Consumer Behavior Marketing Flashcards

Terms Definitions
paradigm
thought pattern
consumer's needs
funtional
aesthetic/emotional
social
situational
curiosity
Heuristics are...
rules of thumb
Hedonic Consumption
Design/form = function/substance
RFID tag
response frequency identification device): a small plastic tag that holds a computer chip capable of storing a small amount of information, along with an antenna that lets the device communicate with a computer network. these devices are being implanted in a wide range of products to enable marketers to track inventory more efficiently
list of values
sell-fullfillment
excitement
sense of accomplihment
self-respect
sense of belonging
being well respected
security
fun and enjoymeny
warm relationships with others
Market Segmentation
Similar consumersExample: “Heavy Users” of fast-food industry
Actor
Celebrity presents a product or service as part of a character endorsement
Perceptions
process of receiving, organizing, and assigning meaning to information or stimuli detected by our five senses
Demographics
the observable measurements of a population's characteristics, such as birthrate, age distribution, and income
Involvement
the motivation to process product related information
Advergaming
online games merged with interactive advertisements that let companies target specific types of consumers
emotions
affective responses that reflect the activation of deep-seated and value-laden beliefs within the consumer
 
-evocation of a beliefs generates a corresponding _________
- different _________ are triggered by different beliefs
In-Home Shopping
products in catalogs, direct-mail pieces, or various print media; on televisions or radiol or on the Internet or through their cell phones; they can acquire the products through mail, telephone, or computer orders; growing % of total retail sales
Total Product
marketing mix (product features, price, communications, distributions, and services) that is presented to the target market which is engaged in processing information and making decisions designed to maintain or enhance its lifestyle or performance
Memory:
acquiring information and storing it over time so that it will be available when needed
exposure
occurs when a stimulus comes within the range of someone's sensory receptors
Claim/belief discrepancies
no deceptive claim explicitly made, but a deceptive belief is created (misleading)
Family Branding
the practice of marketing several company products under the same brand name. i.e. Virgin mobile, Virgin Atlantic
marketing inplications
offer braod product line: variety packs of cereal, lots of flavors, lots of verisons
Neo-Freudian Theories
Karen Horney 1. compliant (agreeable with others)-->name-brand produts 2. detached (moving away)-->tea-drinkers3. aggressive (moving against others)Carl Jung1. Analytical Psycology(archetypes -- result of our personality)2. collective unconscious (our past)-->cumulative experiences of past generations shape who we are today--->we each share a collective unconscious --> create archetypes (univerally recognized ideas and behavior patterns)archetype approach to marketing -- use the achetype/shadow model to identify whether a brand has a sick or healthy personality (healthy-the archetypes overwhelm their corresponding shadows...sick-1 or more shadows are dominant, then it u have to take action to guide brand to a healthier personality, like an ill person)
Nostalgia
a bittersweet emotion; the past is viewed with sadness and longing many "classic" products appeal to consumers' memories of their younger days
80/20 Rule
a rule-of-thumb in volume segmentation which says that about 20% of consumers in a product category (the heavy users) account for about 80% of sales
Pop-Up Stores
temporary locatiosn that allow a company to test new brands without a huge financial commitment
Superstitious
beliefs that run counter to rational thought or are inconsistent with known laws of nature
retrieval cues
information ____ is determined mostly by the particular _______ ____________ available at the time
monochronic behavior
consumer are more comfortable doing one thing during a clock block of time- more likely to offer their "undivided" attention to commercials than are polychrons
Operant Learning
using consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. Differs from classical conditioning in that it modifies voluntary behavior. Involves punishment and reinforcement
Compensatory Rule
a decision rule for attribute-based choices in which consumers average across attribute levels; this allows a high level of one value to offset a low value of another; the brand that rates highest on the sum of the consumers' judgements of the relevant evaluative criteria will be chosen (remove the "ideal point" from the multi-attribute model)
Achievement Role
based on performance criteria over which the individual has some degree or control
Brand Familiarity
an ability factor related to attention; those with high ___ may require less attention to the brand's ads because of their high existing knowledge
Segmenting Consumers: Demographics
AgeGenderFamily Structure & Marital StatusSocial Class & IncomeRace & EthnicityGeography
approach-approach conflict
a person must choose between two desirable alternatives
Describe consumer empowerment through the web
*instantaneous
*24/7 shopping without leaving home
*use "intelligent agents" to locate best prices
*Bid on various market offerings
*Permission Marketing
*C2C activities (virtual brand communities, consumer reviews and chat rooms)
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
the discomfort or dissonance that consumers experience as a result of conflicting information
FAE
you do the opposite of your own attributions of negative behavior
enculturation
the learning of the culture of one’s own society
Parental Yielding
the process that occurs when a parental decision maker is influenced by a child's product request
Conditioned Response
a response to a conditioned stimulus cause by the learning of an association between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus
Communications Model
a framework specifying tha ta number of elements are necessary for communication to be achieved, including a source, message, medium, receivers and feedback
Unplanned Buying
when a shopper buys merchandise she did not intend to purchase often because she recognizes a new need while in the store
Conventions
norms that regulate how we conduct our everyday lives
Why become and opinion leader?
Product reasons: -involvement (interest), dissonance (buyer's remorse)
Self reasons: gain attention, show expertise
Reasons for Others: altruism
preteens
- children aged 4 to 12 control billion in spending- children also influence adult spending- children spend about 40% of total income on high-cost items- marketplace behavior: influence purchase in approx. 60 product categories; some children are responsible for good shopping- marketing to them: build brand preference at a very early age; medium of choice is television, Internet is rising; self-brand connections develop between middle childhood and early adolescence
the legal test

test that marketers use to recognize whether an action is ethical and doesn't violate the lawBy becoming familiar with all laws, rules, and regulations governing their industry and its marketing practices, marketers respect the legal rights of consumers
Nuclear Family
a household consisting of a husband and wife and at least one offspring
Store Brands
closely related to store image; the store or outlet is the actual brand (Gap, Victoria's Secret, etc); stores can carry only manufacturer's or develop their own house or store kind
Applications of COnsumer Behavior
1) Marketing Strategy
2) Regulatory Policy
3) Social Marketing
4) Informed Individuals
Situational Factors
stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus and temporary characteristcs of the individual that are induced by the environment, such as time pressures or a crowded store
 
clutter and program involvement
Product line extensions
related products are added to an established brand. Dole, associated with fruit, introduced refrigerated juices, etc.
Federal Trade Commission
agency that determines whether an ad is deceptive
confirmation bias
tendency to see what you expect to see...ppl will intepret info in a way that supports their prior expectations
social status
the amount of status members of one social class have in comparison with members of other social classes
Terminal Values
end states desired by members of a culture
Virtual Goods
digital items that people buy and sell online
Diffusion of Innovations
the process whereby a new product, service, or idea spreads through a population
low power distance cultures
relationships are more informal across social levels, more quality is found among all people, and authority is more often shared
Broad Categorizers vs. Narrow Categorizers
broad categorizers are uninvolved consumers who are likely to be receptive to a greater number of advertising messages regarding a product category and will consider more brands. Narrow categorizers are highly involved consumers that find fewer brands acceptable
Timing of Problem Recognition
consumers often recognize problems at times when purchasing a solution is difficult or impossible; a common marketing strategy is to trigger problem recognition in advance of the actual problem; ex: Allstate Insurance commercials
Elaboration Likelihood Model
a theory about how attitudes are formed and changed under varying conditions of involvement; integrates select individual, situational, and marketing factors to understand attitudes
global consumer culture
people around the world are united by their common devotion to brand-name consumer goods, movie stars, celebrities, and liesure activities. i.e. Coca-cola in Japan
info search, what do we search for?
brands (consideration set), attributes, evaluations, experiences
Hierarchy of Effects
a fixed sequence of steps that occurs during attitude formation; this sequence varies depending on such factors as the consumer's level of involvement with the attitude object



What is propinquity?
The theory that the closer people are (physically) the more likely they will be to form relationships
referent power
- The closer the match is between the individual's beliefs, values, attitudes, behavior and self-image and those of the reference group, the greater the referent power of the group- ___ ___ is more pervasive when the cognitive structure of the individual is similar to the cognitive structure of the group, resulting in stronger identification with the members of the group
Measures of External Search
1) Number of stores visited
2) Number of alternatives considered
3) Number of personal sources used
4) Overall or combination measures
What are factors that marketers control?
4 "P"s (product, price, place, promotion)
create opportunity for the consumer to buy
make consumer aware of opportunity
oliver's definition of loyalty
a deeply held commitment to rebuy or repatronize a preferred product-service...
children's influence on decisions
- children often have more than an equal say in what goes into the shopping car at the supermarket each week- many marketers as well as social critics and marketing ethicists have deemed advertising directly to children to be unethical
Psychographic segmentation can be used:
To define the target marketTo create a new view of the marketTo position the productTo better communicate product attributesTo develop overall strategyTo market social and political issues
Why is opinion leadership important?
Only 14% trust ads
Only 18% of ads have a + ROI
92% prefer WOM recommendation
10% influence buying activity of 90%
• Maslows’ hierarchy of needs: is based on 4 premises
o All human acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and social interactiono Some motives are more basic or critical than otherso The more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activatedo As the basic motives become satisfied more advanced motives come into play
applying the theory of reasoned action to change consumer intentions
the value of the _______ __ _____ is its focus on consumption behavior rather than purchase behavior
to do this, marketers have to go beyond cotnrolling the purchase act and seek to encourage, support, and reward the consumption act
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