Acids and Bases Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Codeine
WB
base
Ba(OH)2
?
...
NH3
Ammonia W
K2O
strong base
NH4OH
Weak bases
HF
Weak Acid
HNO3
nitric acid
Na₂CO₃
Carbonate (ion)
ion product-
Kw
HCN
Weak Acid
Strong acid
dissociates completely
BTB acid color
yellow
Strong bases _________.
dissociate
reacts woth carbonates
acid
diprotic
two ionizable hydrogens;; H2SO4
slippery feel
Bases have a
Arrhenius bases
lower proton concentration
neutral
the term that describes
Bases
Certain ones are amphoteric
acids
produces or donates H+ ions
weak bases
do not completely dissociate
perfect dissociation
amount dissociated /initial concentration
Some acids conduct...
an electric current
Allotrope
structural variations of an element: carbon for example exists as graphite, diamond, and buckyball
conductivity
remember that anything that breaks apart into ions is a conductor and can conduct electricity
indicator
(chemistry) a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance
acid
substance that releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
phosphoric acid
H3PO4 weak acid
strong acids
give up H+ protons in water
diprotic acid
can donate two protons per molecule
Acidic Oxides
Formed By Non-Metals. Dissolve In Water To Form An Acid. React With Alkalis To Form A Salt and Water
buffer
an ionic compound that resists changes in its pH
Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
A mathematical expression that relates pH, pKa , and the concentrations of the acid and base components of a buffer system.
It is useful in predicting the pH or acid/base components of a given buffer system.
the stronger the acid the stronger it's conjugate base
false
an important condition within and surrounding cells is?
acid-base balance
pH
a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.
Negligible acidity
___ compounds (CH4) that have hydrogen but do not demonstrate any acidic behavior in water.
sodium hydroxide
"lye" drain cleaner, oven cleaner, and soap making
Bronsted Lowry model
acid proton donor, base proton acceptor
Who defines a base as a hydrogen-ion acceptor
Bronsted-Lowry
Conjugate Base
The species produced when an acid donates a hydrogen ion to a base.
basic solution
any solution in which the hydroxide ions concentration is greater than the hydrogen ion concentration
hydrolysis
the process whereby a base reacts with a glycerol ester (fat) to produce soap
common to all vinegars is :
water and acetic acid
neutral solutions
Rules for salts: Strong Acids + Strong Bases =
pH =7
ion
an atom that has either lost or gained one or more electrons to another atom thereby generating an electrical force that holds atoms together
Equivalence point in titration of weak acid
ph > 7
Phenolphthalein
Used to test for the presence of a base
if the temp is higher ____ solute can dissolve
more
conjugate acid
A ___ is the species produced when a base accepts a hydrogen ion.
pH Indicator lab
pH and its relationship to acids and bases and effects on indicators Pour the tested indicator into different wells and add the pH level being tested. The indicator will change colors based on the different pH level being tested. The indicator will change colors in the presence of an acid and in the presence of a base.
HCl, HBr, HI
Name all the hydro- strong acids in descending order.
Salt Hydrolysis reatcions
The reaction of ions from salts to form H3O+ or OH-
what is acid reflux disease?
stomach acid enters the esophagus and causes irritation
heartburn, acid reflux
if the stomach acid backs up into your esophagus, it irritates those tissues, res(ulting in ____________________ also known as ________________.
Hydrogen Chloride Can Exist As Two Different Types of Particles
Covalent Molecules In Organic Solvents and Ions In Water
Titrations Provide Four Useful Facts
pKa
the pH where the buffer is 50% dissociated.
the pH where the strongest buffering occurs.
Useful pH range where most buffering occurs.
Buffering capacity
the amount of base (or acid) that can be added.
Total concentration of original acid.
direct combination; react a salt with H₂SO₄; dissolve an acid anhydride (non-metallic oxide) in H₂O
How do we make acids? (3 ways) [Ex. H₂(g) + Cl₂(g) => 2 HCl (aq)], [Ex. KNO₃(s) + H₂SO₄(aq) => KHSO₄(s) + HNO₃(g)], [Ex. CO₂(g) + H₂O(l) => H₂CO₃(aq)]
H2SO4
...
Neutral pH
7
HBr
strong acid
acetic acid
HC2H3O2
C5H5N
Weak Base
Citric acid
C6H8O7
HCl
strong acid
Sr(OH)2
strong base
NaOH
strong base
KOH
potassium hydroxide SB
CH3CH2C=CCOOH
Weak Acid (HA)
calculating pH
pH= -log[H+]
Lewis acid
electron pair acceptor
Kw (value)
1 x 10^-14
If something is acidic
[H3O+]>[OH-]
Nitric acid
HNO₃ (Strong Acid)
pH scale
7= neutral
farther from 7=stronger
less than 7 is acid, greater than 7 is base
NH4NO3 (ammonium nitrate)
Weak Acid (BH+)
The pH scale measures _____
aciditity
Types of Dehydration
Isotonic, Hypotonic, Hypertonic
a physical characteristic of bases
bitter taste
titration
a method for determining the concentration of a solution by reacting a known volume of that solution with a solution of known concentration
Alkalosis
Abnormally high alkalinity (high pH) of the blood and body tissues. Can be brought about by . . .
Severe depletion of carbon dioxide (hyperventilation).
Ingestion of alkaline drugs (e.g. antacids).
Severe vomiting - loss of digestive acids.
Diuretics - excessive excretion of water, retention of bicarbonate
a chemical with pH above 7
base
what is respiratory acidosis?
pCO2 > 42
arrhenius acid
most specific, least useful definition of acid. species that dissociates in water to produce H+
Name some acids.
Grapefruit, lemon, lime, sour skittles, sour patch kids, oranges, peppers-jalepenos
Ka
concentration of an acid and its conjugate base
The definition of a Bronsted-Lowry base
Accept protons
Strong Base
A base that completely dissociates into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution.
What acid is found in vinegar
acetic acid
K sparing can cause what electrolyte disorder?
HyperKalemia
carbonates
carbon, oxygen, and one or more other metals
If the parents acids and parent bases are both strong, the salt is...
Neutral
polyprotic acids
acids with more than one ionizable hydrogen
Litmus Paper
Blue turns red when the substance tested is an acid also blue turns blue when the substance is a base, Red turns blue when the substance is a base and red when it is an acid.
Metals + Acids ->
hydrogen gas + ionic compoud
Who defines an acid as a hydrogen-ion donor
Bronsted-Lowry
amphoteric
substances that can act as either an acid or a base in water.
Weak Acid
an acid that is only slightly ionized in aqueous solution
Buffered solution
A solution where there is a presence of a weak acid and its conjugate base; a solution that resists a change in pH when either hydroxide ions or protons are added
Bronstead-Lowry Theory
acid is a hygrogen-ion donor and a base is a hydrogen-ion acceptor
equivalence point
exactly enough OH- has been added to react exactly with the H+
acid dissociation constant
the product of ions from the dissociation of a weak acid divided by the concentration of the weak acid.
Lewis base
any substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
Acidic Hydrogen RULE
an acidic hydrogen already has a slightly positive charge while still part of molecule.
Salt + Hydrogen
Acid + Metal ==> ??? (Solid first, then liquid, then gas)
properties of acids
below 7 pH, sour, turns blue litmus red, conducts electricity
The definition of an Arrhenius acid
Produces H+ in aqueous solution
weak base
a base that reacts with water to form the hydroxide ion and the conjugate acid of the base
polyvalent acid or base
one of mole contains more than one acid or base equivalent (e.g. 1 mole of H2SO4 can produce 2 acid equivalents)
the hydrogen breaks away
What happens when an acid is placed in water?
How must the kidneys secrete bicarbonate?
Must combine it with phosphate to secrete it as phosphoric acid, or combine with ammonia and secrete it as ammonium.
True or False: A base can be positively charged or neutral: examples are OH-, Cl-, and NH3.
False, it can be negatively charged, or neutral
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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