
A spectrum consisting of all possible wavelengths
Electrons pair only after each orbital in a subshell is occupied by a single electron
|Radial Distribution plot||
A graph showing the probability of finding an electron as a function of distance from the nucleus of an atom
|Line Emission Spectrum||
A spectrum produced by excited atoms and consisting of discrete wavelengths of light
The unstable state of an atom or molecule in which at least one electron does not have its lowest possible energy
The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself.
Electronegativity goes increases going across the periodic table.
Electronegativity decreases going down the periodic table.
The amount of energy it takes to remove an e- from an atom.
Ionization energy decreases going down the periodic table.
Ionization energy increases going across the periodic table.
Removing that 1 e- gets easier and easier as we move down the column. Therefore, the reaction happens faster and more vigorous.
|Principle Quantum Number||
An integer assigned to each of the allowed main electron energy levels in an atom
radius of an anion or cation in an ionic compound
|Z Effective (Net), Z*||
Z* increases going across the periodic table.
Z* decreases going down the periodic table.
(1s2 e- shield 2s2 e-; 1s2 2s2 2p6 e- shield 3s and 3p e-)
The nucleus still has an attraction to the valence e-, it's just diminished.
The distance between adjacent crests in a wave
A substance that contains clusters of atoms with unpaired electrons whose magnetic spins become aligned, causing permanent magnetism
A massless particle of light whose energy is given by hv, where v is the frequency of the light and h is Planck's constant
|Noble Gas Notation||
An abbreviated electron configuration of an element in which filled inner shells are represented by the symbol of the preceding noble gas in brackets
Reduction of the effective attraction between nucleus and valence electrons as a result of repulsion of the outer valence electrons by electrons in inner shells
a number that specifies the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals
The emission of electrons by some metals when illuminated by light of certain wavelengths
|Lewis dot symbol||
An atomic symbol with dots representing valence electrons
The electrons in the filled inner shells of an atom
|Effective Nuclear Charge||
The nuclear charge experienced by a valence electron in a multi-electron atom, as modified by the presence of electrons in lower, closed shells.
Elements that lie in rows 4 through 7 of the periodic table in which d or f subshells are being filled; comprising scandium through zinc, yttrium through cadmium, lanthanum through mercury, and actinium and elements of higher atomic number
The state of an atom or molecule in which all of the electrons are in their lowest possible energy levels
The measure of the amount of energy it takes to strip away an e- from an anion.
Electron affinity increases going across the periodic table.
Electron affinity decreases going down the periodic table.
|Atomic Radii of the Main Group Elements||
For the main group elements, atomic radii increase going down a group in the periodic table and decrease going across a period.