Cranial Nerves 6 Flashcards

Accessory nerve
Terms Definitions
III
ocularmotor
vision
sensory
optic-II
Statoacoustic
hearing, equilibrium
CN VIII
Vestibularcochlear
Eukaryotes
plant cells
Accessory nerve #
11
Trochlear IV
MotorEye Movement
Auditory
Hearing and balance
Abducens
lateral eye movement
cranial nerve I
Olfactory
Abducens
also conrols ey movements
Cranial Nerve XI
Accessory Nerve
accessory (11) foramina
jugular foramen
hearing and balance
CN 8
MENTAL N.
Sensation to chin
Cranial Nerve I Function
Smelling
Short Bones
Carpals and tarsals
Olfatory Nerve Function
Smell (SVA)
Hypoglossal nerve function
motor: tongue, swallowing
CN VII
Name: Facial/Source: pons/medulla /Designation: Sensory/Motor/Course: internal acoustic meatus-facial canal-exits stylomastoid foramen
TROCHLEAR 
NERVE # IV (4)
MOTOR-
MUSCLES THAT MOVE EYES
vagus
medulla; proprioception, smooth muscle contraction
CN VI
AKA Abducens nerve
Functional category: somatic motor
Function: lateral rectus muscle; abduction of eye
Exits from skull: superior orbital fissure (like oculomotor and trochlear)
CNS nucleus: abducens
Peripheral ganglia: none
 
Exits brainstem ventrally in the interpeduncular fossa 
traverse the cavernous sinus
exit skull via superior orbital fissure to reach muscles of orbit
 
IX
Glossopharyngeal - Movement of muscles in throat. Controls salivary glands. Sensation of taste in posterior thrid of tounge. Detection of blood pressure changes in aorta.
Pineal Gland
sleep patterns. Secretes
serotonin and melatonin. Melatonin is an antioxidant, can cross the blood-brain
barrier in adults.




VI
Abducensmotor: lateral eye movement. eye abductions (6 cardinal fields, old laterals, cover/uncover). lateral rectus muscle
Oculomotor
control of eye movements, pupil constriction
Olfactory (fn)
Sensory: smell, from ethamoid
Cranial Nerve X
Vagus=Component: sensory, motor, parasympathetic
trigeminal opthalmic (5) foramina
superior orbital fissure
OCCULOMOTOR
NERVE # III (3)
MOTOR-
MUSCLES TO RAISE EYELIDS
ADJUST IRIS
&
FOCUS LENS
Hypoglossal
Speech and swallowing - tongue movement
Cranial Nerve III Exit
Superior orbital fissure
Muscular Mystrophy
group of hereditary
diseases in which skeletal muscles degenerate and are replaced with adipose. 




pons
midbrain and medulla oblongata are connected to them
Nerve 9
Function
 
The glossopharyngeal nerve
innervates the pharynx, the soft palate and the posterior one-third of the tongue.
It carries sensory information (touch, temperature, and pressure) from the pharynx and soft palate.
It carries taste sensation from the taste buds on the posterior one third of the tongue. It provides somatic motor innervation to the throat muscles involved in swallowing. It provides visceral motor innervation to the salivary glands.
hypoglossal trigone
elevation formed beneath 4th ventricle adjacent to midlin3
CN V, Maxillary Branch
Name: Trigeminal V2/Source: pons/Designation: Sensory /Course: Foramen Rotudum-pterygopalatine fossa-mucous glands of nasal cavity & palate, lacriminal gland /
motor innervation to muscles of mastication
CN 5
innervation of 4th and 6th arches
vagus (X)
This cranial nerve emerges from the medulla as most rostral of a series of rootlets that emerge between the olive and the inferior cerebellar peduncle.
Glossopharyngeal
Functions of spinal cord
Transmit nerve impulses
between periphery and brain. 



I: Olfactory
SSASensory:Receptor cells in the nasal mucosa and send processes through cribriform plate to olfactory bulbTracts exchange information with opposite olfactory bulbs then connect to the anterior perforated substance and prepyriform cortex in the paleocortex (Ips.)Does NOT relay directly in the thalamusAssociated with memories, emotions and alimentary pleasures- tasteRhinencephalon- parts of brain which process olfactory information
Glossopharyngeal1. Sensory/Motor2. Exits3. Function
1. Both2. Jugular FOramen3. Carotid Body, Salivary Glands
SVE innervation of facial nerve
muscles of facial expressionstapediusposteior belly if digastricsstylohyoid
Cranial Nerve #10
Name: Vagus nerve
Function: Motor to smooth m. & glands of respiratory & digestive systems & motor to heart; sensory to respiratory & digestive systems; motor to mm. of pharynx & larynx
Exit: Tympano-occipital fissure
WHAT IS CN III AND IV
OCULARMOTOR AND TROCLEAR
Cranial Nerve III Peripheral Autonomic Ganglia
Ciliary (Edinger-Westphal Nucleus)
Facial VII
-motor to face; sensory = taste -Bells Palsy (high recovery rate) -Hemifacial Spasm –caused by irritation of near-by blood vessel -impact: lip closure
Regulatory Proteins of muscle contraction
Tropomyosin and troponin
are regulatory proteins. Act like a switch that starts and stops shortening.




5. (V) Trigeminal Cranial Nerve
Type: Mixed

Origin: lateral pons

Function:
*Sensory Function:
-Ophthalmic Branch: sup, face (nose and up)

-Maxillary Branch: oral cavity, ant. 2/3 of tongue, teeth, skin of face from lops to nose.

-Mandibular Branch: muscles of mastication (chewing)(masseter and temporalis muscles)
Which cranial nerves originate from the Midbrain? (2)
III (oculomotor), IV (trochlear)
which nerves have a parasympathetic GVE componenet?
III, VII, IX, X
Cranial Nerve IX Glossophryngeal
both special sensation (taste) and general sensation from the posterior tongue general sensation from the pharynxsalivary gland secretion (parotid gland, visceromotor)sensation from the carotid body and sinus for monitoring blood pressure and O2 saturation (viscerosensory)medulla oblongata origin for motor and termination for sensory
ZYGOMATIC N.
(OF V2)
Gives the following branches in the orbit:
1. Zygomaticofacial n.
2. Zygomaticotemporal n.
 
Name, (S, M, B): CN XI
Spinal Accessory, M
CN III1. Name2. components
Oculomotor1. GSE - motor component innervates extra ocular muscles of eye which assist in rotational movement of the globe2. GVE - P - parasympathetic innervation of intra ocular muscles of eye responsible for changing shape of lens for accomodation and for narrowing pupil, via inferior division of CN III and CILIARY GANGLION
Heminopia
Blind in both eyes, Half of the visual fieldL Hemominus- Most common No info from L visual field Lesion is in the back at the geniculate
Oculomotor function
Motor GVE to PNS control of ciliary, papillary sphincter muscles and GSE motor to dorsal, ventral, medial rectus, ventral oblique and levator palpebral superioris (exits orbital fissure)
oculomotor nerve
either one of the third pair of cranial nerves, consisting chiefly of motor fibers that innervate most of the muscles of the eyeball.
odd behavior of ciliary muscle?
when relaxed- lens elongates for distant viaionwhen contracts- rounds up for near vision
MIDDLE MENINGEAL N.
 (OF V2)
Sensory to the dura and distributed with the middle meningeal artery
Name the nucleus for the facial nerve.
Spinal Trigeminal, Solitarius, Superior Salivatory, Facial
For cranial nerve X give the name, whether it is sensory, motor , or mixed and its function
Vagus
Mixed
sensory/efferent -> internal organs, glands, muscles
unilateral lesion of hypoglossal
weakness on one side of tongue, will deviate towards effected ide when protruded
POSTERIOR SUPERIOR NASAL BRANCHES OF V2
1. Posterior superior lateral nasal nerves
2. Posterior superior septal nasal nerves (the longest one is nasopalatine n.)
Where all does the glossopharyngeal nerve receive innervation from?
SVE (Branchial Motor), GVE (Visceral Motor), GVA (Visceral Sensory), GSA (General Sensory), and SVA (Special Sensory)
what would happen if you broke interconnection
opthalmaplegia- eye is wandering and not coordinated
How do you test: CN III
Test pupillary light reflex, check extraocular eye movements (except medial down and lateral across)
What is the function of the GVA (Visceral Sensory) of the vagus nerve?
Receives information regarding general sensation (stretch, pressure, etc.) from viscera above the left colic flexure (pharynx, larynx, bronchi, lungs, heart, stomach, small intestine, and part of colon). Not assoc with conscious level of awareness other than "feeling good/bad" - unlike visceral pain carried in SNS. Also receives information from baroreceptors (stretch- monitors BP) in the aortic arch and chemoreceptors (monitor O2 tension in blood) in the aortic body.
location of SVE nuclei of facial nerve
caudal pons through internal genu of facial nerve
What occurs if you lesion the abducens nerve?
Paralysis of the ipsilateral lateral rectus - medial Strabismus
What are the motor functions of the Accessory Nerve (CN 11) and what does it innervate?
Motor: Swallowing, head, neck and shoulder movement
Innervates: Palate, pharynx, neck and shoulder muscles.
Where are the UMN for the visceral motor portion of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Axons from the CBOs join other components of CNIX and travel to inferior glossopharyngeal ganglion in the jugular foramen. Here, they separate from CNIX and travel thru the tympanic cavity. Emerge from the tympanic plexus as the lesser petrosal nerve and exit the cranial cavity to synapse in the otic ganglion
Where are the cell bodies or origin for the branchial motor portion of the vagus nerve?
Nucleus Ambiguus - in medulla - just dorsal to the inferior olive
What occurs when there is a lesion to the abducens nucleus?
Paralysis of lateral gaze to side of lesion. Lateral Gaze Paralysis
IX
Glossopharyngeal
Main Sensory Function:
 
Taste
 
Main Motor Function:
 
Swallowing
VI
 Abdunces
Main Sensory Function:
 
--
 
Main Motor Function:
 
Eye movements
II
Optic Nerve
Main Sensory Function:
 
SIGHT
 
Main Motor Function:
 
--
IV
Trochlear
Main Sensory Function:
 
--
 
Main Motor Function:
 
Eye movement
 
 
Cranial Nerve III
Occulomotor nerve
(Motor)
 
functions: 
1) Eye movement
     - inferior, medial & superior rectus, & inferior
       oblique
2) Opening of eyelid
      - levator palpebrae superioris
3) Focusing (accommodation) of lens
      - ciliary muscle
4) Pupil constriction
      - constrictor papillae muscle
 
clinical tests
1) Test extra-ocular movements* (also tests CN4,6)
       - Straight-ahead corneal reflections
       - Six cardinal directions with wide H
       - Convergence
2) Look for ptosis (drooping) of either eyelid
3) Inspect size, shape, & symmetry of pupils. Test
    pupillary reactions to light & near effort (also
    tests CN2).
 
*CN 3 injury affects the inferior, superior, & medial rectus, and the inferior oblique:
      - When looking straight ahead, affected eye
        deviates laterally
      - Upward, downward, & medial movements of
        affected eye are impaired
 
 
 
Cranial Nerve XI
Accessory nerve
(Motor)
 
functions:
1) Movements of head & neck
      - trapezius & sternocleidomastoid
2) (Swallowing - may be considered part of vagus)
 
clinical tests:
1) Visually inspect trapezius
       - atrophy, fasciculations, symmetry
2) Assess trapezius strength
       - shoulder shrug against resistance
3) Assess sternocleidomastoid strength
       - Turn head agains resistance
 
 
Cranial Nerve I
Olfactory nerve
(Sensory) 
 
function
- Smell
 
clinical test
- Present the patient with familiar, non-irritating odors (one nostril at a time, with eyes closed). Ask them if they smell anything, and if so, can they identify what they smell.
 
 
Cranial Nerve XII
Hypoglossal nerve
(Motor)
 
functions:
1) Movement of tongue (speech, chewing, swallowing)
       - all intrinsic muscles & all but one extrinsic
         muscle of the tongue
 
clinical tests:
1) Listen to the articulation of patient's speech
   (also tests CN 5, 7, and 10)
2) Inspect the tongue
       - both inside the mouth & protruded
3) Assess strength of tongue muscles
       - move side to side, possibly move against
         cheek
 
 
Cranial Nerve VIII
Vestibulocochlear nerve
(sensory)
 
functions: 
1) Hearing
2) Regulation of posture, balance, equilibrium
       - By conveying info about position of head
         from the vestibular system
 
clinical tests:
1) Assess hearing
       - Whisper or finger-rub test
       - If a problem appears, do the Weber (tuning
         fork on top of head) and Rinne (tuning fork
         on mastoid bone) tests
 
Cranial Nerve II
OPTIC 
 
Foramina: optic foramen
 
Origin: retina
 
Destination: diencephalon
 
Function: sensory~vision
 
 
Cranial Nerve VIII
VESIBULOCOCHLEAR
Foramina: internal acoustic meatus
 
Origin: inner ear
 
Destination: pons, medulla
 
Function: sensory~ balance, equilibrium, and
                           hearing
X
Vagus
Main Sensory Function:
 
Throacic and Abdominal Viscera
 
Main Motor Function:
 
Speech, Swallowing
Throacic and Abd Viscera
 
 
 
Cranial Nerve VII
Facial
 
Primary Function: Mixed
Foramen: Internal acoustic meatus to facial canal; exits at stylomastoid foramen
Innervation: Sensory...taste receptors on anterior 2/3 of tongue & Motor...muscles of facial expression, lacrimal gland, submandibular gland, sublingual salivary glands
 
 
 
Cranial Nerve XII
Hypoglossal
 
Primary Function: Motor and Proprioception
Foramen: Hypoglossal canal
Innervation: Tongue musculature
 
 
 
GVE- Nerves


GVE – Autonomic (Parasympathetics) to Smooth  Cardiac Muscle, &Glands
 
(III, VII, IX, X)
 
 
Salivation
Facial nerve (CN 7)      
      - Submandibular & sublingual glands
 

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN 9)         
       - Parotid gland
 
 
 
Cranial Nerve II
Optic nerve
(Sensory) 
 
function
- Vision
 
clinical tests
1) Test visual acuity
       - with an eye chart, wearing contacts/glasses
2) Test the visual fields by confrontation
       - bilateral simultaneous finger-wiggling test
3) Inspect the optic fundi with an opthalmoscope
4) Inspect size, shape, & symmetry of pupils. Test
    pupillary reactions to light & near effort (also
    tests CNIII).
       - may also do swinging light test - Marcus
         Gunn pupil indicates damage to CNII (not
         CNIII)
 
 
Cranial Nerve X
Vagus nerve
(Mixed)
 
functions:
1) Swallowing, speech, gag-reflex
       - Some muscles of the pharynx, larynx, &
         tongue (palatoglossus only)
2) Motor innervation (parasympathetic) of
    thoracic and abdominal viscera.
       - Slows HR
       - Increases pulmonary secretions
       - Stimulates bronchoconstriction
       - Increases GI secretions & motility
3) Sensory information from the
     thoracic & abdominal viscera
4) Sensation from some parts of ear & pharynx
5) Taste (from the epiglottic region only)
 

clinical tests:
1) Assess the patient's voice
       - hoarseness or nasal quality
2) Ask the patient to swallow (also tests CN 9)
3) Assess movements of the palate & pharynx
       - "Ahhh" test
4) Test the gag reflex (also tests CN 9)
 
Cranial Nerve VI
ABDUCENS
Foramina: superior orbital fissure
 
Origin: pons
 
Destination: lateral rectus muscle
 
Function: motor~ eye movements
Cranial Nerve VII
FACIAL
Foramina: internal acoustic meatus
 
Origin: pons/facial muscles, anterior tongue
 
Destination: facial muscles, anterior tongue/pons
 
Function: mixed~ motor: muscles of scalp and ear
                         sensory: taste, dep pressure
                                      sensors of face
 
 
 
Cranial Nerve II
Optic Nerve
 
Primary Function: Special Sensory
Foramen: Optic Canal
Innervation: Retina of Eye
 
 
 
Cranial Nerve XI
Accessory
 
Branches: Internal & External
Primary Functions of both: Motor and Proprioception
Foramen: Jugular Foramen
Innervation of Internal branch: Skeletal muscles of palate, pharynx, and larynx (with vagus nerve)
Innervation of external branch: Sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles 
 
 
 
SVE- Nerves


SVE – Lower Motor Neurons
           to  Skeletal Muscle of
           Branchial (Pharyngeal)
           Arch Origin-
           Branchial Efferents
                  (V, VII, IX, X)
 
 
 
GVA Nerves


GVA – Visceral Organs, e.g.,
            Heart, Lungs, Liver,
            Gut etc.
 
(VII, IX, X)
 
 
 
Facial Nerve
Cranial Nerve VII



SVE  -   Muscles of Facial
              Expression &
              Posterior Belly of
                 Digastric, Stylohyoid, &
                 Stapedius Muscles

 
GVE  -   Lacrimal Gland
              Submandibular  &
              Sublingual &
              Palatal Glands

 
GVA  -   From glands etc.

 
SVA  -   Taste -Anterior 2/3
              of Tongue, Soft
              Palate


 
GSA  -    Small part of Auricle,
               External Auditory
               Canal and Tympanic
               Membrane *

 
 
 
 
Hypoglossal Nerve
Cranial Nerve XII
 


GSE  -   Muscles
                of the
             TONGUE

 
EXCEPT: Palatoglossus
 muscle which is innervated
 by the Vagus (X)
 
 
 
Olfactory Nerve
Cranial Nerve I
 


SVA  -  OLFACTION  (Smell)
 
 
Sensation from scalp
Trigeminal nerve (CN 5)
 
 
 
Abducens Nerve
Cranial Nerve VI
 


GSE - Lateral Rectus  
 
 
Movements of facial expression
Facial nerve (CN 7)
 
 
 
 
 
Branch #2 of Cranial Nerve V
Maxillary
 
Primary Function: Sensory
Foramen: Foramen rotundum
Innervation: Lower eyelid; superior lip, gums, and teeth; cheek, nose (part), palate, and pharynx (part)
 
 
Maintenance of balance & equilibrium
Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN 8)       
       - Sensory afferents from vestibular apparatus
/ 108
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online