acids bases and salts Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Potassium Chloride
weak base
bromothymol blue acid
hydriodic acid: strong acid
lewis base
donates electron pair
taste bitter and feels slippery
many are corrosive and poisonous; conducts one electric current and + # of hydrogen ion
What is pH stand for?
Percent Hydrogen
solution containing ions that react with added acids or bases and minimize their effects on pH
strong bases
dissociate entirely into metal ions and hydroxide ions
strong base
a base with pH of 10-14
a measure of the concentration of hydronium ions in a solution using a scale ranging from 0 to 14, with 0 being the most acidic and 14 being the most basic
A measure of the hydroxide ion concentration of a solution
any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water
acidic solution
contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
acid + base -> what kind of reaction?
an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid
H3O+ ions which form when an acid dissolves in water and H+ ions interact with water
acid ionization constant
the equilibrium constant for the reaction of a weak acid with water
neutral solution
an aqueous solution in which the concentrations of H+ and OH- ions are equal; pH = 7
base ionization constant
Kb, the value of the equilibrium constant expression for the ionization of a base
Like weak acids and bases, water has a tendency to...
monoprotic acid
an acid that supplies one proton (H+ ion) per molecule during an acid-base reaction
Conjugate acid-base pair
consists of two substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion
What are Hydrates?
Hydrate is a salt which incorporates water into its crystal structures
hydronium ion (H₃O⁺)
the positive ion formed when a water molecule gains a hydrogen ion; all hydrogen ions in aqueous solution are present as hydronium ions
If a substance has a LOW pH, it has a ___ concentration of hydrogen (H+) ions
Ka or Kb value
The degree to which a weak acid or base dissociates is determined by its...
Tastes sour
Phenolphthalein is red
___acids depend on neutrilization
What are some acid-base indicators?
Lemons, Oranges, Grapefruits contain
Citric Acid
reacts with active metals producing hydrogen gas
if acids are strong...
they are completely ionized
Reacts with bases to neutralize them, and form a salt and water
pH scale
measure of the concentration of hydrogen or hydroxl in a solution
conjugate acid
particle formed when the original base gains a H ion
Acid is a proton/H+ donor
Base is a proton/H+ acceptor
Which of the following is the correct formula for hydrobromic acid?
props of sulfuric acid
highest volume production of any chemical in the US, production of paper, fertilizers, pertroleum, auto batteries
Arrhenius Base
In the reaction Zn2 + 4H20 ---> Zn(H20)4 2+, the zinc ion functions as an ____.
salt hydrolysis =
a salt that reacts with water to produce an acid or a base
end point
the point in a titration at which an indicator changes color
Spectator ion
An ion that is present in the solution but is not involved in the reaction is an _____.
Magnesium sulfate
What is the name of the salt formed by the complete neutralization of the sulfuric acid with magnesium hydroxide.
How do you identify a base formula?
Often contain a metal cation with the hydroxide anion, OH-, Those that do not contain OH usually contain N.
1* 10-14 M2
Weak acid
partially ionizes
feel slippery or soapy
Kb stands for
bases dissociation constant
Red litmus paper turns blue
Neutralization is a chemical reaction between ______ and ______ that takes place in ________.
standard solution
the solution of known concentration
solutions in which the pH remains relatively constant, even when small amounts of acid or base are added
A substance will DONATE a hydroxide ion
substance that will not conduct an electric current when it is dissolved in water
process of adding a known amount fo sol of known concen to determine the concen of another
substance that can act as both an acid and basee
props of phosphoric acid
flavoring agent in sodas, adds tart, detergents, fertilizers
hydronium ion (H3O+)
a water molecule that gains a hydrogen ion becoming positively charged
Neutralization reaction
A _____ is the reaction of an acid and a base.
How do you identify an acid formula?
Those that start with H or end with COOH.
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