Acids and Bases 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ammonia
NH₃
HBr
sa
NaOH
Sodium Hydroxide
HF
Hydroflouric Acid
-log10^-x =
x
NaHCO3
sodium bicarbonate
potasium hydroxide
KOH
neutral
pH 7
Calcium Hydroxide
Ca(OH)2
Perchloric Acid
Strong Acid-HCLO4
most bases are
weak
sodium hydroxide
NaOH (strong)
Bronsted-Lowry acid
proton H+ donor
ph
(chemistry) p(otential of) H(ydrogen)
H(COO)2-
hydrogen oxalate ion
wa ion
strong acids
are strong electrolytes
Chloric Acid?
Perchloric Acid symbol?
incompletely in water
weak acids ionize
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
pH= pKa + log([A-]/[[HA])
Used as antacids (neutralization reaction)
Base
Acids make litmus paper turn
red
Kw
ionic product of water (1 E-14)
second and subsequent ionization
weak polyprotic acids
percent dissociation
amount dissociated (mol/l)/ initial concentration(mol/l)
Alkali metals
what are soluble in water
base
any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water
A Lewis acid is
an electron-pair acceptor
bases turn blue litmus paper...
blue (no change)
Ca(OH)2
strong base Ca2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) (but not very soluble)
Lewis
This definition is the most inclusive and this states that acids are electron-pair acceptors and bases are electron-pair donos.
diprotic acids
acids that contain two ionizable hydrogens (sulfuric)
strong
these acids and bases have 100% dissociation in water
hydrochloric acid
an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride.
Neutralization
the reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules
Strong Bases
Ionize completely in water solutions, Make weark conjugate acids.
salt
the taste experience when salt is taken into the mouth
Examples of Bases
soap, milk, milk of magnesia
Arrhenius definition Base
any substance which increases the amount of OH- ions when dissolved in water
strong acids & bases
completely dissociate into their component ions in aqueous solution; dissociation goes to completion, none remains in solution
properties of bases
slippery , conducts with electric current
Dilute
Term used to describe an acid which has few acid particles with a relatively large volume of water?
bitter; slippery
How do bases tend to taste? feel?
arrhenius acid
substance that produces H ions in aqueous solutions
Titration
a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration is added to a known volume of a second solution until the reaction between them is just complete
How do we describe the conjugate base of a polyprotic acid?
Amphiprotic
Acidic solution
RULE FOR SALTS: Strong Acid + Weak Base = ___.
Acidic Anhydride
A nonmetallic oxide that forms an acid when added to water
Conjugate acid
the species formed when a base accepts a proton from an acid
conjugate acid-base pair
consists of two substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion
The conjugate of a weak base is a
strong acid
High ceiling diuretics can cause?
dehydration, hypOtension, hearing loss ( ototoxity) and hypOkalemia
sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is __
caustic soda or "lye"
found in drano
used to make pretzels and soap
red; orange
Methyl Orange is __ when placed in an acidic solution, and __ when put in a basic solution.
Acids react with...
react with bases to produce salts and salt water
The s/sx of HypO Ca are?
Numbness, tingling, muscle weakness, twitching tetan seizures.
neutral pH
7; it has an equal number of H⁺ and OH⁻
According to Arrhenius definition, what is an acid?
An acid is the substance that disassociates in water to produce one or more hydrogen ions, H+.
Name 3 characteristic properties of both acids and bases?
acids: sour taste, reacts with metals, corrosive
bases: bitter taste, slippery feel, used in soaps
3 factors determining whether H containing molecule will release its H and act as an acid
(1) strength of bond holding H (2) polarity of the bond (3) stability of the conjugate base
why do you use Calcium gluconate Iv in hyperK?
Offsets the effects of K on the heart.
pH Up
Alkalosis
Acid = ______pH
lower
Metabolic Alkalosis
pH > 7.45
Gives up hydrogen ions
Acid
Common Causes
Anxiety induced hyperventilation, fever, early salicylate intoxication, hperventilation with mechanical ventilator
Indicates the effectiveness of breathing
PaCo2
7.35 to 7.45
normal blood PH is
The normal range of SaO2 is
95-100%
Metabolic acidosis effect on ABGs
decrease pH
More hydrogen ions = ______pH
low pH
Respiratory Acidosis Compensation
Increased respirations (gradual adaptation to increased CO2) Kidneys excrete H+ and retain HCO3K+ moves out of cells
hypokalemia
abnormally low level of potassium in the circulating blood leading to weakness and heart abnormalities
A BE < -2 indicates _
Metabolic Acidosis
What does the anion gap measurement look like for a patient with lactic acidosis or ketoacidosis?
>14mEq/L
Metabolic Acidosis
Increase in H+ ion concentration, losing buffer base or retaining to much acid with out sufficient base
Respiratory Alkalosis
pH is up PaCO2 is down
Hypokalemia Manifestations
Most serious are cardiac Skeletal muscle weakness Weakness of respiratory musclesDecreased gastrointestinal motility
R.O.M.E.
Respiratory Opposite Metabolic Equal
oncotic pressure
The osmotic pressure in the blood vessels due only to plasma proteins (primarily albumin) --> causes water to rush back into capillaries at end.
Chronic obstructive lung disease is a primary cause of?
respiratory acidosis
S/S of Respiratory Acidosis
Hypotension, Increased cardiac output, HyperK+, Dyspnea, Headache
Respiratory Alkalosis Cause
1. Hypoxemia from pulmonary disorders - Pneumonia, PE, asthma, ARDS, pulmonary edema
2. CNS stimulation - Emotional (fear, hysteria), CNS infection, salicylate poisoning.
3. Mechanical ventilation
pH is low = Hydrogen ions are ______
high
Treatments for Metabolic Alkalosis
Maintain patent airway, monitor potassium and calcium serum blood level
Respiratory Acidosis
Low pH, High PCO2, High HCO3- HYPOVENTILATION. Caused by drug overdose, pulmonary edema, chest trauma, neuromuscular disease, COPD and airway obstruction
how is respiratory alkalosis fixed?
decrease secretion of H+
decrease reabsorption of HCO3
Are volatile acids buffered by intracellular or extracellular processes? What about fixed acids?
*volatile acids - intracellularly*fixed acids - both
The acid base imbalance of a client with diabetic ketoacidosis is called?
Metabolic acidosis
If ABGs show that pH and bicarbonate levels are low, what does this indicate?
Metabolic acidosis
Non-respiratory problem = metabolic imbalance
Diabetic ketoacidosis Renal failure Diarrhea Vomiting
What causes the reaction to shift to the left?
increase in H+
How can respiratory mechanisms compensate for a metabolic acidosis?
An increase in ventilation to increase excretion of CO2. This consumes H+ and raises pH. Note that change is enacted by a change in PCO2, characteristic of respiratory compensation.
What is the 2nd intervention in correcting respiratory acidosis? and how do we correct that?
Correct Acidosis
through treating hyperkalemia if present and IV sodium bicarbonate
What transporters are likely to be active if a cell becomes alkaline?
*Cl-/HCO3- antiporter (extrudes HCO3-)
*Na+/2HCO3- cotransporter (extrudes HCO3- down its gradient)
Which of the big three regulatory systems of acid-base imbalances is the most efficient?
the chemical buffer system
SaO2 is the measure of the
percentage of hemoglobin molecules in arterial blood that are saturated with oxygen
Compensation of Acid base balance
When the system not primarily affected is responsible for returning the pH to a more normal level
What ABG results indicate metabolic alkalosis?
pH and Bicarbonate levels are increased
metabolic alkalosis is caused by what?
increased level of HCO3 in arterial blood
What are some conditions that might cause a metabolic alkalosis?
*vomiting (loss of a fixed acid)
*overingestion of HCO3-
Acid-Base Balance: What is lost?
Above the waist, acid lost. Below the waist, base lost. Inversely, becomes alkalosis and acidosis, respectively.
What is a nonvolatile fixed acid?Give 2 examples.
acids that do not leave solution.- remain in the body until eliminated by kidney- ex. Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4)
an increae in pH would cause the formula to shift in which direction?
causes reation to shift to the left
What is the difference between a volatile acid and a non-volatile or "fixed" acid?
A volatile acid is able to be excreted by the lung, whereas a non-volatile acid is usually the product of a metabolic process and must be excreted by the renal system.
an increae in pH is fixed by the kidneys by
decreased secretion of H+ and decreaed reabsorption of HCO3
how long to the kidneys take to fix acid-base problems?
in days but the problem is completely fixed/compensated.
kidneys are much more powerful than lungs
Does an ABG tell us all we need to know about a patient’s acid-base balance/respiratory effectiveness?
Nope. ABG is used in conjunction with a full assessment
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