Criminal Justice Test 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Direct evidence
photographs testimony
Apprehension process
Crime detected
Preliminary investigation
Follow-up investigation
Arrest and clearance

 A formal written accusation submitted to court by a prosecutor, alleging that a specified person has committed a specified offense.
a politically defined geographical area
serving or tending to deter.
Sexual Battery
intentional and wrongful physical contact with a person, without his/her consent, that entails sexual component or purpose
About ____ of rapes go unreported.
Legal process which commands a witness to appear and testify
repetition of criminal behavior. any of a number of possible counts or instances of arrest, conviction, correctional commitment, or correctional status change related to repetitions of these events within a given period of time.
The process through which the prosecutor and the defense attorney seek to reach an agreement whereby the defendant pleads guilty in exchange for a reduced sentence.
Compulsory exchange of info in one party's possession to the other party. Gov't must provide any evidence it may use in the trial and information that tends to proves the defendant is innocent. Defendant must turn over what the plan on defending w/.
overload hypothesis
the theory that police work-load influences discretion so that as the workload increases, less time and attention can be devoted to new cases, especially petty crimes
Alternative Dispute Resolution.
Two most common forms:arbitration: similar to trial but less formal. arbitrator is appointed to a case.mediation: less formal and more "friendly". parties negotiate with the aid of an impartial person who facilitates the settlement negotiations.
A goal of criminal sentencing that attempts to make the victim “whole again."
Organized CrimeCon't
A crime syndicate has an organizational structure, rules, a division of labor, and capacity for ruthless violenceProvide goods and services Minimum risk, maximum profitMoney launderingTraditional, MafiaNew and emerging organized crime groups
Inductive Reasoning
Going from the generalization and establishing it by gathering specific facts
pre-sentence investigation
examination of a convicted criminals background before sentencing. conducted by probation or parole officers.
The attorney who represents the state and the victim, he or she tries to present evidence to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant committed the crime as charged.
Due process:

A right guaranteed by the fifth, six, and the 14th amendments of the US Constitution and generally understood, in legal contexts, to mean the due course of legal proceedings according to the rules and forms established for the protection of individual rights.  In criminal proceedings, due process of law is generally understood to include the following basic elements: A a law creating and defining the offense, an impartial tribunal having jurisdictional authority over the case, accusation in proper form, notice and opportunity to defend, trial according to established procedure, and discharge from all restraints or obligations unless convicted. 
Double Marginality
Which term describes the experience of black officers who must deal with the expectation that they will give members of their own race a break, while at the same time experience overt racism from their police colleagues
deadly force
police killing of a suspect who resists arrest or presents a danger to an officer or the community
What does domestic violence entail?
-Child abuse
-Spouse abuse
-Parent abuse
-Grandparent abuse
various attempts at gun control
-ban manufacture/sale of guns-regulate sale/possession-restrict carrying of weapons -Bartley-fox & Kansas City gun experiment-stiffer penalties for gun crimes
judicial circuits
a specifc jurisdiction served by a judge or court
______ is the conditional release of a prisoner before his sentence is up.
circumstantial evidence
requires interpretation or a judge or jury to reach a conclusion based on what the evidence indicates.
example: the close proximity of the defendant to a smoking gun=he/she pulled the trigger.
that which tends to prove or disprove something; ground for belief; proof.
community corrections
the use of a variety of offically ordered program based saction that permit convicted offenders to remain in the community under conditional supervision as an alterntive to an active prison sentence
Nolo Contendere
A plea of "no contest" the defendant submits to sentencing without any formal admission of guilt that could be used against him or her in a subsequent civil suit.
a pretrial stage in which a defendant is brought before a lower court to be given notice of the charge(s) and advised of his constitutional rights
Occupational Crime
committed in the context of a legal business or profession.Cost businesses $40 billion annuallyOften viewed as shrewd business practices rather than illegal acts
Criminal justice system
The aggregate of all operating and administrative or technical support agencies thtat perform criminal justice functions.
decision of the jury in a jury trial or of a judicial officer in a nonjury trial.
what is privatization?
The movement toward the wider use of private prison has beeen termed
History of drug - 1800's
-Morphine used for soldiers during Civil War
-Cough syrups contained morphine
- marijuana used for migrane headaches, asthma, etc
-cocaine used for treating fatigue and morphine addiction, wine, and coca-cola
Nolo Contendre
A plea that does not admit guilt but will not contest teh charges; can't be used in murder
forcing treatment on inmate is ok if they're dangerous to themselves or to others
Washington v. Harper
Dark Figure of Crime
crime that is not reported to the police and that remains unknown to officials
sliding pay scale of # of days of worth
Swedish Day fines
how is National Incident Based Reporting System an improvement on the UCR
the NIBRS includes details about each crime-collects info about 2 groups of offenders-more detailed
What led to the Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988?
The 1980's concern over "crack" cocaine surfaces.
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