Cranial Nerves 10 Flashcards

trigeminal nerve
Terms Definitions
VII
Facial
Main Sensory Function:
 
Taste
 
Main Motor Function:
 
Facial Expression
Cranial Nerve V
TRIGEMINAL
*ophthalmic
Foramina: superior orbital fissure
 
Origin: upper eyelid, upper face
 
Destination: sensory nuclei in pons
 
Function: sensory~ innervates skin of forhead, nose, eyebrow, eyelids, and nasal cavity
 
*Maxillary
Foramina: foramen rotundum
 
Origin: lower eyelid, midface
 
Destination: sensory nuclei in pons
 
Function: sensory~ innervates lower eyelid, upper lip, cheek, nose
 
*mandibular
Foramina: foramen ovale
 
Origin: sensory: lower gums, teeth & lips
          motor: motor nuclei of pons
 
Destination: sensory: sensory nuclei in pons
                  motor: muscles of mastication
 
Function: mixed~ motor: chewing
                         sensory: proprioreceptive info  
                                      of mastication muscles
VIII
Vestibulocochlear
Main Sensory Function:
 
Hearing, Equilibrium
 
Main Motor Function:
 
--

Olfactory Nerve
Main Sensory Function:
 
Smell
 
Main Motor Function:
 
--
XI
Accessary
Main Sensory Function:
 
--
 
Main Motor Function:
 
Head Movement
V
Trigeminal
Main Sensory Function:
 
Facial Sensation
 
Main Motor Function:
 
Chewing
 
 
 
Cranial Nerve IX
Glossopharyngeal
 
Primary Function: Mixed
Foramen: Jugular Foramen
Innervation: Sensory...posterior 1/3 of tongue; pharynx and palate (part); receptors for blood pressure, pH, oxygen, and carbon dioxide concentrations; Motor...pharyngeal muscles and parotid salivary gland
 
 
Cranial Nerve IV
Trochlear nerve
(Motor)
 
function: 
1) Eye movement
       - superior oblique (downward movement while
         looking inward)
 
clinical tests:
1) Test extra-ocular movements* (also tests CN3,6)
       - Straight-ahead corneal reflections      
       - Six cardinal directions with wide H
       - Convergence
 
* CN 4 injury affects the superior oblique muscle
      - Affected eye cannot look down while looking
        medially
 

 
 
 
Smell
Olfactory nerve (CN 1)
 
 
Cranial Nerve V
Trigeminal nerve
(Mixed)
 
functions:
1) Sensation from scalp, face, cornea &
     conunctiva, teeth, anterior tongue, oral &
     nasal mucosa
2) Chewing (also swallowing & speech)
       - Muscles of mastication (masseter,
         temporalis, medial & lateral pterygoid)
       - Tensor veli palatini, tensor tympani
       - Mylohyoid & anterior belly of the digastric
 

clinical tests:
1) Test for pain/temp. & light touch sensation
       - Pain: object with sharp & dull ends
       - Touch: wisp of cotton
2) Test the corneal reflex
       - Wisp of cotton to the cornea, should blink
3) Test the strength of muscles of mastication
       - palpate temporal & masseter while clenching
 
 
Vision
Optic nerve (CN 2)
Cranial Nerve IX
GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL
Foramina: jufular foramen
 
Origin: posteriour tongue, carotid artery, pharynx/
          medulla
 
Destination: medulla/posterior tongue, carotid
                  artery, pharynx
 
Function: mixed~sensory: taste, blood pressure,
                                     gas conc
                         motor: swallowing 
Cranial Nerve XII
HYPOGLOSSAL
Foramina: hypoglossal canal
 
Origin: medulla
 
Destination: muscles of tongue
 
Function: tongue musculature
 
 
 
Cranial Nerve III
Oculomotor
 
Primary Function: Motor and Proprioception
Foramen: Superior Orbital Fissure
Innervation: Inferior, medial, superior rectus, inferior oblique and levator palpebrae superioris muscles; intrinsic eye muscles
 
 
 
Branches of Cranial Nerve V
Trigeminal
 
                                Branches:
 
                             1. Ophthalmic
                             2. Maxillary
                             3. Mandibular             
 
 
 
Cranial Nerve X
Vagus
 
Primary Function: Mixed
Foramen: Jugular Foramen
Innervation: Sensory...pharynx; auricle and external acoustic meatus; diaphragm; visceral organs in thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities; Motor...palatal and pharyngeal muscles and visceral organs in thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
 
 
 
SSA- Nerves


SSA – Vision (II)
            Hearing & Balance (VIII)
 
 
Corneal reflex
Trigeminal nerve (CN 5)       
      - Conveys sensation from cornea
 

Facial nerve (CN 7)         
       - Orbicularis oculi, closes eyes
 
 
 
Taste
Facial nerve (CN 7)       
       - Taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue
 

Glossopharyngeal (CN 9)         
       - Taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue
 

[Vagus (CN 10) – VERY minor contribution]         
       - Taste from epiglottic region
 
 
 
 
Gag reflex
 
Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN 9)
       - Conveys sensation from pharynx & posterior
        tongue
 

Vagus nerve (CN 10)
       - Provides motor innervations of pharynx,
        larynx, esophagus, & GI system
 
Cranial Nerve IV
TROCHLEAR
Foramina: supriour orbital fissure
 
Origin: mesencephalon
 
Destination: superiour oblique muscle of eye
 
Function: motor~eye movement
Cranial Nerve XI
SPINAL ACCESSORY
Foramina: jugular foramen
 
Origin: medulla, spinal cord
 
Destination: palate, pharynx, larynx, trapezius,
                  sternocleidomastoid
 
Function: motor~swallowing, neck, back muscles
 
 
 
Cranial Nerve I
Olfactory Nerve
 
Primary function: Special Sensory
Foramen: Olfactory foramina of ethmoid
Innervation: Olfactory epithelium
 
 
 
Cranial Nerve VI
Abducens
 
Primary Function: Motor and Proprioception
Foramen: Superior Orbital Fissure
Innervation: Lateral rectus muscle
 
 
 
Trigeminal Nerve
Cranial Nerve V
 

GSA  -  Sensory to Face, Scalp,
             Oral & Nasal Cavities,
             Teeth, Sinuses,
             Meninges, & Anterior
             2/3  of Tongue, & Anterior
             Part of Auricle of Ear,
             External Auditory Canal,
             & Tympanic Membrane.*

 
SVE  -  Muscles of Mastication
             &  * “MATT” Muscles

    M = Mylohyoid
    A  = Anterior Belly of Digastric
    T  = Tensor Tympani
    T  = Tensor Veli Palatini

 

 

 
 
 
 
Vestibulocochlear Nerve
Cranial Nerve VIII
 


SSA  -   Balance
                   &
              Equilibrium
 
- Hearing
 
 
 
SVA- Nerves


SVA – Smell (I)
           Taste (VII, IX, X)
 
 
 
GSE- Nerves


GSE – Lower Motor Neurons
            to Skeletal Muscle
            derived from Somites
             
  (III, IV, VI, XI, XII)
 
 
 
Glossopharyngeal  
Cranial Nerve IX


SVE  -   Stylopharyngeus
              Muscle

GVE  -   Parotid  Gland
            

SVA  -   Taste -Posterior
              1/3 of Tongue

 


GVA  -   Posterior 1/3 of
              Tongue, Pharynx 
              (Nasal & Oral),  Part of
              Soft Palate, Middle
              Ear, Carotid Body
              & Sinus, & Parotid
              gland.
 


GSA  -   Small part of  Auricle,
              External Auditory Canal
              & Tympanic Membrane


 
 


 


 
 
 
 
Optic Nerve
Cranial Nerve II
 


SSA  -  VISION
 
 
Crying
Facial nerve (CN 7)
       - Lacrimal glands
 
 
 
 
Spinal Accessory Nerve
Cranial Nerve XI
 


*GSE  -   Sternocleidomastoid
                           &
                     Trapezius
                      Muscles
 
 
Sensation from the face
Trigeminal nerve (CN 5)
 
 
 
Branch # 3 of Cranial Nerve V
Mandibular
 
Primary Function: Mixed
Foramen: Foramen ovale
Innervation: Sensory: inferior gums, teeth, lips, palate (part), and tongue (part)
Motor: muscles of mastication
 
 
Sensation from pharynx & larynx
Glossopharyngeal (CN 9)      
       - pharynx & throat, sensory arm of gag-reflex
 
Vagus (CN 10)
       - Some somatic sensation from pharynx,    
         visceral sensation from larynx, trachea
 
 
Regulation of blood pressure
& O2 saturation
Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN 9)      
       - Sensory afferents from carotid bodies
 

Vagus nerve (CN 10)
      - Sensory afferents from aortic arch & aortic
        bodies
 
 
Pupillary reflexes
Constriction in response to light & to focus on a near object
 
Optic nerve (CN 2)
       - Senses light, necessary for pupillary light
        reflex
 
 
Occulomotor nerve (CN 3)      
       - Constrictor papillae muscle, constricts pupil
 
 
 
Sensory & motor innervation of
thoracic & abdominal viscera
Vagus nerve (CN 10) (parasympathetic)
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