Acids and Bases Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Nitric Acid
weak base
hydrochloric acid
acetic acid
Bicarbonate (ion)
acid-citric acid
Sodium Hydroxide S
Weak acid
dissociates partially
solution mainly water
Strong Acid+Weak Base
Bronsted-Lowry acid
a hydrogen-ion donor
sour taste
acids have a
Arrhenius acids
increased proton concentration
accept hydrogen
bronsted lowry base
Citric Acid
Oranges and lemons
strong bases
dissociate completely in water
eating away gradually, acidlike; bitterly sarcastic
Acids react with _______
many metals
Acids and Bases
Examples of inorganic compounds
Contains a polyatomic ion. H₃Po₄ or H₂So₄ are examples.
separation or disintegration of a substance to atoms or ions.
substance that conducts an electric current when it is dissolved in water
Taste bitter, feel slippery, conduct electricity, may be corrosive and cause burns, react with chemicals to produce predictable color changes.
a compound formed by replacing hydrogen in an acid by a metal (or a radical that acts like a metal)
sulfuric acid
H2SO4 strong acid
weak acids
hold onto their protons in water
the reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules
Arrhenius base
chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions, OH-, in a an aqueous solution.
a chemical reaction and its reverse proceed at equal rates
What occurs to breathing when pH rises?
an equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions and has no charge
Types of Acids
carbonic- fizzy drinks, tanic-tea, citric-lemon, Absorbic-Vitamin C, Ethnoic-vinegar.
a cleansing agent made from the salts of vegetable or animal fats
Acid Solutions
Salts with small, highly charged metal cations (e.g. Al3+, Cr3+, and Be2+) and the conjugate base of a strong acid.
organic acid
COOH; they are weak, example: acedic acid
common acids
HCl = hydrochloric acid
HNO3 = nitric acid
H2CO3 = carbonic acid
H2SO4 = sulfuric acid
HC2H3O2 = acetic acid
H3PO4 = phosphoric acid
conjugate acid
formed when proton is transferred to base
____ bases react with water to form the hydroxide ion and the conjugate acid of the base
A solution that resists change in pH when limited amounts of acid or base are added.
triprotic acid
any acid that contains 5 ionizable protons
An acid is any substance that can donate H+ ions.
A Base is any substance that can accept H+ ions
Bases often have ____ at the end of them (Chemical formula)
balsamic vinegar is made from
a specific type of grape
Covalent Bond
A type of chemical bond formed by atoms when they share electrons
an acid that is a compoud of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element, usually a non-metal
Equivalence point in titration of weak base
ph < 7
acid base indicator
chemical dye whose color is affected by acidic and basic solutions
3 Factors of solubility
pressure, type of solvent, and temp
Lewis Base
Donate a pair of electrons to form a dative bond
Who's What in Terms of pH?
Classify various solutions according to their pH levels Arrange the different substances in order of the prediction of their pH level Prediction - pH result
Lemon Juice-1 Vinegar-2
Apple Juice-4 Orange Juice-3
Coke-4 Tap Water-6
Bleach-7 Sodium Hydroxide-12
Detergent-10 Acetic Acid-2
Ammonia-12 I learned the difference between acids and bases and which substances go in each category and pH level
Ca(OH)₂, Sr(OH)₂, Ba(OH)₂
Name all the Group 2 Metals strong bases in descending order.
What does the pH measure?
Measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution
Baking powder is bicarbonate plus
1. dry acid (single acting)
2. dry acids (double acting)
what can affect shapes of molecules and affect chemical reaction rates?
the acidity of the environment
Base strength is determined by..?
how many hydroxide ions break off in water.
ionization constant; gives the relative strength of an acid
Each acid has a specific Ka, __, which ...?
A Bronsted-Lowry base is defined as a substance that __.
acts as a proton acceptor in any system
acetic acid
hydrogen ions
perchloric acid
Hydrobromic Acid
many ions
Strong Base
Sulfiric car batteries
phenolphthalein acid color
Bases taste ________.
6 Strong Acids
Carbonic acid carbonated water
bronsted/lowry acid donates H+
Bronstead-Lowry base
a proton reciever
Molality Formula
Moles solute/L solution
Do bases react with carbonates?
Lewis acid
accepts an electron pair
bases will dissolve
fats and oils
Aqueous solutions
have a sour taste
used widely in flavors and perfumes
name the conjugate base of NH2
(chemistry) a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance
This definition states that acids produce H+ in solution, and Bases produce OH- in solution.
Name a K sparing diuretic.
Arrhenius acid
produces H+ ions in a solution
An analytical method used to determine the amount of acid (or base) in a solution by adding known amounts of a base (or acid) and observing its effect on the pH of the solution.
Fe3+ ions in solution would decrease the pH
pH 3
Very Acidic ( Lemon Juice )
a substance that decreases the number of H+ ions.
Strong Acids
HCl, Hl, HBr, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO4
Halogen Acids
Simple structured acids in which a halogen ion is singly bonded to Hydrogen ion (i.e. HF)
cabbage juice
color on a chart (number) natural indicator
Can be strong or weak electrolytes in aqueous solution
the hydrogen ion bonded to a molecule of water, h3o+, the form in which hydrogen ions are foind in aqueous solution
strong acid
an acid that is almost completely ionized in an aqueous solution
the addition of an acid's H+ ion (proton) to a water molecule to form hydronium (H3O+)
red litmus paper
in a base this will turn blue
taste bitter and chalky, are electrolytes, feel soapy and slippery, react with acids to form salts and water
bases _________, ___________, _________, and _________
basic solutions
Rules for salts: Strong Base + Weak Acid =
Conjugate Base
member of conjugate pair with one less H+
end point
the point at which the indicator that is used in a titration changes color
Unsaturated solubility
If you can continue to dissolve more solute
an acid is always the substance that donates a proton to another substance and base is always the substance that accepts the proton.
more acidic
On a pH, the numbers 6-1 are: acidic, basic, or neutral
Bronsted-lowry model
an acid is a hydrogen-ion donor and a base is a hydrogen ion to a base
taste sour, corrode metals, react with bases to form salts and water
acids ________, ______, and __________
properties of acids and bases
react with one another to produce a salt and water, conduct electricity, change color of indicator
Hybridization and the % s character of the atom bearing the negative charge
the greater s-character of a hybridized atom, the more acidic the bonded hydrogen is; electrons in s orbitals are lower in energy and closer to the nucleus than ones in p orbitals; less orbital overalap; therefore, the more s character in a hybrid orbital, the more electronegative the atom will be, and the more acidic a hydrogen bonded to it will be (and the more stable the anion will be); sp3 = 25% s, sp2 = 33% s, sp = 50% s
reaction between an active metal and water; reaction between salt and another base; reaction between a basic anhydride (metallic oxide) and water
How do we prepare bases? (3 ways) [Ex. 2NA(s) + 2 H₂O(l) => 2NAOH(aq) + H₂(g)], [Ex. Na₂CO₃(aq) + Ca(OH)₂(aq) => 2 NaOH(aq) + CaCO₃(s)], [Ex.CaO(s) + H₂O(l) => Ca(OH)₂(s)]
Malic Acid
weak base
strontium hydroxide
Sulfurous Acid W
phenolphthalein base color
A strong acid
Solution is Neutral
PH SCALE >7 ??
Bronsted Lowry acid
proton donor
Whic molecule is larger
Strong bases are
strong electrolytes
chemical indicator
red and blue litmus
from [OH-] to pOH
-log [OH-]
phenolphthalein turns
purple in a base
1 x 10^-14
[OH-] x [H+] (Kw)
red to orange
pH paper - acids
What is SIADH
Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH
having characteristics of both an acid and a base and capable of reacting as either
acidic solution
When H+ is greater than OH-
The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution; acidic solutions have pH values between 0 and 7, basic solutions have values between 7 and 14, and a solution with a pH of 7.0 is neutral.
Acidic Marinades
Can be used to tenderize meats.
Examples of Bases
soap, milk, milk of magnesia
Weak bases
___ ionize only partially in dilute aqueous solution.
Neutralization Reaction
HA + BOH -> BA + H2O
each link in a polymer is called a
strongest base EVER (so strong that it automatically produces hydroxide no matter what its added to)
a measure of concentration of an acid or base, equal to moles of solute per liter of solution
A base is a source of ______________ ions
tenfold difference
between each whole number of the pH scale there is a __ in hydrogen ion concentration
pH scale
use to measure the strength of acids and bases
monoprotic acid
an acid that can donate only one proton (hydrogen ion) per molecule
Polyprotic Acids
have multiple H+ ions; more H+ means stronger acid
Bronsted-Lowry Base
a molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor
a substance that differ only in the presence or absence of a proton. every acid has a conjugated base formed by a removal of a proton. and every base has a conjugated acid formed by the addition of a proton.
When an acid and base are mixed, the ____________ _________ is when the number of moles of hydrogen ions equals the number of moles of hydroxide ions
equivalence point
13g of salt and 100ml of water =
13% saltwater concentration
neutralization reactions
the reaction of an acid with a base to produce a salt and water
ion product constant for water
the value of the equilibrium constant expression for the self-ionizarion of water.
Water can act as...
(either) an acid or a base. (It can also) auto-ionize.
Bronsted-lowry acids and bases
an acid is a proton donor and a base is a proton acceptor.
What type of type of salt produces an acidic solution? One that contains ________ ____ _____ _______ ____________ _____ __________
positive ions that release protons to water
Strong Base
potassium hydroxide
diprotic acids
Bases taste
neutralize bases
Weak Acid
pyridine (Weak Base)
color turns phenolphthalein-base
Strong base
Strong/Weak Base/Acid?
diuretic therapy
universal indicator original color
reacts with metals (corrosive/poisonous to skin)
cirtic acid
found in fruits
bronsted-lowery base
accept a proton
Strong acid H+(aq) + ClO3-(aq)
Group 1 Alkli Metals
Strong Base
NaOH and RbOH
which are strong bases?
colorless in acid; pink in base
What is respondsible for the appearance of what appears to be un-altered plant material in animal feces?
Heat moving between objects that are touching.
properties of acids
- sour taste
- corrosive
- electrolytes
- react with indicator to produce a color change
Said that bases are compounds that ionize to yield hydroxide ions (OH-) in aqueous solution
Oxy Acids
contain hydrogen, oxygen, and one other element. (H2SO4)
lewis model
a lewis acid is an electron-pair acceptor and a lewis base is an electron-pair donor
Oxidation Number
A positive or negative number assigned to an element to show its combining ability in a compound
The species that remains after a Bronsted acid has given up a proton is __.
conjugate base
Blue to red
acid turns litmus paper from ......
bronsted lowry
Suggested that acids are proton donors and bases are proton acceptors.
salt hydrolysis
process in which anions of the dissociated salt accept hydrogen ions from water, or the cations of the dissociated salt donate hydrogen ions to water
acid ionization constant
the value of the equilibrium constant expression for the ionization of a weak acid.
equivalence point
the point when there are equal molar amounts of acid and base
measure the extent of dissociation , with the symbol K= c(A) x c(B) /c(AB)
bronsted-lowry acid-base reaction
the transfer of protons from one reactant (the acid) to another (the base)
The __ of a solution is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration
strong base + strong acid
neutralization will have pH 7
Acid-base indicator
A chemical dye whose color is affected by acidic and basic solutions
When an acid and base mix it forms ____
BL conjugate base
particle formed when an acid donates a H+
Can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond. (broad, any substance that can)
Lewis acid
Bases &amp; Alkalis
- Bases are oxides or hydroxides of metal.- Soluble bases are called alkalis.- All alkalis are bases, but not all bases are alkalis.
between m-1 and m
n X 10^-m, what will the estimation of the log function be (for calculating pH, pkb, etc)
What is a polyprotic acid, base?
A polyprotic acid is a compound that can donate more than one proton. A polyprotic base is a compound that accept more than one proton.
How does Litmus react to acids and bases?
Acid turns blue Litmus paper red and a base turns red litmus paper blue.
Phosphoric Acid
a salt
acetic acid
Kw (expression)
Weak Acid
weak acid
What neutralizes H⁺s?
Base dissociation constant
Hyrdrobromic Acid symbol?
log(xy) =
logx + logy
solution of known concentration
monoprotic acids
1 acidic proton
what is acidotic pCO2?
Henderson Hasselbach
used to calculate pH
___________ have acid hydrogens attached to an oxygen atom, ie Sulfuric acid and nitric acid
standard solution
the solution of known concentration
Example of a: Strong Acid
car battery
Draw the reabsorption of bicarbonate ion
Ca, Sr, Ba
Three strong base exceptions.
The larger Ka the ____ the acid.
binary acids
acids that are name "hydro_____ic acid"
over 90% of compounds are what type
common bases
NaOH = sodium hydroxide
KOH = potassium hydroxide
Ca(OH)2 = calcium hydroxide
Al(OH)3 = aluminum hydroxide
NH3 = ammonia
CaO = calcium oxide
The reaction in which water molecules produce ions is called
common strong acids
sulfuric acid - H₂SO₄(aq), hydrochloric acid - HCl(aq), nitric acid - HNO₃(aq), perchloric acid HClO₄(aq)
Arrhenius solution
hydrogen chloride gas dissolves in water. HCl molecules ionize to form H+ ions which make the solution acidic.
if the concentration of a solution of HCl is 10^-2, the pH is _______
conjugate acid-base
two substances related to each other by the donating and excepting of a single proton
Red to blue
Base turns litmus paper from .......
bronsted base
any substance capable of accepting a proton from another substance
chloride shift
ionic conc increaseallows Hgb to give up O2(water moves in)
neutral solution
any aqueous solution in which [H] and [OH] are equal
acid rain
S oxide and N oxide gases cause this
A substance can act as both an acid and a base is said to be ___________
Acid base indicators
a substance that changes in color depending on the pH of the solution that the substance is in
arrhenius model
A model of acids and bases; states that an acid is a substance that contains hydrogen and ionizes to produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution and a base in a substance that contains a hydroxide group and dissociates to produce a hydroxide ion in aqueous solution.
How is molecular struture and acid strength related?
Acid Type Trend---------------------------Binary 1. More polar H-A bond, the stronger the acid.(observed for acids of the same period) 2. The weaker the H-A bond, the stronger the acid (observed for acids in the same grop)Oxoacid 1. The greater number of O atoms attached to the central atom (greater oxidation state), the stronger the acid. 2. For same number of O attached to thes ame central atom, the greater electronegativity of the central atom, the stronger the acid. Carboxylic: The greater the electronegativites of the groups attached to the carboxyl group, the stronger the acid.
What is salt?
Salt is an ionic compound made from the neutralization of an acid with a base.
Buffered solution
a solution that resists a change in pH when either an acid or a base are added
What is Hypertonic dehydration?
Fluid has more solutes than plasma, Dm, DKA, hyperglycemia and DI
How can hydranea flowers indicate acids and bases?
because hydrangea flowers change color depending on the pH level.
Titration curve (pH curve)
a plot of pH of solution versus volume of titrant added to a given solution
CO2 is constantly being formed by what?
metabolism so the resp system is contantly balancing the amount of CO2 in the ECF
If you are ever given grams in this unit, what do you do?
Find the M using mols/grams from the periodic table.
positively charged ion
hydroxide ion
diatomic (2 atom) anion with chemical formula OH−. It consists of an oxygen and a hydrogen atom held together by a covalent bond, and carrying a negative electrical charge
Is an example of an indicator, which is a compound that changes color when in contact with an acid or a base.
Corrosive (Corrode)
to destroy or damage in a certain way; most acids are very corrosive of metals.
pH above 7
Examples of Acids
vinegar, lemon juice
acids are sometimes called...
proton donors
Chemical Formula of Potassium Hydroxide
What is the PH of saliva
What do strong bases contain?
lost of OH-ions
Polar covalent solutes that Ionize in H2O
what color does litmus paper turn with a base?
What color do acids turn litmus paper?
turns red
What do acids do in water?
makes h+ ions
What does an acid turn with a metal?
H(2) gas
What is pH?
pH is something that measures how acidic or basic a substance is. It is measured on a pH scale.
What is an indicator?
something that changes color in the presence of an acid or base
Give an example of a dilute solution
weak tea, weak lemonade
what are the characteristics of an acid?
corrosive, sour, react with metals
Why would a solute settle to the bottom of a beaker even if you stir it?
if it was saturated
What are some various indicators we learned about in class?
red litmus paper- turns blue in basesblue litmus paper- turns red in acidsph paper- turns different colors in acids and bases
taste sour
WB Amonia
Bases feel...
litmus blue
Bronsted Bases
Accepts Protons
Lewis Bas
Donates electron pairs
HClO4 (Perchloric Acid)
Strong Acid
a pH HIGHER than 7
a compound formed by replacing hydrogen in an acid by a metal (or a radical that acts like a metal)
conjugate acid pairs differ by
and H+
traditional base
contains hydroxide ions and dissociates in an aqueous solution
breaks down the complex molecules of foods into smaller molecules
properties of bases
electrolytes, bitter taste, turn litmus blue, slippery feel
Metabolic Acidosis
pH ↓ = [HCO3] ↓/ [CO2]
any substance that can accept and donate protons
bases turn blue litmus paper red tf
Which of the following is the conjugate base of HCl?
Cl4 or H-1
true of false? weak bases only partially accept protons
What is Sulfuric Acid effective as
A dehydration agent
HIGH pH (number)
has a LOW concentration of H+
hydronium ion
H3O+, same thing as proton H+(aq), hydrated
the force that holds molecules of a single material together
Polyprotic Substances
• polyprotic acid will react to give off 2 hydrogen ions but at different pH's
• polyprotic base can accept more than one hydrogen ion
What is compensation in the renal system of acid-base balance?
(slow, powerful compensation)
-compensates for respirator causes of acidosis or alkalosis
-effective for imbalances of a few days or longer
-acidosis causes increase in H+ secretion
-alkalosis causes bicarbonate secretion
formed when an acid is added to water (H3O+)
buffer solution
a solution with resists change in pH/ changes pH very slightly/ keeps pH constant when SMALL amounts of acid or base are added
the ability of an acid to ionize 100% in water and produce 100% hydronium ions (H₃O⁺) with virtually no molecular form of the acid left in the acid water (aqueous) solution
strong (acid)
hydrogen ion
an atom of hydrogen that has lost its electron
Arrhenius definition of an acid
is a substance that produces H+(H30+) in water
first step in concentration problems
M = mol / L; to cancel out
What happens when Blue Litmus and Red Litmus paper are dipped upon by Neutral Solution?
Both litmus will stay the same colour
Weak Acid
Nitric acid
Barium hydroxide
Are bases electrolytes
Calcium Hydroxide
Ca(OH)2 (strong)
Arrhenius bases
form hydroxide ions
Ic. Drop the hyrdogen.
acids turn........... litmus paper red
names acids as aqueous ionic compounds
HCl (aq) - aqueous hydrogen chloride
H₂SO₄ (aq) - aqueous hydrogen sulfate
Is windex and bleach a base?
pH of 0 to less than 7
What is a buffer?
Resist changes in pH
What is the formula for Calcium Hydroxide?
charged particle that has either more or fewer electrons than protons
formula ends with OH or is a negatively charged ion
acids and a base
Neutralization is a reaction between?
transition interval
pH range over which indicator changes color, p. 749
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
diprotic acid
an acid that can donate two protons per molecule.
7 strong acids are:
H2SO4 (Sulfuric Acid), HNO3 (Nitric Acid), HCL (Hydrochloric Acid), HBR (Hydrobromic acid), HI (Hydroiodic acid), HCLO3 (Chloric acid), HCLO4 (percholoric acid)
universal indicator
turns the acid or base a colour to show the pH level on the scale.
Arrhenius model (acid def)
any substance that produces H+ ions (protons) in AQ SOLUTION
Why Will Sulphuric acid give more Hydrogen than Hydrochloric acid or Nitric acid?
As there are more hydrogen atoms within the sulphuric acid than the other acids. Therefore it will not need as many acid molecules to make up the same amount as Sulphuric acid.
how do you find H+ when you are given OH-
1.0 x 10^-14 divided by OH-
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