Acids Bases 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
NH3
Ammonia
water
neutral
-
...
HCl
Hydrochloric acid
LiOH
Strong Base
HC2H3O2
ACETIC ACID
Carbon Monoxide
CO
KOH
potassium hydroxide
Acids neutralize...
bases
Hydrochloric Acid
HCl
HClO4
Strong Acid
exothermic
energy is released
monoprotic
1 hydrogen ion
strong acid
H2SO4-sulfuric acid
arrhenius base
produces OH-
Neutral
pH of 7
HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4
Strong Acids
Lewis acid:
electron pair acceptor
FeCl3
Weak Acid (lewis acid)
Acids Taste this way...
Sour
Bases
turn red litmus blue
Ammonium hydroxide uses
glass cleaners, Windex
Strong Acids I
HCl, HBr, HI
Kw
ion constant product of water
Monoprotic Acids
Only donate 1 H+
False
Acids feel soapy, true or false?
Indicator
(chemistry) a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance
Indicators
Organic compounds that are different colors in acidic or basic solutions
acid
any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt
Solution is said to be acidic.
H+>OH-
pOH
the negative logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration of a solution; acidic=above 7, basic=lower than 7, neutral 7
Aldosterone reabsorbs____ and secretes _____
Na, K
buffers
Solutions that resist change in pH when limited amounts of acid or bases are added.
name HF, HCL
HF- hydrofluoric acid, HCL- hydrochloric acid
electrical conductivity
how well a substance allows electricity to flow through it.
fair test
use same chemical, time, concentration etc
___ acids ionize only slightly in aqueous solution
weak
salt
the taste experience when salt is taken into the mouth
hydrolysis
a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds
properties of covalent compounds
low melting pt
low solubility
poor conductivity
OH- ions
when bases dissolve in water they release ___ ___
amphoteric
any species that can react as either an acid or a base
neutralization reaction
a reaction in which hyrdronium ions form an acid and hydroxide ions form a base react to produce water molecules
self-ionization of water
when water molecules collide, a hydrogen ion is occasionally transferred from one molecule to another to the following reaction
hydronium ions
are positively charged and have the formula H3O+
weak acid
dissociates only to a very small extent in aqueous solution
weak base
A base that does not dissociate completely into ions in solution.
conjugate acid
the particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion
Lew base
an atom, ion, or molecule that donates an electron pair to form a covalent bond
conjugate base
is the particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion
Suspension
is a mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by setting or filtration.
pH
What is a scale used to measure how acidic or basic a solution is?
diprotic acid
an acid that can donate two protons per molecule
Svante Arrhenius
defined acids and bases in terms of how they ionized in water
Neutralization
An acid is added to a base during a chemical reaction.
Arrhenius Definition of Acid
Substance that dissociates in water to make H+
mech for contraction alkalosis
b/c more osmotic pull & RAS activated
Uses of Sodium Hydroxide
In Making Soaps and Detergents and In Industrial-Cleaning Detergents
Which statement about Arrhenius bases is FALSE
They increase the concentration of hydrogen ions in aqueous solution
What are the 5 properties of Acids
Acids conduct electricity. Acids react with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas. Acids affect the color of acid base indicators. Acids neutralize bases. Acids taste sour (H )--responsible for every reaction of acids
1.to kill unwanted bacteria 2. to help break down food 3. to activate enzymes that break down food
Hydrochloric acid in the stomach serves to do:
1. ________________________________________________
2. ________________________________________________
3. ________________________________________________1
why does the ABG need to be put on ice?
b/c temperature affects solubility of gases
base
ph<7
Atropine Sulfate
WB/SA
Lemon Juice
2
hydrobromic acid
HBr
Cu(OH)2
weak base
Strong Base
NaOH
HI
strong acid
H2SO4
strong acid
Ba(OH)2
strong base
CsOH
cesium hydroxide
Barium Hydroxide
Strong Base-Ba(OH)2
Bronstead-Lowry Acid
H+ Donator
NH₃
ammonia; a base
CaO
calcium oxide; a base
sour
how do acids taste?
examples of acids-
HCL
HNO3
H2SO4
potassium hydroxide
KOH strong base
What neutralizes a base?
An acid.
Organic Acids
"carboxyl group" all organic
Example of amphoteric substance (common name)
water
Concentration
the strength of a solution
base ionization constant
Kb is the ____.
"strong"
indicates that the compound completely breaks apart in water
hydrogen
Acids give away _________ particles, or hydronium ions.
hydronium concentration in pure water
1e-7 M
hydronius ion
a hydrated proton or H3O
basic solution
contains more OH than H
Antacid
A weak base that neutralizes excess stomach acid.
acid-base indicators
compounds whose colors are sensitive to pH
acidic solution
contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
basic salt
weak acid + strong base →
Indictor
chemical that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base
arrhenius
Swedish chemist and chemist noted for his theory of chemical dissociation (1859-1927)
what does a positive anion gap probably mean?
acidosis
battery acid
What is another name for sulfuric acid?
what color is cabbage juice with a neutral mixture
purple
When acids react with metals, metals...
appear to disappear
hydronium ion
hydrogen ion combines with a water molecule to form a hydronium ion, H3O(+)
Pure water, solution is said to be neutral.
H+=OH-
def strong bases
react completely with water producing 100% hydroxide ions
Which of the following is a binary acid
HBr
Hypercapnia ( too much CO2) causes what?
CO2 Narcosis
Monoprotic acid
acid that can only donate one proton (H+ ion) per molecule.
1.0 x 10 to the - 14
Kw numerical value
acid rain
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
pH Scale
a range of numbers used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is; ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic)
monoproctic acid
acid that can only donate one hydrogen ion
HypO Ca is relate to _____Phosphate?
Hyperphosphate = HypO Ca
strong acids
any acid with 2 or more oxygen than hydrogen
what is the range on the Ph scale of a dangerous base
11-14
What an acid does...
An acid is a substance that tastes sour, reacts with metals and carbonates, and turns blue litmus paper red.
What is the Tx for Resp Acidosis?
enhance ventilation, TCDB, remove blockage
What is the common cause of resp alkalosis?
Hyperventilation from anxiety, pain, hypozia, brain lesions, over ventilation on mechanical ventilator
why be careful when working with acids and bases
somestrong acids and bases can destroy skin
what can the renal system do in terms of regulating acid/base?
the renal system can get rid of H+ by binding to ammonium, and absorb more bicarb
Ca(OH)2
STRONG
Ide
Ic
NaOH
base
bitter taste
bases
HNO3
Strong Acid
nitric acid
dynamite
Hydrogen ions
acids form?
equilibrium expression:
K= [products]^coefficient/[reactants]^coeffiecient
produces OH⁻ in water
base
corrosive
eating away gradually, acidlike; bitterly sarcastic
Ions
Negative or positively charged atoms
weak electrolytes
-do not completely ionize/dissociate
-do not conduct electric current well
-are weak acids/bases
-use double arrows
Methyl Orange
Strong Acid + Weak Alkali
acids that contain 2 elements
binary acids
The equivalence point for weak base/strong acid is below?
7
chemicals
basas are a group of ....
caustic
any chemical substance that burns or destroys living tissue
aqueous
similar to or containing or dissolved in water.
acidity
a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
Acid Compounds
contain hydrogen atoms that are Ionized and can be donated to other substances
[H3O+] and [OH-]
1.0 x 10^-7; Kw/[opposite]; antilog(-pH)
titration
a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration is added to a known volume of a second solution until the reaction between them is just complete
Lewis model
acid is an electron-pair acceptor and a base is an electron-pair donor
true
litmus paper is an indicator t or f
Every time one H30+ is produced in waters ionization, ____ OH- is also produced.
one
soap
a cleansing agent made from the salts of vegetable or animal fats
phosphoric acid
an acid used in fertilizers and soaps: H3PO4
nuetralization reaction
acids and bases react to form water and a salt.
pH Number
A number which shows how strong an acid or alkali is.
bronsted acid
a molecule or ion that is a proton donor
Typical bases are named _____. examples:
Hydroxides (OH-)
NaOH; KOH; Ca(OH)₂; Al(OH)₃
polyprotic
Any acid that can be used for any acid that has more than one ionizable hydrogen atom.
hydrogen ion (H+)
is produced by an acid in water, an atom that has lost an electron
solving for "K" in equilibrium:
write in what you know in ICE, use stoich to fill in the rest. Divide "E" by volume, this gives you M. Plug M into the equilibrium expression and solve for K
What is the ionization constant used for and why (Ka)?
used for weak ions that do not ionize completely; version of equil constant
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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