-Wrote Well-Govern Prisons
-Offered alternative to Syke's model of governance that he thought was better suited for the new and highly volatile prison climate of the 21st century
-Thought the belief that cons necessarily will 'run the joint,' are mistaken
-Assumed the effectiveness of any prison depends on..
-Stable team of like-minded executives structured in a
-paramilitary, security-driven, bureaucratic setting
-Relationships with outsiders (judges, legislators) as well as insiders (inmates)
-The presence of order
-Good service for an effective prison
-Basically thought effective prisons were possible, unlike others.
controlled and manipulative response
stay out of trouble
more than 1 time offenders
The correctional goal emphasizing the infliction of pain or suffering
|Consequences of overcrowding||
reduce life expectancy
prison is a total segregation (equal status)
degradation ceremony (shun the prisoners)
-Irwin and Cressney
-Emerges in response to deprivations of freedom, wealth, goods, and services
-Gorillas, merchants, toughs whose core value is unitarianism and manipulation
-Toughness is the main concern
-Worst chance for rehab
-Private companies own facilities such as jails
-Not new, tied to the post-civil war south and the convict lease system
-Asserts that only state and federal government should be allowed to punish citizens
-Bottom line is 'doing well,' which interferes with the public mandate of 'doing good.'
-Try to save money by not properly training, having only the bare minimum of staff, reducing inmate programs, etc.
-Also privately owned probation, parole, etc agencies.
-Often called the 'Iron Triangle' or 'Corrections Commercial Complex'
|Atkins vs Virginia||
No mentally retarded executions
Sanctions falling between the extremes of fines and imprisonment. Intermediate punishments for offenders needing something less than incarceration might include a prison alternative type like probation. Persons who would likely go to prison were it not for overcrowded conditions might recieve a prison substitue type of intermediate sanction like home confinement.
The variety of programs, services, facilities, and organizations responsible for the management of individuals who have been accused or convicted of criminal offenses.
minimum custody women
mixed into medium/maximum male institutions
|Secondary vs primary deviance||
-Lemert's book 'Social Pathology'
-Refined Tenebaum's 'Dramatization of Evil,'
-Said everyone's had bad behavior at some time.
-After the subject has accepted deviant identity, secondary deviance occurs
-Primary deviance is ALL deviance
-Labeling theory finds lots of theories similar to this
The existence of features common if the early stages of human evolution, implied the idea that criminals are born, and criminal behavior is predetermined.
According to this version of incapacitation, most kinds of felons are imprisoned in an attempt to achieve large gains in crime prevention.
The Pennsylvania system defined one of two main styles of prison discipline and management from the 1820's to the 1860's. THe Pennsylvania system believed correction was best achieved by keeping prisoners seperate from each other and requiring them to remain silent.
|What are jails?||
Part detentional facility, penal institution and part stay.
Initially mixture of people
Increasing # of mentally ill
Run by law enforcement--sheriffs
Lex Talionis (eye for an eye)
punished for act committed
restitution (work, community service)
defined as the absence of individual or group misconduct threatening the safety of others
|Net-widening and diversion||
-Diversion has a capacity to increase
-Official system penetration
-Subsequent behavior difficulties
-Mullen found offenders referred to diversion programs were subject to double jeopardy: returned for prosecution on their original charged, prosecuted vigorously, convicted, and placed on probation supervision
-Also pointed out most of the offenders handled in this manner wouldnt be subject to formal processing if not for diversion
|Counter-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act||
-Passed by Clinton
-Eliminates the right to appeal by shorting the process of filing habeas corpus to one year.
-Some say this is too expensive.
|Illusion of Knowledge||
-Each generation of reformers thinks it knows best what causes crime and believes it knows best on how to control it effectiely.
-Patterns of social amnesia reveal this
-Our success lies in realizing how little we know, rather than how much we know,
-Recognition of ignorance
-We haven't carried out what we say we have.
A sentencing system in which the convicted offender is given a fixed penalty, such as three years in prison. In contrast to INDETERMINATE SENTENCING, determinate sentencing provides for little discretion as to when a prisoner is released.
A form of banishment in which the offender is sent to farawya lands often with the requirement that she or he perform labor for private individuals or the government on arrival at the new location. England for example, transported some of its criminals to both the American colonies and to Australia.
|community corrections legislation||
aims through financial incentives to reduce state prison population and emphasize local community corrections
|What is a key problem in prisons today||
Inmates labor was sold on a contractual basis to a private employer. The employer provided materials and equipment to the prison
|The pains of imprisonment||
taken for granted. incarceration causes challenge
goal of the inmate system is cohesion
The tighter the cohesion, the less of the pains of imprisonment
General Incapacitation vs. Selective Incapacitation
-General: Crime control through policies that increase incarceration of all categories of offenders
-Selective: Proposed only certain offender groups, either habitual or the most dangers, be targeted.. given the cost of incarceration
|Statutory Good Time||
The time deducted from a sentence. When the deduction is automatically given all prisoners serving their sentence without problems.
|population sensitive flow control||
Certain # of cells per judge
|Reform in PA||
Locking people up in solitary cells with a bible
Problems with total isolation: Go crazy, attempt to kill and mutilate yourself, led to overcrowding.
Were trying to keep them away from "contaminating" others
Increase in moral contamination theory
|Tenenbaum's beliefs about Labeling theory in terms of the Decentralization Movement||
-Youth entering the criminal justice system are subject to a forced companionship with other similar children, which results in a 'new set of experiences that led directly to a criminal career.'
-Best policy is a refusal to dramatize the evils
-Diversion, institutionalization, and other community programs helped the children to be part of the Decentralization Movement
|Intermediate punishment and its contradictory objectives||
-Rather than helping overcrowding and costs, it often contributed.
-Not possible to strictly enforce the conditions that made it more punitie than probation without underming the goals of reducing overcrowding and costs.
|5 inmate code rules:||
1. don't interfere with the interest of other inmates (ratting, putting on the spot)
2. don't quarrel with fellow inmates
3. don't exploit other inmates
4. maintain yourself
5. don't trust guards or the things guards stand for
|Mothers and Infants Together (MINT)||
-Program that allowed certain women to spend 3 months prior to delivery and 2 months after delivery in a halfway house with their babies.
|Clear, Cole, and Reisig describe some of the controversies, issues and themes that arise in the study of corrections. These are divided into two main areas:||
Managing the correctional organization and working with offenders.
|Merton found America had higher instances of crime because..||
-Of it's high aspirations and failure to provide equal access to achieve
-In other countries, highly stratified and well-defined socialization systems existed.
-People are born into certain groups and their aspirations are already spelled out for them and easier to achieve
|What is the arrest to trial estimate time?||
Violates federal speedy trial laws
What did Rockefeller do for the Chicago University?
His concerns among the work force.
-He granted a Baptist College in Chicago millions of dollars so it could be transformed
-He was concerned about the instability.
-They lived in slums, which were a breeding ground for social problems among the workers and their children.
-He was concerned for his workers and future workers.
|Though prison crowding may be considered uncomfortable, it is not deemed to be a violation of the 8th amendment unless..||
"Cruel and unusual" can be proven in a court of law