Definitions 39 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Mesomorphs
A body type including muscularity and athleticism (muscular and athletic). The one most likely to be a criminal according to old research.
Mesomorphs
NA
micro level
small picture
reliabilty
consistancy in measurement
(constent target)
Define Anomie
State of normlessness.
compare
examine and note the similarities
Independent Variable (definition)
is the cause.
Agriculture
Large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources.
gemeinschaft
perindustrial societies where social relationships are based upon the primary group ties of friendship kinship and intergenerational stability
prejudice
Individual acts that demonstrate negative attitudes toward certain groups, normally describes an individual
Blind Date
-Extensive pre interview
-Are they good guests? Do they have a good story? Will they be emotional on stage? Will there be a conflict? Are they real people?
Manifest Functions
 
 
The recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern.
diffusion
the process by which culturaltraits spread from one social unit to another
Functions
the positive consequences of social structures
Emile Durkheim
What: Professor, developed first university
sociology course, created Functionalism
When: 1858-1917
Where: Germany and France
Why: Prove you can use scientific tools in
sociology
a social category distinguished by socially-selected biological traits. ex. skin tone, hair texture, eye and hair color
race
scapegoat theory
prejudice spring from frustaration amoing people who are themselves disadvantaged
The most widely used objective criterion of social class is?
Occupation
Symbolic Interactionalism
Theoretical perspective that explains soceity and social structure through an examination of the micro-level, peronal, day-to-day exchanges of people as individuals, pairs, or groups.
A tentative, testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables is termed a
Hypothesis
countercultures
a subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture
colonialism
1 country maintians political, social, economic, and cultural domination over another country for an extended period of time
social issues
Political debates involving moral judgements about how people should live.
deride
to ridicule, scoff at, mock, chaff, jeer
Gender Roles
Specific behaviors and attitudes that a society establishes for men and women
an attribute that changes you, in Erving Goffman’s language, “from a whole and usual person to a tainted and discounted one”
stigma
Life histories→
Life histories→ studies of the overall lives of individuals, often passed on both self reporting and documents such as letters
Functional analysis of religion
o society is “god-like” + has an existence outside of the individual o Everyday objects become symbols of sacred and reinforce values, norms + Totem: an object in the world collectively defined as sacred + Ex: American Flag, Cross, Animals
Public sociology
the practice of sociological research, teaching, and service that seeks to engage a nonacademic audience for a normative, productive end
DWB is an acronym for ________?a.Dumb white blondb.Driving with boozec.Driving with blackd.Dumb white boy
C.
Material Culture
The tangible things created by members of a society.

When immigrants move to a new country they sometimes discover that when they follow their group norms, they have broken the law in their new country. This situation highlights the ____ of deviance.

Uncertainty
Quetelet
the stability of Crime
society plays a role in shaping behavior
contributed "Homme Moyen"--average person
The process by which corporations and businesses send work to off-site contractors (often outside the country) in order to avoid paying high wages or providing expensive benefits.
Outsourcing
ethnocentrism
judging others by the standards of your own culture.
Medicine
The social institution that focuses on fighting disease and improving health
real culture
what actually occurs in everyday life
do as i say not as i do
detached observation
researcher remains as hidden as possible
dependency theory
independent (core) nations develop as the periphery nations fall beind creating a power disadvantage
looking-glass self
interactions shape a self concept. 1.present ourselves, 2. imagine how others see us, 3. develop as a result of our evaluations
degradation ceremony
stripping of individualism and helps you conform to total institution. - may be humiliating
class consciousness
An understanding of your shared oppression, shared oppression of a certain class of people, awareness of who owns what and who doesn’t- who has common interests
ample
fully sufficient or more than adequate for the purpose or needs; plentiful; enough:
Anomie
a social condition in which norms are weak, conflicting, or absent
Cultural Leveling
The process by which cultures become similar to one another; refers especially to the process by which Western culture is being exported and diffused into other nations
Achieved status
Status acquired by an individual on the basis of some special skill, knowledge or ability (husband, teacher)
primary group
a small social group where members share personal and lasting relationships
Civil (intra state) War
militarized dispute between competing groups w/in a state
Who are the “very rich?” (.5% of households) own ___% of the nation’s wealth ($1.4 to $2.5 million)
7%
Criminal but not deviant
-minor tax evasion -jaywalking -underage drinking/smoking
formal and informal means of enforcing norms
social control
Stratification
the dividing of a society into levels based on power or socioeconomic status
means of production
the productive economic resources of society especially land captial and buildings
racial profiling
the practice of targeting citizens for police encounters on the basis of race
Describe "Darwin-Evolution".
1. Found the mechanism by which evolution occurred = Natural Selection.
2. Main concept = adaptation
iron law of oligarchy
organizations begin as oligarchy (democratic) and move to bureaucracy
Who coined the phrase: Sociological Imagination?
C. Wright Mills
Feminists and Conflict P
Understanding inequalities in gender and how they come about
relative deprivation approach
Individuals decide to mobilize for social change if they feel they are deprived of a right they should have- gay rights= people deprived of a right to marry
types of crime
1- victimless- willing exchange of illegal goods, 2- professional- occupational, 3- organized- network institutions, 4- white collar- business activity, 5- transitional- occurs and crosses national borders
contrast
to compare in order to show unlikeness or differences; note the opposite natures, purposes, etc., of:
mid life crisis
people realize they have not achieved basic goals and ambitions and have little time
Imperial Conference
a meeting of the leaders of the countries in the British Empire
How would you handle conflict and strain?

·      1.  Prioritize
·      2.  Delegate


 
Deviant Subcultures
Groups that are part of the larger society but whose members adhere to norms and values that favor violation of the larger society's laws
according to karl marx which class forms the core of the industrial proletariat
the working class
family institute
the basis is the nurturing of newborns and their socialization by those with close kinship
social distance
the extent to which people are willing or unwilling to interact with members of different ethnic or racial groups
theoretical perspective
a set of general assumptions about the nature of society
DuBois and the Conflict Perspective
Understanding power and inequality must be supported by understanding of race w/in a society.
feminization of poverty
Most poor people are women and children (single parents household), 51% of single parent households are poor, childcare not cheap sexual harassment and job discrimination don’t help women get out of poverty
intention of minimum wage
Help workers maintain a minimum standard of living
interactionist research on gender
How gender roles affect gender interactions, conversations btw men and women (interruption), men interrupt women more than visa versa- regardless of situation
value added model
Looks at social conditions that lead to collective behavior, social conditions that lead to a willingness to act collectively
(5) 2-1-1 Counseling Philosophies
Focus on Feelings, Empower Callers, Do not make outgoing calls, do not provide legal, medical, or religious counseling, maintain confidentiality, do not personally use the hotline for counseling
one-drop rule
if you have one bit of black, youre black.
women do most of the housework
employed people, married people, people with children
This is the state of having too many different responsibilities with conflicting demands and it typically affects the psychological well-being of married mothers more than fathers.
Role Overload
human relationships approach
people motivated by a desire to help others
in-group vs out-group
in- a group you feel membership in, out-a group you don't belong to
merton's theory of deviance
Goals society sets up for people, looks specifically at individual groups
racial vs ethnic group
Race= a social construction based on physical characteristics, Ethnicity= national origin, race is a social construction – not biological
Funtionalists view culture as the "glue" that holds society together, while popular culture can be a factor in antisocial behavior and numerous subcultures may result in discord from lack of agreement on core values. Functionalist perspective focuses on
how does the funtionalist perspective contribute to the understanding of culture?
summarized the assimilationist and pluarlist views on ethnic and race relations
there are two main functionalist views on race and ethnic relations. both models view ethnic and racial differences as ultimately contributing to the stability of a society though the mechanisms differ. the assimilation model argues that the deprivation of minority group members encourages them to adopt the cultural characteristics of the dominant group. this is called cultural assimilation and it serves to decrease the social distance between the subordinate and dominant group often at the expense of the loss of the culture of origin of the subordinate group. structural assimilation occurs when memebers of the dominant group extend acceptance to subordinate group members in everday interactions. the second functionalist view is ethnic pluralism. this model argues that the equitable coexistance of a variety of different ethnic and racial groups within one society involving the relatively proportional possession of social resources contributes to social stability. however pluralism can lead to an increase in social distance between groups if the cultural differences are viewed as barriers to social interaction
functionalists view of multinational corporations
positive view; aid in the development of nonindustrialized nation (bring jobs from America to another country) and they are changing agricultural areas to industrial areas
How does the U.S. compare to other nations in the number of people relative to the population it imprisons?
We are the incarceration leaders.
Social Structure
- the framework around which a group exists
Refers to the typical patterns of a group, such as its usual relationships betwen men and women or students and teachers

To understand human behavior we need to understand social structure
What is a transactional leader?
"Routine" - Simply get the job done, and are concerned with accomplishing the group's task, getting members to do their jobs, and making certain that the group achieves its goals. (not visionary)
How does gender role socialization occur?
From birth (blue v pink), even before you’re born (baby showers, etc)
how is gender a factor in social movement?
1- the structure tends to be gendered – 1960s- leaders were male, even though the favored equality (except for the women’s movement) – power reflects gender norm in society, 2- the role of emotion is not down played in social movement- gender dynamics lean toward females, but men use emotion as fuel also- having passion for an issue
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