Business and Society Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Rights
Personal Space
Competition
struggle for customers
major principles of ethics
-utilitarianism
-rights
-justice
-care
-virtue ethics
-servant leadership
-golden rule
surveillance
involves companies electronically watching, monitoring, or checking up on their employees.
Proactive
Companies try to anticipate stakeholder concerns
Ethical Relativism?
Ethics varies across individuals
economic development
must be accomplished sustainably
Civil society
Non-profit, educational, religious, community, family, and interest-group organizations; social organizations that do not have a commercial or governmental purpose.
Functions of Institutions
Governmental, Cultural, and Economic
Morality
Personal, right and wrong, intentions, behavior
Common Organizational Problems?
Abuse, harassment or intimidation-Dishonesty, theft-Safety violations-Misrepresentation of the organization or individuals-Lack of attention to errors, defects, damage control
A-B-C sequence?
Antecedent - Behavior - Consequence
biotechnology
using biology to discover, develop, manufacture, market, and sell products and services
regulation
the act of governing, directing according to rule, or bringing under the control of law or constituted authority.
arguemants againist globalization
Causes job insecurity.
Weakens environmental and labor standards.
Prevents individual nations from adopting policies promoting environmental or social objectives.
Undermines cultural, linguistic, and religious diversity.
Is just as compatible with despotism as it is with freedom.
Collaborative partnerships
Alliances among business, government, and civil society organizations that draw on the unique capabilities of each to address complex social problems.
Price Gouging
pricing products unreasonably high when the need is great or when consumers do not have other choices
Profit
the money earned from conducting business after all costs and expenses have been paid
Production
the process or creating, expanding, manufacturing, or improving on goods and services
Ethical behavior in organizations affects every facet of operations such as?
Investor/Shareholder interaction, Client/customer services, Workforce/employee treatment, Supplier and contractor dealings, Public relations/image
Competitive Intelligence
An additional scanning function that is often delegated to the Public Affairs Department (Questionable idea!)
Ethical organizations have?
Financial performance, Retention of workforce talent, Positive public image and reputation, Consumer loyalty and Investor interest and confidence
Environmental intelligence?
The acquisition of information gained from analyzing the multiple environments affecting organizations ⇒ strategic radar screens
social costs
another name for externalities because they are absorbed by society rather than incorporated into the cost of making the product.
cyberadvocacy
Using the Internet to amass grassroots support, and enable grassroots supporters to contact their legislators
immoral management
an approach devoid of ethical principles and active oppostition to what is ethical
environmental Standards
Standard allowable levels of various pollutants are established by legislation or regulatory action.
Environmental-quality standard
Emission standard
Occupational segregation
The inequitable concentration of a group, such a minorities or women, in particular job categories.
Life-cycle analysis
Collecting information on the lifelong environmental impact of a product in order to minimize its adverse impacts at all stages, including design, manufacture, use, and disposal.
Sustainability report
A single report integrating a business's social, economic, and economic results.
White collar crime
Illegal activities committed by corporate managers, such as embezzlement or fraud.
Deforestation
Trees and plants absorb carbon dioxide and remove it from the atmosphere. Thus, cutting down trees contributes to global warming. More trees in NA than before
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
Nonprofit organizations that are created and work to advocate on behalf of particular causes, issues, and interests.
Monopoly
exclusive control over a product of the means of producing it
Industry
according to the U.S. Department of Labor- consists of a group of establishments primarily engaged in producing or handling the same product or group of products or in rendering the same services
Bases for economic organization
Tradition, Authority, and Free Market
Issues Management
a structural and systematic process to aid organizations in identifying, monitoring, and selecting public issues that warrant organizational aid.
Triple bottom line
When companies report to stakeholders not just their financial results but also their environmental and social impacts. Financial, social and environmental results, taken together as an integrated whole, constitute a company's triple bottom line.
Senior management support for ?
Implementation, communication, and ongoing evaluation
Laws are ?
Society's attempt to formalize ethical standards, Written to capture public's wishes about what constitutes right and wrong behavior
Social performance audit
A systematic evaluation of an organization's social and ethical performance, examining the social and ethical impact of a business against two benchmarks: a company's own mission statement and the behavior of other organizations and social norms.
Proportionalism
look for the greater good, at the expense of some acceptable or "minor" bad.
Benifits Of CSR
Forms teamwork between depts. and groups. Emphasizes "people" aspect of the organization
Sets the real example for ethical behavior. Improved "sense of purpose". Skills learned or discovered. Enhance reputation and opportunities
privatization
refers to the process of "turning over to" the private sector (business) some function or service that was previously handled by some govt. body.
clash of ethical systems: government beliefs
-Collectivistic ethic
-Subordinates individual goals and self-interest to group goals and group interests
-Maximizes obligations assumed by the individual and discouraging self-interest
-Emphasizes equality of individuals
the hedonistic ethic
if it feels good, do it.
grease payments
Relatively small sums of money given for the purpose of getting minor officials to:
-Do what they are supposed to be doing
-Do what they are supposed to be doing faster
-Do what they are supposed to be doing better
ethical lag
occurs when the speed of technological change far exceeds that of ethical development
the organization ethic
an individual should ask whether actions are consistent with organizational goals and what is good for the organization.
ecology
By some measures the demands of human society have already exceeded the carrying capacity of the earth's ecosystem
Free enterprise system
A socioeconomic system based on private ownership, profit-seeking business firms, and the principle of free markets.
Green marketing
A concept that describes the creation, promotion, and sale of environmentally safe products and services by business.
Transnational corporation (TNC)
Corporations that operate and control assets across national boundaries.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
An international financial institution that lends foreign exchange to member nations so they can participate in global trade.
Why ethical problems occur
personal gain and selfish interest, cometitive pressures on profits, conflicts of interest, and cross cultural contradictions
Principals of Corperate Citisenship
strive to conduct all business dealings in an ethical manner, make a concerned effort to balance the needs of all stakeholders, while working to protect the environment.
General Systems Theory?
Business and society together form an interactive social system
Failure to understand stakeholder concerns and respond appropriately will?
Cause the performance-expectations gap to grow and Larger the gap, the greater the risk of stakeholder backlash or loss of faith in organizational value and business practices
test of ventilation
expose your course of action to others' opinions.
principle of justice
involves the fair treatment of each person
characteristics of immoral managers
- intentionally do wrong
- self centered and self absorbed
-care only about self or org's profits/success
-actively oppose what is right, fair, or just
-exhibit no concern for stakeholders
-are the "bad guys"
-an ethics course probably would not help them
characteristics of intentionally amoral managers
-don't think ethics and business should "mix"
-business and ethics are existing in separate spheres
-a vanishing breed
central state control
Economic power is concentrated in the hands of government officials and political authorities. The central government owns the property that is used to produce goods and services. (Cuba)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
The United States federal government agency responsible for most environmental regulation and enforcement.
Superfund (CERCLA)
A U. S. law, passed in 1980, designated to clean up hazardous or toxic waste sites. The law established a fund, supported mainly by taxes on petrochemical companies, to pay for the cleanup. (Also known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act [CERCLA].)
Nonprofit Organization
functions like a business but uses the money it makes to fund the cause identified in its charter
Performance Expectations Gap
the emergence of a new public issue often indicates there is a gap between what the firm wants to do or is doing and what stakeholders expect.
Ethical concepts are more?
Complex than laws because they often apply to areas not covered by laws
Phases of Corperate Social Responsibility
Corporate social stewardship, 1950s - 1960s Corporate social responsiveness, 1960s - 1970s Corporate/business ethics, 1980s - 1990s Corporate/global citizenship, 1990s - 2000s
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)?
Emerged as a critical concept for organizations to understand, support, and integrate in their strategic and tactical business operations. Relates to an organization's impact on society and goes beyond doing what is ethical
Code of Conduct Content?
Designed to expand upon the moral principles identified in the Code of Ethics
ethical gap or ethical problem
The gap between society's expectations of business ethics and actual business ethics
the categorical imperative
act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same "will" that it should become a universal law
Clean Water Act amendments (1987)
Authorized funds for sewage treatment plants and waterways cleanup
Proactive Green Companies share the following elements
Top management involvement to sustainability
Line manager involvement
Codes of environmental conduct
Cross-functional teams
Rewards and incentives
ozone in the upper atmosphere
provides a shield against ultraviolet light from the sun. (See also Montreal Protocol.)
Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)
responsible for overseeing the safety of products such as toys, electronics, and households furniture
Fundamental Economic Question
as a society how do we organize and allocate our labor and resources to provide for our current survival and longterm prosperity?
Social Group Relativism?
How does action relate to the norms of my social group?
typical acts of ethical misconduct in the workplace
-abusive or intimidating behavior toward employees
-misreporting actual time or hours worked
-lying to employees, customers, vendors, or the public
-withholding needed info from employees, customers, vendors, or the public
-discriminating on the basis of race, color, gender, age, or similar categories
-stealing, theft, or related fraud
-sexual harassment
-falsifying financial records and reports
-giving or accepting bribes, kickbacks, or inappropriate gifts
the professional ethic
you should do only that which can be explained before a committee of peers
International financial and trade institutions (IFTI)
Institutions, such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization, that establish the rules by which international commerce is conducted.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
regulates the labeling and safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics sold in the United States
Around 1920s the charitable needs of communities began to shift from?
A small group of wealthy philanthropists to businesses themselves
test of making something public
if you would not be comfortable with people knowing you did something, don't do it.
habits of moral leaders
1. they have a passion to do right
2. they are morally proactive
3. they consider all stakeholders
4. they have a strong ethical character
5. they have an obsession with fairness
6. they undertake principled decision making
7. they integrate ethics wisdom with management wisdom
Iron Law of Responsibility?
In the long run, those who do not use power in ways society considers responsible will lose it
three key elements of the conventional approach to making ethical judgements
1. observe the decision, action, or practice that has been committed in the workplace setting
2. compare the practice with prevailing norms of acceptability-that is, society's or some other standard of what is acceptable or unacceptable
3. we must recognize that value judgements are being made by someone as to what really occurred(the actual behavior) and what the prevailing norms of acceptability really are.
what's the most important factor in ethical leadership?
the moral tone of an organization is set by top management
what is the most basic moral question in stem cell research?
the moral status of a human embryo-the product of sperm and egg-and what constitutes a human being.
Ethical
"Should do"
Personal Ethics
Person to person
deontological theories
focus on duties
Ethics
guidelines for good behavior
Interactive
Companies actively engage with stakeholders in an ongoing relationship of mutual respect, openness, and trust
Rationalization
Pre-decision based on pre-determined goals; then go and find "Justification"
Arguements for globalization
Increases economic productivity.
Reduces prices for consumers.
Gives developing countries access to foreign investment funds to support economic development.
Transfers technology also a con- Patent infringement.
Spreads democracy and freedom, and reduces military conflict
Economic
Create value, goods and services, societal wealth
Social Institutions
Structures and mechanisms that maintain order, within a society.
Ethical climate
The unspoken understanding among employees of what is and is not acceptable behavior.
Ethical decision making follows the?
A-B-C sequence
principles of ethics
-the categorical imperative
-the conventionalist ethic
-the disclosure rule
- the golden rule
-the hedonistic ethic
-the intuition ethic
-the market ethic
- the means-ends ethic
-the might-equals-right ethic
-the organization ethic
-the professional ethic
-the proportionality principle
-the revelation ethic
-the utilitarian ethic
reasons for regulation
-controls natural monopolies
-controls negative externalities
-achieves social goals
-controls excess profits
-controls excessive competition
Laws
Society's attempt to formalize into written rules the public's ideas about what constitutes right and wrong conduct in various spheres of life.
Black Carbon
Mostly incomplete combustion; e.g deisel engines, wildfires..
Patent
a government-issued exclusive right to make, use, or sell an invention for up to 20 years
Bases of Ethical Reasoning
Utilitarian approach, rights, justice
Ethics and legal compliance are?
Not the same
Corporate crisis
A significant business disruption that stimulates extensive news media coverage.
Stakeholder Expectations?
Opinions, attitudes, and beliefs about what constitutes reasonable business behavior and Alignment of what stakeholders expect and what an organization is doing is critical for accuracy of business operations, trust
Montreal Protocol
An international treaty limiting the manufacture and use of chlorofluorocarbons and other ozone-depleting chemicals. (See also Ozone.)
Globalization
Refers to the increasing movement of goods, services, and capital across national borders. Adjusted for GDP it is roughly double the levels of 40 years ago
Anti-Americanism
Opposition to the United States of America, or to its people, principles, or policies.
Business Risk
the potential for loss or failure
Ad Council
a nonprofit organization that helps produce public service advertising campaigns for government agencies and other qualifying groups
Retailers
buy goods from wholesalers or directly from manufacturers and resell them to the consumer
Primary Stakeholders
Significantly affected by what we do, significant potential power, relatively permanent, some degree of mutual interest
Integrity-based approach
Combine concern for law with emphasis on employee responsibility for ethical conduct
Employees instructed to act with integrity and conduct business dealings honestly
Issue Management
A structured and systematic process to aid organizations in identifying, monitoring, and selecting public issues that warrant organizational action. What's important?
Enlightened self-interest Means?
Organizational leadership can see it is in the company's self-interest in the long term to provide true value to its customers, behave responsibly, and set a good example
Retention of workforce talent?
Emerging generations of employees value social responsibility
Current Public Affairs Management
Important that management of "sociopolitical" issues be at or near the highest levels in the organization and be linked to strategy
utilitarian justice
critics of utilitarianism say that the mere increase in total good is not good in and of itself because it ignores the distribution of good which is also important.
cases of immoral mgt
-stealing petty cash
-cheating on expense report
-taking credit for another's accomplishment's
-lying on time sheet
-coming into work hungover
-telling a demeaning joke
-taking office supplies for personal use
-showing preferential treatment toward certain employees
-rewarding employees who display wrong behaviors
-harassing a fellow employee
utilitarianism
asserts that we should always act so as to produce the greatest ratio of good to evil for everyone or to produce the greatest good for the greatest number of people. it is a teleological principle.
three reasons management goes green
Gain competitive advantage
Gain legitimacy
Moral commitment to ecological responsibility
Toxic Substance Control Act
Established national policy to regulate, restrict, and, if necessary, ban toxic chemicals.
.
Nonprice Competition
businesses choose to compete on the basis of factors that are not related to price
Heirarchy of Social Responsibility
1) Discretionary, 2) ethical, 3)legal, 4)Economic
The Issue Management Process
1) issue identification, 2) issue analysis, 3) policy options, 4) program design, 5) results
Ethics is?
A set of principles an individual uses to determine whether an action is good or bad
Stakeholder Analysis' 4 Questions?
1. Who are the relevant stakeholders?
2. What are the interests/needs of each stakeholder? (The power of WIIFM!)
3. What is the power of each stakeholder?
4. How/what coalitions and alliances are likely to form?
Targeted training for all relevant constituents?
Employees, Clients, Suppliers, Investors
Other organizational decision-making processes?
Identification of problem - Generate ideas, solutions, alternatives - Weigh all options - Implement and evaluate
the revelation ethic
through prayer or other appeal to transcedent beings and forces answers are given to individual minds.
normative question
"what ought to be"
1. how ought we treat our aging employees?
2. how safe ought we make this product?
3. how clean an environment should we aim for?
4. how should we treat long time employees when the company is downsizing?
5. should we outsource aspects of production to china or india?
World Trade Organization (WTO)
An organization of member nations committed to advancing free trade and open markets in all countries.
benifits of environmental regulatio
Emissions of nearly all pollutants have dropped since 1970.
Air and water quality improved, some toxic waste sites cleaned; improved health; natural beauty preserved or enhanced.
Growth of other industries, such as environmental products and services, tourism, and fishing.
249 fourtune 500 companies
companies provided health benefits to domestic partners and same-sex spouses, according to the Human Rights Campaign Foundation; the proportion doing so had doubled in the previous 5 years.
For-Profit Business
seeks to make a profit from its operations
Political Definition of Stakeholders
Anyone who percieves an interest in the actions of the firm and acts to influence
Behavioral expectations pertaining to legal and ethical situations?
Conflicts of Interest - Corporate Opportunities -Confidentiality
Fair Dealing - Protection and Proper Use of Assets - Compliance with Laws, Rules, and Regulations - Encouraging the Reporting of Illegal or Unethical Behavior
Current Public Affairs Management?
This must be a global strategy functioning at the highest levels of organizational management
test of common sense
if proposed course of action violates your common sense don't do it.
U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
Federal law that prohibits businesses from paying bribes to foreign government officials, political parties, or political candidates.
employee rights/ employer duties
Right to organize and bargain
Safe and healthy workplace
Privacy
Discipline fairly and justly applied
To blow the whistle
Equal employment opportunity
To be treated with respect for
employer cannot fire a worker
Because of race, gender, religion, national origin, age, or disability
If would constitute a violation of public policy, as determined by the courts
If, in doing so, it would violate the Worker Adjustment Retraining Notification Act
If worker is involved in union organizing or other activity
If would violate an implied contract, such as a verbal promise, or basic rules of "fair dealing"
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
regulates the sale of securities (stocks and bonds)
Stakeholder Theory of the Firm
argues that corporations serve a broad public purpose: to create value for society.
A stakeholder refers to?
Persons or groups that affect, or are affected by, an organization's decisions, policies, and operations
**what does a typical federal regulatory agency do?
1. Has decision making authority
2. Establishes standards or guidelines conferring benefits and imposing restrictions on business conduct
3. Operates principally in the sphere of domestic business activity
4. Has its head and / or members appointed by the president (generally subject to Senate confirmation)
5. Has its legal procedures generally governed by the Administrative Procedures Act
Occupational safety and health act
passed in 1970, gives workers the right to a job "free from recognized hazards that are causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm"
Common causes of Ethical Challenges in Organizations?
Personal gain & selfish interest
- Conflict of interest - Following orders/directive from superiors -Pressure to comply with demands, need to conform with majority perspective -Lack of information needed to make more ethical decision - Insufficient time to weigh all alternatives before acting
Those working in organizations with a comprehensive program are?
More likely to report ethical misconduct and More likely to be satisfied with any investigation and response to ethical misconduct
6 tests of ethical tests approach
1. test of common sense
2.test of one's best self
3. test of making something public
4. test of ventilation
5. test of the purified idea
6. gag test
Ecologically sustainable organization (ESO)
A business that operates in a way that is consistent with the principle of sustainable development. (See also Sustainable development.)
An organization should be held accountable for ?
Any of its actions that affect people, their communities, and their environment
The goal for the organization is to ?
Strive towards a balance of meeting business goals while eliminating any negative impact of business decisions and actions
The purpose of the firm is not to make a profit, but to?
Create value for all its stakeholders
Public Sector
government-financed agencies
Inactive
Companies ignore stakeholder concerns
grassroots lobbying
Mobilizing the "grassroots"—individual citizens who might be most directly affected by legislative activity—to political action
Relativism
to industry, competition, country customs;(entertainment, bribes, deteriorating industry practices). What society approves is OK, self-satisfaction as confirmation
descriptive ethics
involves describing, characterizing, and studying morality. focuses on "what is"
Ergonomics
Adapting work tasks, working conditions, and equipment to minimize worker injury or stress.
Tradition
tradition based societies may hold together a long time if nothing bad happens. You don't get much choice though, more about the better for the group.
Utilitarian Approach
Greatest good for greatest number
Corperate Citisenship
Refers to businesses acting responsibly toward their stakeholders.
normative ethics
concerned with supplying and justifying moral systems. focuses on "what ought/ought not to be"
lobbying
The process of influencing public officials to promote or secure passage or defeat of legislation
ozone depletion
Chlorofluorocarbons react with and destroy the ozone layer.
In 1985, scientists discovered a thin spot, or hole, in the ozone layer over Antarctica.
In 1987, a group of nations negotiated the Montreal Protocol, agreeing to cut CFC production. The agreement was later amended to ban CFCs and other ozone-depleting chemicals.
As of 2003, 184 countries had signed the protocol.
If the regulations continue to be effective, the protective layer will gradually recover.
CFC's
Now largely under control- renewing Ozone layer
Demand
refers to consumer willingness and ability to buy products
Business and Professional Ethics
ethics of stakeholder relationships
Is acceptable to incur short term costs for socially responsible activities that benefit both the company and the public in the long term
...
Utilitarianism?
How does action relate to everyone affected by it? Costs vs. benefits- Democratic decisions
Code of Conduct?
Explanation of acceptable behaviors for specific situations
Competitive Intelligence?
The process of gathering, analyzing, and managing external information about the organization's competitors that can affect the organization's plans, decisions and operations
Environmental analysis?
Provides managers with the information about external issues and trends that enables an organization to develop a strategy that minimizes threats and takes advantage of new opportunities
Boundary Spanning Departments?
Those departments within an organization that reach across the organization's boundary line to interact with groups and people in society
Stakeholder Analysis
Process conducted by managers to identify relevant stakeholders and analyze their interest and power
Economic and social goals come together in organizations that practice ?
Enlightened self-interest
industrial policy
any selective govt measure that prevents or promotes changes in the structure of an economy
big four
don't compromise your action or decision by greed, speed, laziness, or haziness
amoral management
intentional: does not consider ethical factors
unintentional: casual or careless about ethical factors
Kyoto Protocol
An international treaty negotiated in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, that committed its signatories to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide.
nongovt orgs
Concerned with such issues as environmental risk, labor practices, workers rights, community development, and human rights.
Growth spurred on by global economic, social and political partnerships
executive order
mandates all federal contractors and sub-contractors
Fair labor standards
Rules that establish minimum acceptable standards for the conditions under which a company's employees (or the employees of its suppliers or subcontractors) will work. For example, such standards might include a ban on child labor, establishment of maximum work hours per week, or a commitment to pay wages above a certain minimum level.
Social contract
An implied understanding between an organization and its stakeholders as to how they will act toward one another.
Industrial Ecology
Refers to designing factories and distribution systems as if they were self-contained ecosystems.
Finance
the function of business that involves money management
Management
the process of achieving company goals by effective use of resources through planning, organizing, and controlling
Levels of Ethical Application
Personal Ethics, Civic Ethics, Business and Professional Ethics
Justice
how are people to be treated? "fair treatment". (procedural, distributive, compensatory, retributive)
Bribery ?
A questionable or unjust payment often to a government official to ensure or facilitate a business transaction
Ethical Decision making questions regard?
Honesty, Fairness, Goodwill, Legality
Early 20th century businesses came under attack for ?
Being too powerful
Three Key Responsibilities of Corporate Social Responsibility?
Economic responsibilities, Social responsibilities, Legal responsibilities
Global Corperate Citizenship
process of identifying, analyzing, and responding to the company's social, political, and economic responsibilities as defined through law and public policy, stakeholder expectations, and voluntary acts flowing from corporate values and business strategies
who feels the most pressure to compromise personal ethical standards?
lower management
moral management
conforms to high standards of ethical behavior or professional standards of conduct
clash of ethical systems: business beliefs
-Individualistic ethic
-Maximizes concession to self-interest
-Minimizes the load of obligations society imposes on the individual (personal freedom)
-Emphasizes inequalities of individuals
benefits of technology
-increased production of goods and services
-reduced amt of labor needed to produce goods and services
-made labor easier and safer
-increased productivity
-increased standard of living
-increased life expectancy
technological determinism
what can be developed will be developed
limits to growth
The Earth's rapid population growth, people's rising expectations, and the rapid industrialization of less developed countries are heading for collision with a fixed barrier.
life cycle analysis
Involves collecting information on the lifelong environmental impact of a product, from extraction of raw material to manufacturing to its distribution, use, and ultimate disposal.
Debt relief
The idea that the world's richest nations should forgive poor nations' obligations to pay back loans.
Sustainable development
This term refers to development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Accounting
the discipline that keeps track of a company's financial situation
Trademark
a work, name, symbol, sound, or color that identifies a good or service and that cannot be used by anyone but the owner
Corporate Social Responsibilty
has evolved from a sense of stewardship and charity to others to the more recent understanding of corporate citizenship, business likewise has evolved in how it reacts to and addresses the various challenges made by its stakeholders
Arguments against corporate social responsibilities
lowers efficiency, imposes undue costs, shifts unnecassary obligations to business
Industrialists (Andrew Carnegie, Henry Ford) started?
Philanthropic efforts for educational and cultural institutions and programs to support employee social and health needs
Cultural Relativism?
How does action relate to culture and laws? Legality and ethics should be aligned?
the market ethic
selfish actions in the market place are virtuous because they contribute to efficient operation of the economy
ethical relativism
where we pick and choose which source of norms we wish to use based on what will justify our current actions or maximize our freedom
characteristics of unintentionally amoral managers
-don't consider the ethical dimension of decision making
-don't "think ethically"
-have no "ethics buds"
-well intentioned, but morally casual or unconscious
-ethical gears are in neutral
design for dissasembly
Means that products are designed so that at the end of their useful life they can be disassembled and recycled.
CERCLA Superfund
Passed in 1980, this law established a fund, supported primarily by a tax on petroleum and chemical companies that were presumed to have created a disproportionate share of toxic wastes.
Proactive green companies share the following elements:
Global Business
sells its products in more than one country
Public Issues
is an issue that is of mutual concern to an organizations stakeholders.
Stakeholder power is?
The ability of a group to use resources to make an event happen or to secure a desired outcome
Issue Management Process
1 Identify Issue 2 Analyze Issue 3 Generate Options 4 Take Action 5 Evaluate Results
Management of Public Issues?
A structured and systematic process to aid organizations in identifying, monitoring, and selecting public issues that warrant organizational action
integrity strategy closely resembles the moral mgt model
-guiding values and commitments make sense and are clearly communicated
-company leaders are personally committed, credible, and willing to take action on values
-espoused values are integrated into normal channels of mgt decision making
-the org's systems support and reinforce its values -all managers have the skills, knowledge, and competencies to make ethically sound decisions daily
the disclosure rule
if the full glare of examination by associates, friends, family, media, etc were to focus on your decision would you still remain comfortable with it?
conditions for whistle blowing
Organization is doing (or will do) something that seriously harms others
Employee has tried and failed to resolve the problem internally
Reporting the problem publicly will probably stop or prevent the harm
The harm is serious enough to justify the probable costs of disclosure to the whistle-blower
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
responsible for the fair and equitable treatment of employees with regard to hiring, firing, and promotions
The shareholder view of Corperate Responsibiity
The only social responsibility of business is to create shareholder wealth legally and with integrity.Corporate management cannot decide what is in the social interest.The costs of social responsibility which do not increase the value of stock, will be passed on to consumers by way of higher prices, or to employees as lower wages, or to shareholders as lower returns.
characteristics of moral managers
-conform to high level of ethical or right behavior
-conform to high level of personal and professional standards
-ethical leadership is commonplace
-goal is to succeed within confines of sound ethical precepts
-high integrity is displayed
-embrace letter and spirit of law
-possess an acute moral sense and moral maturity
-are the "good guys"
practical question
how do we get from where we are to where we ought to be?
what do we intend to accomplish, what circumstances permit us to accomplish, and what we are ultimately able to accomplish. these ideas interject a measure of realism into our efforts to close the gap.
Ethics assist or help line
A program available for employees when they are troubled about some ethical issue but may be reluctant to raise it with their immediate supervisor.
Limits to growth hypothesis
The idea that human society is now exceeding the carrying capacity of the earth's ecosystem and that unless corrective action is taken soon, catastrophic consequences will result. (See also Carrying capacity.)
A stake is?
An interest in - or claim to - a business enterprise
test of the purified idea
don't think you can let an accountant or lawyer "purify" your idea by telling you it's ok. you will still be held responsible.
The focus an organization places on a particular stakeholder is?
Largely determined by each group's type of power, as well as legitimacy and urgency
key issues in dealing with third world nations in outsourcing
These issues reside in all functional areas of business: production/operations, marketing, accounting, finance, and mgt. These issues concern stakeholders: employees, customers, the community, and competitors. These issues involve product safety, plant safety, advertising practices, human resource mgt, environmental problems, and so on.
what does a moral organization encompass?
it is an org that is dominated by the presence of moral managers making moral decisions. moral management has become an integral part of the culture. moral management permeates all the org's decisions, policies, and practices. the org uses the best practices for achieving a moral management culture. of special importance are moral leadership provided by board of director oversight and top management leadership.
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