Consumer Behavior Key Words 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Consumption Constellation
well-known brand names
sensory modalities, Gestalt Psychology, and consumer interpretations of perceptions
one true source of information
Lead users
experianced and knowledgeable users
attempts to develop quantitative measures of lifestyle; interchangeable with "lifestyle"; attitudes, values, activities & interests, demographics, media patterns, usage rates
provide information to other members about a product or service
Word-of-Mouth Communications
informal conversations between friends concerning products or services
world brand
products that are manufactured, packaged, and positioned the same way regardless of the country in which they are sold
popular marketing strategy that pays for the right to link a product or service to the name of a well known brand or designer
Parody Display
deliberately avoiding status symbols; to seek status by mocking it
causes of mood states
service encounters
point-of-purchase stimuli
Involvement Theory
theory of consumer learning postulating that consumers engage in a range of information processing activity, from extensive to limited problem solving, depending on the relevance of the purchase
an idea, practice, or product perceived to be new by the relevant individual or group
anything that increases the likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future; has impact on the speed at which learning occurs and the duration of its effect
process of imitating the behavior of others
Socioeconomic Status Scores
comvines three basic variables: occupation, family income, and educational attainment
the stage of information processing in which individuals recover information from the long-term storage
careful evaluation of brands
compared on many criteria
Database Marketing
tracking consumers' buying habits very closely, and then crafting products and messages tailored precisely to people's wants and needs based on this information
Sensory Overload
a condition where consumers are exposed to far more information than they can process
a cultural value that emphasizes being open to the world and striving for diverse experiences
Category Exemplars
brands that are particularly relevant examples of a broader classification
a group whose members share beliefs and common experiences that set them apart from other members of a culture
Fortress Brands
Brands closely linked to our rituals
enduring involvement
reflects feelings experienced toward a product category that are persistent over time and across different situations
 the degree to which an innovation fits with the needs, values, and past experiences of the consumer
a system of moral principles; the rules of conduct recognized in respect to a particular class of human actions or a particular group
Perceptual Mapping
another usedul infirect technique for determining evaluative criteria
the willingness to buy a particular product or service; caused by a need or motive, but is not a motive
Refers to the possession of both masculine and feminine traitsSex-typed people: Stereotypically masculine or feminineAndrogynous people: Mixed gender characteristics
a sign that resembles the product in some way
Market Maven
individuals who influence stems from a general knwledge and market expertise that lead to an early awareness of new products and services
the transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver by means of a signal of some sort sent through a communications channel (medium) of some sort
Blogs: Moblogging, vlogging, podcasting, RSS, flogs, twittering
moblogging-posting messages while on the govlogging- video bloggingpodcasting- creating your own radio showRSS- really simple sindication, signing up to have things sent directly to compFlog- companies creating fake blogs for buzzTwitter- status updates, moment by moment
What is culture?
THe meanings, values, & behavioral patterns shared in a  society
Buyclass Theory of Purchasing
a framework that characterizes organizational buying decisions in terms of how much cognitive effort is involved in making a decision
the meaning derived from a sign or symbol
Source Attractiveness
the dimensions of a communcator that increase his or her persuasivenss; these include expertise, objectivity, and attractiveness
Extended Problem Solving
an elaborate decision making process, often initiated by a motive that is fairly central to the self-concept and accompanied by perceived risk; the consumer tries to collect as much information as possible and carefully weighs product alternatives
Consumer Confidence
the state of mind of consumers relative to their optimism or pessimism about economic conditions; people tend to make more discretionary purchases when their confidence in the economy is high
Social Structure
The way people maintain an orderly social life
product constellations
useful indicator of lifestyle is the groups of products (or this term) used by consumers
decision process test
 this test involves tracking a consumer's decision process.  This is traditionally done through an in-depth personal interview.  The interviewer starts from the decision to purchase and probes backward to understand the dynamics and the reasons why the consumer has made that decision
Pretesting and Posttesting
testing an advertisement before it runs to see if any elements should be revised before major media expenses are incurred. Testing an ad after it runs to see the effectiveness and see if any elements should be revised for future ads
Managing Post-Purchase Decisions
-increase the desirability of the brand purchased
-decrease the desirability of rejected alternatives
-decrease the importance of the purchase decision
-reverse the purchase decision (return the product before use)
Born-again Christians
characterized by a strong belief in the literal truth of the Bible, a very strong commitment to their religious beliefs, having had a "born-again" experience, and encouraging others to believe in Jesus CHrist
In-anttentional Blindness
mental focus result in people not perceiving things that they would otherwise observe; ex: passing the lunchbox
Public Self-Consciousness:
A heightened concern about the nature of one’s public “image”Results in more concern about the appropriateness of products and consumption activities
Cross-Cultural Conumer Analysis
research to determine the extent to which consumers of two or more nations are similar in relation to specific consumption behavior
Social Influences
- the forces other people exert on one's buying behavior
What are social roles?
A prescribed pattern of behavior expected of a person in a given situation by virtue of the person's position in that situation (i.e. there are more than one roles for 1 situation)
Perceptual Vigilance
the tendency for consumers to be more aware of stimuli that relate to their current needs
Blissful Ignorance Effect
states that people who have details about a prodcut before they buy it do not expect to be as happy with it as do those who got only ambiguous information
Gift Giving Ritual
the events involved in the selection, presentation, acceptance, and interpretation of a gift
Membership group
- the group to which a person currently belongs
development of a consumer culture
- external facilitating factors: technical and economic
- external socioenvironmental factors: physical environment and changes in societal values
- internal motivation factors: possessions, status, affiliation, perceptions of abundance
Impulse Purchases
occurs when a consumer sees a candy bar in the store and purchases it with little or no deliberation as the result of a sudden powerful urge to have it
Value-Expressive Appeals
attempt to build a personality for the product or create an image of the product user; most effective for products designed to enhance self-image or provide other intangible benefits (lawn fertilizers)
Psychographic research groups consumers according to (AIOs)
Activity questions ask consumers to indicate what they do, what they buy, and how they spend their time.Interest questions focus on what the consumers’ preferences and priorities are.Opinion questions ask for consumers’ views and feelings on such things as world, local, moral, economic, and social affairs.
Cognitive Learning Theory
a theory of learning based on mental information processing, often in response to problem solving
Global Consumer Culture
a culture in which people around the world are united through their common devotion to brand name consumer goods, movie stars, celebrities, and leisure activities
What is opinion leadership?
the process by which one influences the actions or attitudes of others
how nationality-based subcultures develop
1. provide a source of psychological group identification (gain a sense of identity and intimacy)2. offer a patterned network of groups and institutions supportive of the subculture (maintain primary relationships with the subculture through schools, clubs, shops, religious groups, restaurants, etc.)3. serve as a frame of reference through which to evaluate the dominant culture (interprets the "new land" for arrivals; helps with adjustments to "new ways" and nurtures them
Intention to buy Scales
a method of assessing the likelihood of a consumer purchasing a product or behaving in a certain way
WHAT are the 4 Personal Selection Factors
experience, perceptual vigilance, perceptual defense, and adaptation
Describe baby boomers as an age segment.
-25% of population
-50% of spending
-75% financial assets
What is cognitive consistency?
The theory that people want to hold attitudes that are consistent with their other attitudes and behaviors
Formal vs. Informal Communications Sources
o Formal: a source that speaks on behalf of an organization—either a for-profit (commercial) or a non-for-profit organizationo Informal: acquaintance that gives product info or advice
Domain of Consumer Behavior (Circle of consumption)
-- production -- acquisiton -- consumption -- disposal --->time-based->have to figure factors that influence each stage
the effect of consumption on the self
- consumers' infatuation with certain goods and services affects self-identity
- the goods and services we consumer express and mediate our relationships with other people
marketing and the development of the consumer culture
- not only do marketers supply products, but marketers also encourage the demand for products by making them culturally desirable
- marketers acheive this largely through the use of cultural symbolism
- understanding how their actions potentially contribute to social malaise may help marketers make decisons that result in the selling of their products in a socially responsible manner
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