Acids and Bases 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Acid
ionizes
HNO2
wa
NH4OH
Ammonium Hydroxide
ClO3
Chlorate -
Ba(OH)2
strong base
NaOH
sodium hydroxide
carbonic acid
H2CO3
contains hydrogen
acid
HCl
strong acid
NH3
weak base
HC(2)H(3)o(2)
Acetat acid (vinigar)
-log[OH-]
[OH-] -> pOH
Cl-
chloride ion
sa ion
10^-pH
H^+ in molarity
Acids release what?
H
pH range of base
1-14
CsOH
cesium hydroxide
strong base
True
Bronsted-Lowry acids donate protons
HCHO2
weak acid- formic acid
What acids readily attack
Metal
base
red litmus paper to blue
pK=
pH+pOH= 14 @ 25 C
Used in fragrances and flavors
Acid
Aqueous solutions of acids
conduct electricity
bases can or can't burn you
can
What are some bases?
Chocolate, figs, potatoes
An aqueous solution contains 0.10M NaOH. The solution is __.
basic
weak conjugate base
strong acid has a
pH
measure of the concentration of hydronium ions in a solution
Which of the following is amphoteric
HPO42-?
strong acids:
strong acids can burn you'r skin.
Bases
ionic compounds that have a bitter taste, a slippery feel, cause litmus to turn blue, and can corrode many metals
Strong Base
A base that dissociates completely into ions in solution.
pH meter
An electronic instrument used to rapidly measure pH
inidcator
dye that changes to different colors in solutions of different pH
pKa
-long10Ka; the larger the value of pKa, the weaker the acid; the smaller the value of pKa, the stronger the acid; the weaker the acid, the stronger its conjugate base; the stronger the acid, the weaker its conjugate base
substance that is two different colors above and below a certain pH
Indicator
Arrhenius Base
substance that produces hydroxide ions when it is in water solution
acid-base indicators
Chemical dyes whose colors are affected by acidic and basic solutions
pH Scale
measures the concentration of Hydrogen ions in solution, ranges from 0-14
Soap
a cleansing agent made from the salts of vegetable or animal fats
a chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions
arrhenius acid
indicator
a substance that changes color when in contact with an acid or base
Arrhenius
Who proposed the model of acids and bases?
neutral
A solution that is neither acidic nor basic
Arrhenius Acids
Donate H+ (H3O+) when dissolved in water
neutralization
reaction in which an acid reacts with a base and forms water and a salt
A Lewis acid is an electron pair acceptor
...
conjugate pair
consists of two substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion
Bases that end with OH are called ______
hydroxide
Bronsted and Lowry
Which model says "Acids are a substance that can transfer a proton to another substance."?
false
true or false
if you don't know what a substance is it is okay to taste it
pH Paper
Can turn a series of colors in solutions of pH. The color of the paper is compared to the chartof the vial to determine the pH.
sour, corrodes, conduct
Acids have a ______ flavor, ______ metal, and _______ electricity.
equivalence point
the point in a titration where moles of acid equal moles of base
conjugate base
the particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion
A species that remains when an acid has lost a proton is a
conjugate base
What are late s/sx of HypO Na?
shock and coma
blood pH
the pH of blood must remain within a very narrow range for life (Healthy 7.35 - 7.45)
Arrhenius definition of a base
any hydroxide that dissociates in H₂O to yield OH⁻ as the only negative ion
Bronsted-Lowry acid
a molecule or ion that is a proton donor
Mag has a sedative effect on??
the neuromuscular junction by inhibiting acetylcholine (ATC) release and diminishes nmuscle cell excitability
Strong Acid
an acid that has a very low pH. The scale goes from 1-4
How do you calculate the % deprotonation of an acid?
% deprotonated= molarity of A------------------------ x 100initial molarity of HANote that [hydronium]=[A-]
3 biggest factors that regulate pH
1. blood buffers - hemoglobin, plasma proteins
2. respiratory system - co2 chemoreceptors tell medulla to adjust breathing rate
3. kidneys - reabsorption/secretion of h+ and bicarbonate
When pH increases ( alkalosis), the rate of resp does what?
Decreases to retain CO2 (which will join with H2O to create carbonic acid.)
What type of drug therapy is used for Hyper Phos?
Aluminum, Mag and Ca all will bind Phos
ammonia
NH3
ClO-
hypochlorite
H2PO4
Phosphoric Acid
phosphoric acid
H3PO4
HF
Weak Acid
carbon monoxide
CO
KOH
strong base
HI
strong acid
HBr
strong acid
HClO4
Perchloric Acid?
Both
an amphoteric substance
Ka or Kb
[products]/
[reactants]
Al(OH)3
Weak Base (OH-)
weak
not many ions
Sodium hydroxide (lye) formula
NaOH
Weak Bases
NH_3_ ammonia
CH_3_NH_2_ methylamine
Derivate the Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
...
Conjugate base of H₂O
OH-
Hydorbromic acid
HBr (Strong Acid)
weak acid/base: how many arrows?
2
drain cleaner
use of sodium hydroxide
pH of 0.1 M NaOH
13
completely dissociates in water
strong acid
pOH = in terms of [OH-]
-log[OH-]
high
Low pH indicates that the concentration of hydrogen ions is
Solute
Smaller amount dissolved by the solvent
oxacid
acid that contains hydrogen, oxygen, and another element; a ternary acid
Base Properties
have pH of more than seven
If pKb = x, then Kb =
10^-x
antacid
a weak base that neutralizes stomach acid
strong acids
are completely ionized in aqueous solution (large K values)
Salt
Any ionic compound NOT containing H+ and OH-
Buret
a device used for the accurate measurement of the delivery of a given volume of a liquid or solution
binary acid
contains only two different elements; hydrogen and one of the more electronegative elements
What are pulmonary signs of FVE?
crackles, SOB
titration
process in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution
Arrhenius Acid
increases the concentration of H+ in aqueous solutions
Name the strong acids
HCl (hydrochloric acid), HBr (hydrobromic acid), HI (hydroiodic acid), HNO3 (nitric acid), H2SO4 (sulfuric acid), HClO3 (chloric acid), HClO4 (perchloric acid)
chemical equation
a combination of chemical symbols and formulas that represent a chemical reaction
acid rain
very acidic with a pH of 4.5
Weak base
is one that does not dissociate completely
Alkaline Substances
Substances having a pH greater than 7
What kind of acid base imbalance causes cerebral vessel dilation, and thus headache?
Respiratory acidosis
weak acid
an acid that is only slightly ionized in aqueous solution
conjugate acid
when a proton is transferred to a base
bronsted base
a molecule or ion that's a protein acceptor
acid dissociation constant
Ka, for weak acids: products over reaction. Small Ka = small dissociation = weak acid
Potassium Hydorxide
The products of the reaction ar soap and alcohol called glycerol.
What causes metabolic alkalosis?
excessive vomiting or ingesting too much antacid
What do bases give up when they ionize?
hydroxide (OH) ions
neutralize each other
when acids and bases come in contact with each other, they
To go between pH and pOH
pH + pOH = 14
buffer capacity
the amount of acid or base a buffer solution can absorb without a significant change in pH
a substance that acts as an acid or as a base
amphoteric substance
Things that can be used as indicators:
Litmus, red cabbage and black tea.
What kind of acid base imbalance can sodium lactate or lactated ringer's be used to correct?
Metabolic acidosis because lactate gets metabolized into bicarbonate, which lowers pH
what is the difference between volume contraction and dehydration?
volume contraction is a loss of water and electrolytes concomittantly - one of the most common causes of metabolic alkalosis. (dehydration is a loss of just water)
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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